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Marketing Research: Brief &

Proposal
Session 1
Dr. Plavini Punyatoya
Xavier Institute of Management,
Xavier University, Bhubaneswar

Student Learning Outcomes


At the end of this course, the students should:

Be able to understand the marketing research process and research


techniques.
Be able to design Marketing Research study.
Be able to execute the Marketing Research project independently.
Become confident and conversant with the terminology, frames of
reference, and approaches to research employed by marketing
practitioners, academics and researchers
Be able to understand how MR process is integrated to actual decision
making and strategy creation in organizations

But
You will not be an expert!

True intuitive expertise is learned from prolonged


experience with good feedback on mistakes.
Daniel Kahneman

Tentative Session Plan


Session
Number

Topics/Activities

Reading/case list etc.

Marketing Research: Brief and Proposal

Chapter1-3 (MD)

Research Design
-Descriptive
-Exploratory
-Experimental

Chapter 4,6,7 (MD)

3-4

Conjoint Analysis

Chapter 21 (MD)

5-6

Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research


& Qualitative Research Methods
-Interview
-Focus Group Interviews
-Projective Techniques
-Other Qualitative techniques

Chapter 4-7 (MD)

Pricing Research

Reference material & case


discussion

Category Driver Analysis (Application of Jaccard


Analysis)

Reference material & case


discussion

Cluster Analysis

Chapter 20 (MD)

10-11

Discriminant Analysis

Chapter 18 (MD)

12

Multi Dimensional Scaling

Chapter 21 (MD)

13-14

Student Group Presentation

Evaluation
Components

Weightage (in %)

Class Participation

15

Group Project & Presentation

25

Quizzes

20

End-Term Exam

40

*No make-up for missed quiz.

Course
Books & Reading materials
Malhotra, N.K. and Dash, S. (2013). Marketing Research: An Applied
Orientation, Pearson Education. (MD)

Additional Reference books


Churchill, G. A., Iacobucci, D. and Israel, D. (2013). Marketing Research:
A South-Asian Perspective, Delhi, Cengage Learning. (CII)
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L.
(2013). Multivariate data analysis, New Delhi: Pearson Publication
Inc.(HBBAT)

Marketing Research is:

It is the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and


findings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company.
(Kotler et al, 2009)

It is the systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis,


dissemination, and use of information for the purpose of improving decision
making related to the identification and solution of problems and
opportunities in marketing.
(Malhotra & Dash, 2013)

Scientific & systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic

-Insights about consumer attitude & buying behavior


-Ad evaluation
-Knowing consumer preference
-Exploring consumer needs & wants
-Market survey
-Product-preference test
-Sales forecasting

An example is:
Sequential
steps;
Scientific
method of
enquiry

A general manager of a car producing company was concerned


with the complaints received from the car users that the car
they produce have some problems with rating sound at the dash
board and the rear passenger seat after few thousand
kilometers of driving.

He obtained information from the company workers to identify


the various factors influencing the problem.

He then formulated the problem and generated guesses


(hypotheses).

He constructed a checklist and obtained requisite information


from a representative sample of cars.

He analyzed the data thus collected, interpreted the results in


the light of his hypotheses and reached conclusions.
8

A Classification of Marketing Research


Marketing Research

Problem-Identification
Research

Market Potential Research


Market Share Research
Market Characteristics Research
Sales Analysis Research
Forecasting Research
Business Trends Research

Problem-Solving
Research

Segmentation Research
Product Research
Pricing Research
Promotion Research
Distribution Research

Problem-Identification Research

Help to identify problems that are not necessarily apparent on the


surface and yet exist or are likely to arise in the future

Eg: Declining market potential shows firm will face difficulty in achieving
target in near future
-toothpowder

Eg: Market potential is increasing but firm is losing market share


-Colgate vs. Pepsodent
-Dettol vs. Savlon
-Nirma deterget vs. Wheel

Problem-Solving Research

After a problem or opportunity has been identified

It is undertaken to help solve specific marketing problems

Both research normally used together


Eg:Volvo find that there is a requirement of smaller buses in small towns.
(Potential-identify)
Introduce small size buses of less capacity (Solving)

Kelloggs Chocos

Problem-Solving Research cntd.


