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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


LABORATORY MANUAL

PULAU PINANG
COURSE

BASIC HYDRAULICS

COURSE CODE

ECW 321

LEVEL OF OPENNESS

CATEGORY

PARTIALLY OPEN ENDED

DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%)

33%

PERIOD OF ACTIVITY

1 WEEK (WEEK 4)

TITLE

APPLICATION OF BERNOULLIS EQUATION

1.1 Introduction
The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities will not be able to
provide the avenue for students to enhance independent learning activities
and inculcate creativity and innovation. Level 1 is partially prescriptive
instruction manual where problem, ways and means are provided to the
students. However the answer in not. It is necessary for the students to
prepare themselve before this laboratory activity can be conducted
effectively.
In this laboratory session, students will be exposed to the Bernoullis
PREAMBLE

principle, which is normally known as Bernoullis equation. Bernoullis


theorem states that for a stream lined, steady, frictionless and
incompressible fluid flow, the sum of pressure head, velocity head and
potential head is a constant.

1.2 Objectives
To verify experimentally the validity of Bernoullis Theorem for fluid flow
under steady condition.

FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS BUKIT MERTAJAM

DEC 2016

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
LABORATORY MANUAL

PULAU PINANG

1.3 Learning Outcomes


At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:
1. Determine the pressure head and measure flowrate using
Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit.
2. Analyse experimental data regarding to pressure head, velocity
head and total head.
3. Verify the Bernoullis theorem and indentify factors that contributing
to inaccuracy of the result.

1.4 Theoretical Background


Bernoullis principle states that if a non-viscous fluid is flowing along a pipe
of varying cross section, then the pressure is lower and velocity is higher at
a constriction area and vice versa. Furthermore, according to the principle,
Total Head, H at any cross section is constant as shown in equation 4.1

(4.1)

The term in equation 4.1 represents the pressure head


head

and vertical elevation

, velocity

. The sum these three terms is

known as the Total Head, H or Total Energy, E. Subsequently, when the


locations of the points 1 and 2 in the pipe are in the same datum position
(horizontal) where

and

, Bernoullis equation can be

simplified to:
(4.2)
The total pressure head, H can be measured from a probe with an end hole
facing into the flow direction such that it brings the fluid to rest locally at the
probe end. Thus;
(4.3)
The velocity of the flow is measured by measuring the volume of the flow,
V, over time period, t. This gives the rate of volume flowrate as;
(4.4)

FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS BUKIT MERTAJAM

DEC 2016

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
LABORATORY MANUAL

PULAU PINANG

2. Problem Statement
PROBLEM
STATEMENT

Students are required to perform experiment to measure the pressure head,


calculate velocity head and the total head and thus verify the Bernoullis
Theorem. Prove that the Total Head is constant for each point of
observation.

3.1 Apparatus
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit as shown in Figure 4.3


Hydraulic bench
Measuring cylinder
Stopwatch

WAYS & MEANS

Figure 4.3 Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit

FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS BUKIT MERTAJAM

DEC 2016

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
LABORATORY MANUAL

PULAU PINANG

3.2 Procedures
A. General start-up procedure.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14.

Locate the apparatus on the flat top of the bench.


Fill water into the water tank of the hydraulic bench until approximately
90% full.
Connect a flexible inlet tube using the quick release coupling in the
bed of the channel
Connect a flexible hose to the outlet and make sure that it is directed
into the channel.
Partially open the discharge valve at the Bernoullis Theorem
Demonstration unit.
Fully close the bench valve then switch on the pump.
Gradually open bench valve and allow the piping system, venturi tube
and manometer tube to fill with water until all air has been expelled
from the system
Check for trapped bubbles in the glass manometer tube as well as
plastic transfer tube. It needs to be removed for better accuracy.
Unscrew air bleed screw to allow fluid and trapped air to escape out.
Take care not to wet yourself and the premise.
At this point, you can see water flowing into the venturi meter and
discharge into collection tank of hydraulic bench.
Proceed to increase the water flowrate by adjusting bench valve.
When the flow is steady and no bubble trapped, close discharge valve
to reduce the flow
You will see water level in manometer tubes begin to display different
water height.
If the water level in manometer too low, increase static pressure by
opening bench valve.
If the water level in manometer too high, decrease static pressure by
opening discharge valve.
Actual flowrate can be measured using measuring cylinder and
stopwatch.

B. To verify Bernoullis Theorem


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

Perform the General Start-up Procedure A.


Ensure that the apparatus is leveled properly by using adjustable foot
screws, thus Z1 = Z2.
Record the diameter of the venturi tube at each point and measure the
distance from the first manometer tube to the other manometer tube.
Ensure that the bench valve and the discharge valve are closed and
start the pump.
Gradually open the bench valve to fill the manometer with water and
make sure there is no air trapped in each manometer.
Adjust the bench valves and discharge valve and re-tighten the
discharge valve when the manometer levels reach a convenient
height.
Then, open the discharge valve in order to give a convenient
difference between the highest and lowest manometer levels and take
the level reading of all tubes (1 to 6).
Take three sets of reading for volume and time in order to get the
average flow rate through the system.
Repeat step 6 and 7 by adjusting the discharge valve to give high and
low flow rates for both highest and lowest static pressure.

FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS BUKIT MERTAJAM

DEC 2016

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
LABORATORY MANUAL

PULAU PINANG

4. Result, Analysis and Conclusion


Each group is required to submit a technical report of the laboratory result
highlighting the analysis carry out. The analysis should include the
application of Bernoullis Theorem:

RESULTS

a. All readings and data from the experiment should be tabulated


accordingly.
b. Show the sample calculation of discharge and total head at each
experiment
c. Plot the graph of pressure head (h), velocity head (v2/2g), and total
head versus horizontal distance in a single graph sheet for each
experiment.
Discuss your results and findings from the data analysis. Based on the
graph, comment the changes of pressure head (h), velocity head (v2/2g)
and total head to the changes of cross sectional area of pipe. Comment the
validity of the Bernoullis equation, factors affecting the accuracy of this
experiment and its applications in civil engineering. Conclude your findings
in the experiment
The report must be submitted within 7 days after the completion of the test.

FKA, UiTM, KAMPUS BUKIT MERTAJAM

DEC 2016