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3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Examples: Unbalance cloth in a rotating drum of a washing machine   3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Consider the system of mass M with a rotating mass m.

The eccentricity is e. The rotational speed is ω.

The system is attached to the fixed foundation via a spring and a damper shown. If we only consider the vertical

movement of the system, we can

determine the EOM as follows: 3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses  M = total mass m = rotating mass

E = eccentricity

ω = rotational speed 3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Model: 2 Mx   cx   kx  me sint ←EOM x (t )  Im[ z (t )]   2 i  t Mz   cz   kz me e  z 2  2    n  z n z me  M 2 i e  t z ( t )  Ze i  t  2 me r 2 me Z         M n 2 i n 2 2 1  r 2  2  i r M 2 (  ) sin(  t ) H ( )  1 r x  me M H  r 2  2  i r 3.2 Applications

3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses FRF Plot of
r
2
H (
)
r
2
Increasing ζ
H (
 1
)
(1
r
2
)
2
(2
r
)
2
r
2
2
i r
Notes:
x  0
1. When r is small, |H(ω)|~0;
me
x 
sin(t  )
2. When r is big, |H(ω)|~1;
M

3. For 0 < ζ < 1/√2 , the maximum occurs when

r

1 2 
1
2

1

and the maximum value is 1
H 
(
)
max
2
 
1
2 3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Examples: Meirovitch 3.11

A piece of machinery can be regarded as a rigid mass

with a reciprocating rotating unbalanced mass. The

total mass of the system is 12 kg and the unbalanced mass is 0.5 kg. During normal operation, the rotation of the masses varies from 0 to 600 rpm. Design the

support system (spring and damper) so that the maximum vibration amplitude will not exceed 10 percent of the rotating mass’s eccentricity. 3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Examples: Francis Water Turbine

The schematic diagram of a Francis water turbine is

shown in the figure in which water flows from A into the

blades B and down into the tail race C. The rotor has a mass of 250 kg and an unbalance (me) of 0.25 kg-m. The radial clearance between the rotor and the stator is 5 mm. The turbine operates in the speed range 600 to 3000 rpm. The steel shaft carrying the rotor can be assumed to be clamped at the bearings. Assume

damping to be negligible. 3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Examples: Francis Water Turbine (adapted from Rao) Determine

1. Maximum amplitude of x

Appropriate value of k

Natural frequency

2.

3.

4.

Diameter of the shaft so that the rotor is clear of the

stator

Given that E = 2.07x10 11 Pa

I

d

4

64

and

k

3

EI

l

3 3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Examples: Solution

EOM →

2

Mx  kx mesint

Thus,

X

me

2 me

2

(

k M

 

2

)

M 

n

(

2

2

)

where the natural frequency is

 

n

The value of ω ranges from:

600rpm k
M
600

2

60

2

mer

M

(1

2

r

)

20

to

Solve for r for Xmax is 5 mm

3000rpm

3000

X

2

mer

M

(1

r

2

)

2

60

5

10

-3

0.25 r

2

250(1

2

r

)

100 3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Find the ωn

To select the ω n :

250

r

critical

62.83

62.83

68.83

250

r

2

50

r

2

0.9129

n



314.16

0.9129

 

n

 

n

344.13

314.16

1. It has to be greater than 314.16 rad/s to avoid resonance

2. If

So pick

314.16    344.13

n

n

344.13

rad/s Xmax is greater than 5 mm 3.2.1 Rotating Unbalance Masses

Thus, if

then

 344.13

n

2

k M 

n

2.96 10

7

N/m

The minimum diameter of the shaft is

2.96

10

7

 

k

3 EI

l

3

d 29.7 cm

3 E  d  

4

l

3

64