Segmentation Research
Determine the basis of segmentation
Establish market potential and responsiveness for various segments
Select target markets & Create lifestyle profiles: demography, product
image characteristics etc.

Product Research

Test concept
Determine optimal product design
Package tests
Product modification
Brand positioning and repositioning
Test marketing
Control score tests

Problem-Solving Research cntd.


Promotion Research

Optimal promotional budget


Sales promotion relationship
Optimal promotional mix
Media decisions
Creative advertising testing
Evaluation of advertising effectiveness
Claim substantiation

Pricing Research

Pricing policies
Importance of price in brand selection
Product line pricing
Price elasticity of demand
Initiating and responding to price changes

Problem-Solving Research cntd.


Distribution Research

Type of distribution
Attitude of channel members
Intensity of wholesale and retail coverage
Channel margins
Location of retail and wholesale outlets

Marketing Research Industry


(1) Internal supplier: market research dept with firms
Eg: Big firms like Coca-Cola, P&G, Ford, Bank of America etc.
(2) External suppliers: outside firms hired to supply MR data/service
-small to large global corporations
-2 types
(a)Full Service suppliers: provide entire range of MR service
#Syndicate service- Gather cu & trade information which they sell at a
fee, Eg: IMRB, ACNielsen
#Customized services: Design and carry out research for various clients
based on specific needs
#Internet services: Conduct MR on internet

Marketing Research Industry


(2) External suppliers: -2 types
(b)Limited Service suppliers: specializes in one or a few phases of marketing
research
-Field service: collect data
-Focus group & qualitative services
-Technical and analytical services: design & computer analysis of quantitative
data

Firms preparing reports

They may hire academicians and freelancers

Cost-effective way

i. Engage professors or students, summer trainees, MBA live projects


ii. Monitoring published information: newspapers, websites, industry reports

MR Process
Defining the Problem

Developing an Approach to the Problem


Formulating a Research Design

Doing Field Work or Data Collection


Preparing and Analyzing the data
Preparing and Presenting the Report

1.Problem Definition

Not broad, not narrow

What is to be researched (content)?

Why it is to be researched (decision to be made)?

Purpose of the study

Based on information available, some qualitative research (expert


interview or FGD)

It is a broad statement of the general problem and identification of


specific components of the marketing research problem.

1.Problem Definition cntd.

Eg 1: Constructing an integrated model in predicting Indian consumers


attitude & purchase intention towards private label food brands.

Eg 2: LOreal finds that suddenly sale of its LOreal Paris brand is declining
in Europe. A FGD conducted on LOreal Paris users revealed that they
also use other brands along with LOreal. They want something different
and new in the brand. But the company was skeptical about new pr
introduction.

Will customer remain loyal in long run?---the company is concerned.

Who are these customers? Types? Feeling? Loyalty? Distinguished or not?

1.Problem Definition cntd.

Same

Eg: LOreal decides to conduct a research.

Objective: To identify distinct market segments based on customer


behaviour & perception about LOreal
Research Question: Can the LOreal customers be segmented based on
psychological characteristics?
Hypothesis:
H1: There are distinct segments of LOreal customers.
H2: Each segment prefer LOreal for a different reason.

Theory: based on consumer loyalty theory & new variety (product)


expectation behavior

1.Problem Definition cntd.

Eg: LOreal

1st conducted 36 focus group discussions (FGD) across Europe : female,


user and non-user, varied age group: To get feeling about the brand

The input is used to prepare a survey .

Mailed to 20,000 users.

Data analysed used s/w, findings showed: 5 consumer segments


Modern, Traditional,Value seeker, Sustainability-seeker, Green consumers

Decision: LOreal decides to introduce a new product which is sustainable


and green

2.Developing an Approach to the Problem

Form research objective, theo. framework, hypotheses, research


questions

Analysis of sec. data, literature review, view of industry experts, quali


research: serve as guide
Eg 1: theo. Framework

Perceived quality
Influence of peers/ family

Price consciousness

Consumer
attitude

Purchase
intention

Perceived risk
Brand image of retailer

Hypothesis= Higher perceived quality of private label brand leads to


higher customer attitude towards it.

