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Name: Sh.

Ubaid

Roll no: UE-011

Difference between magnitude and intensity


Parameters used to describe the size of earthquakes are magnitude and
intensity.
Magnitude on the Richter scale is a fixed value of measurement based on
recordings of ground movement called seismograms.
Intensity is an expression of the extent and distribution of damage caused by
an earthquake. It is derived from a rough statistical analysis of local
damaging effects of building. It is not a physical parameter usually written
using integer values, Roman numerals
The scale most commonly used worldwide is the Modified Mercalli Intensity
Scale (MMI) and its enhanced form, the European Macro seismic Scale (EMS98).

The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale


The Modified Mercalli Intensity value assigned to a specific site after an
earthquake has a more meaningful measure of severity to the nonscientist
than the magnitude because intensity refers to the effects actually
experienced at that place.
The lower numbers of the intensity scale generally deal with the manner in
which the earthquake is felt by people. The higher numbers of the scale are
based on observed structural damage. Structural engineers usually
contribute information for assigning intensity values of VIII or above.

The EMS-98
it is advance version of Menthe term macro seismic intensity is used here
entirely in the meaning of a classification of the severity of ground shaking
on the basis of observed effects in a limited area.
Scales are arranged so that increasing numbers reflect increasing severity.
There is vulnerability class ranging from A-F depending upon type of
structure similarly Grade for Stone Masonry and RCC building has a range
from Grade 1 to 5 depending upon local damaged occurred.

Name: Sh.Ubaid

Roll no: UE-011

Vulnerability of Natural Disaster in Pakistan

Pakistan is situated at the triple junction of Arabian, Eurasian and


Indian plates.
Hazard of an area depends upon the internal structure of the earth
surface. However the geology of an area is not a frequent variable
phenomenon because it remains same for millions of year.
Earthquake occurred in the oceans can frequently generate a Tsunami,
a series of large tidal waves due to displacement of huge amount of
water in the result of an earthquake, which is sometimes more
devastating.
Pakistan is divided into 19 zones, including some portions of the
neighboring countries of Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Iran and India. The
division of the region into these source zones is based on the
seismicity, the fault systems and the stress direction analysis.

Name: Sh.Ubaid

Roll no: UE-011

Zone 1; Kohistan-Kashmir
Zone 2; Northern Baluchistan
Zone 3; Quetta-Sibi
Zone 4; Southern Baluchistan
Zone 5; Northern Afghanistan-Tajikistan
Zone 6; Hindu Kush
Zone 7; North Western Afghanistan-Tajikistan Border Region
Zone 8; Eastern Afghanistan
Zone 9; Makran Coast
Zone 10; Runn of Kuchch
Zone 11; Sindh-Punjab
Zone-12; Pamir-Kunlun

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Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone

13;
14;
15;
16;
17;
18;
19;

Roll no: UE-011

Indian Kashmir
Upper Punjab-NWFP
Chitral
Koh e Sulaiman
South West Iran
Western Baluchistan
Central & Southern Afghanistan

Zones of high seismic activity in Pakistan


It was observed that most of the large earthquakes occurred in the following
regions:

Hindu Kush region


Northern areas of Pakistan and Kashmir
North-western part of Baluchistan and
The coastal areas of Pakistan (near Makran region)
The south-eastern corner of Pakistan (Runn of Kutch)
The combination of PMD and international data bases results in a
catalogue with different kinds of magnitudes, essentially body wave
magnitude (mb) for the smaller events and surface wave (Ms) and
moment (Mw) magnitudes for the larger events.

Name: Sh.Ubaid

Roll no: UE-011