Process of Defining the Problem & Developing an approach

Process of Defining the Problem & Developing an approach

Interview with industry experts: experience survey or key-informant


survey, and lead-user survey

Data Source:
(a) Secondary data: collected for another purpose, already exists
(b) Primary data: freshly gathered data for a specific purpose or research
project
Qualitative research: unstructured, exploratory research using small
samples to give insights about the problem
-FGD, Depth interview, Word association
-Pilot survey, case studies

Process of Defining the Problem & Developing an approach


Environmental context of the Problem
Consists of factors that have an impact on mkt. research problem
Past information & forecasts
Resources and constraints
Objectives
Buyer behavior
Legal environment

Economic environment
Marketing and technological skills

2.Developing an Approach to the Problem


Management Decision Problem

Marketing Research Problem

Asks what Decision Maker need to do

Asks what information is needed and


how it should be obtained

Focus on symptoms

Focus on causes

Examples:
Should a new product be
introduced?

To determine consumer preferences


and purchase intentions for the
proposed new product

Should the advertising


campaign be changed?

To determine the effectiveness


of the current advertising campaign

2.Developing an Approach to the Problem


Broad and specific statement
-Eg 1: Effect of Perceived quality on attitude
Effect of attitude on intention

General
Specific

Components of approach
Supported by Theory: a statement of relations among concepts within a
set of boundary assumptions and constraints

Theory (constructs-construct)

Analytical model : inter-relation between variables


Research questions
Hypothesis
Information needed

Hypothesis( variable-variable)

3.Formulating a Research Design

A framework/blueprint of conducting research

Includes: Defining the information needed, sec. data, quali or quanti data,
scale to be used, questionnaire design, sampling process & size, plan of
data analysis

Type of data source (secondary/primary)

Type of Research Approach:


(a) Observational research
(b) Ethnographic research: use concepts from anthropology & social
science
-Look at consumers lives to uncover unarticulated desires
-Good for developing markets
(c) Focus Group research
(d) Survey research

3.Formulating a Research Design


Type of Research Approach:
(e) Experimental research
-Most scientifically valid
-Capture cause-and-effect relationships
(f) Personal interview:
-most versatile
-Arranged interview or intercept interview

Type of Research Instruments


(a) Questionnaires: consists of a set of questions presented to
respondents
-Close-ended questions
-Open-ended questions

3.Formulating a Research Design


Type of Research Instruments
(b) Qualitative measures: unstructured
-not conclusive
(c) Technological devices:
-Eye camera
-Neuro marketing
-Galvanometer: measure interest/ emotion aroused by exposure to a
specific ad/picture

Type of Sampling Plan


-3 things: Unit, Size, Procedure
(a) Nonrandom/judgment sampling
(b) Random/probability sampling

4. Doing Field Work or Data Collection

Most expensive phase

Prone to error

5. Preparing and Analyzing the data

Tabulating the data

Developing frequency distributions

Statistical techniques

Data preparation includes editing, coding, transcription and verification


of data.

6. Preparing and Presenting the Report

Insight & recommendation

Has to be understandable

Make the decision

Management can use it, discard it or carry out more research

Thank You

References

Malhotra, N.K. and Dash, S. (2013). Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, Pearson Education.

Kotler, P, Keller, K.L., Koshy, A. and Jha, M. (2009). Marketing Management: A South Asian Perspective,
New Delhi: PHI, 13th Edn. (KKKJ)

http://ankitmarketing.blogspot.in/2012/01/detergent-wars-nirma-wheel-and-ghari.html

http://www.bioline.org.br/request?dv10077

http://idyeah.com/blog/2012/02/dettol-scores-by-painful-user-experience/

R.I. Levin and D.S. Rubin (2011). Statistics for Management (SFM), Pearson Education, New Delhi.