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PER UNIT QUESTIONS - SOLUTIONS

1. A balanced Y connected voltage source with Eab = 480 0o Volts is applied to a


balanced load with Z = 30 40o. The line impedance between the source and load
is ZL = 1 85o for each phase. Calculate the per-unit and actual current in phase a of
the line using Sbase 3 = 10 kVA and VbaseL-L = 480V.

Solution;

ZL = 1 85o

Eab = 48 0o

Z = 30 40o

Fig. 1a
ZY = 30 40o = 10 40o
3
1 85o

Eab= 480 0o

10 40o

j 0.0434pu

1 0opu

Fig. 1b

123

j0.434pu

Common base:
S3 = 10 kVA
VbaseL-L = 480V

VB
480V 2
Z base

23.04
S B 10 kVA

= 1 85o = 0.0434 pu.


23.04

ZL,pu

Zload, pu = 10 40o
23.04

Ipu

I base

= 0.434 pu

1
. = -j2.09467 = 2.0945 -90o
j0.0434 + j0.434

SB
10 kV

12.028 A
BB
480V

:. Iact = 2.0945 -90o x 12.028A


= 25.193 -90o #

124

2. Consider a system with the one line diagram shown in 2. The 3 phase transformer name
plate ratings are listed. The transformer reactances are given in percent, 10% = 0.1 p.u.
the transformer line and load impedance are in actual ohm. The generator terminal
voltage(magnitude) is 13.2 kV(line-to-line). Find the generator current, the transmissions
current, the load current, the load voltage and the power delivered to the load.
VB1

VB3

VB2

Figure 2
Solution;
Step 1:
Common base: S3 = 10 MVA
VB = 138 kV taken from transmission line
Step 2:
VB1 = 13.2 kV x 138 kV = 13.8 kV
132 kV
VB2 = 138 kV
VB3 = 69 kV x 138 kV = 69 kV
138 kV

Step 3:
Find the per unit impedance for each transformers:
Formula:

Zpu new= Zpuold x [ SBnew ] x [ VBold ]2


SBold
VBnew

125

XT1 new = (10/100)[10/5][13.2/13.8]2 = 0.183p.u


XT2 new = (8/100)[10/10][138/138]2 = 0.08p.u

Step 4:
Per unit impedance for transmission line
ZPU = Zact / Zbase
Zact = 10 + j100
Zbase = VB2 / SB
= 138 kV2
10 MVA
= 1.904 k
Hence Zpu Line = 10+j100
1.904 k
= 0.005252 +j 0.05252
= 0.05278 84.29

Step 5:
Per unit impedance for load
Zact = 300
Zbase = VB2/SB
= 69 kV2
10 MVA
= 476.1
Zpu = 300
476.1
= 0.6301 pu
Step 6 :
126

Per unit voltage for V source


Vact = 13.2 kV
Vbase=13.8 kV
V1 p.u = 13.2 kV
13.8 kV
= 0.96 <0 pu
Step 7 :
We are now, able to draw the impedance diagram

j0.183 pu

0.005252 + j0.05252 pu

j0.08 pu

0.6301 pu
0.96 < 0

Figure 2a

Step 8:
Calculate the
a) Generator current
b) Transmission line current
c) Load current
d) Load voltage
e) Power delivered to the load
127

Figure 2b
Ipu =

0.96 0 pu
.
[(j0.183 pu + (0.005252+j0.0525)+j0.08+0.6301)]

= 1.212 - j0.6019 pu
= 1.35 -26.41 pu
a) IG = generator current, Iact = Ipu x IB

I base, generator

SB
10 MVA

418.3697 A
3 (VB1 )
3 (13.8 kV )

Hence,
Igenerator act = (1.35 -26.41) x 418.3697
= 564.799 -26.41 A
b) Transmission Line current;

I B ,line

SB
10MVA

41.837 A
3 (VB 2 )
3 (138 kV )

Hence,
I transmission line act = (1.35 -26.41) x 41.837 A
= 56.48 -26.41 A

128

c) Load current;

I B ,load

SB
10MVA

83.67 A
3 (VB 3 )
3 (69 kV )

Hence,
I load act = (1.35 -26.41) x (83.67 A)
= 112.96 A
d) Load Voltage
VL,pu = IL,pu x ZL,pu
= (1.35 -26.41) x (0.6301)
= 0.8506 -26.41 pu
Vload, act = (0.8506 -26.41) x VB3
= (0.8506 -26.41) x (69 kV)
= 58.693 kV -26.41
= 58.7 kV

(line to line voltage)

OR:
VL,act = I load, act x Z load, act
= (112.96 -26.41) x 300
= 33.88 kV (phase voltage)
VL, act (L-L) = 33.88 kV x (3)
= 58.7 kV
e) Power delivered to the load (SL,pu)
SL,pu = VL,pu x IL,pu
= (0.8506 -26.41)(1.35 -26.41)
= 1.148 -52.820 p.u

129

Hence,
S load, act = 1.148 x 10 MVA
= 11.48 MVA #

130

3. Consider the same basic system as in Q2, but with these changes. The generator voltage
and load impedance are not specified. Instead, we are given the following information.
The voltage (magnitude) at the load is 63 kV ad the 3 load power is 5.0 MW at a pf of
0.9 lagging. Find the load current, the generator voltage and the generator power.

Figure 3
Solution;
Vload = 63 kV
VL pu = 63kV
69 kV
= 0.913 00 pu

Find the : i. load current


ii. Generator voltage
iii. Generator power

i. Load current

Pf = 0.9 lagging;
0.9 = sin

131

= 25.840

Figure 3a
Sload actual = 5MW + j2.42MVar
= 5.556 MVA 25.840

Sload pu

= (5.556MVA 25.840 / 10 MVA)


= 0.5556 25.840 pu

Ipu* = Spu / Vpu


= 0.5556 25.840
0.913 00
= 0.608 -25.840

I B ,load

SB
10MVA

83.67 A
3 (VB )
3 (69 kV )

Iload (act) = (0.608 -25.840) x 83.674


= 50.87 -25.840 A

ii. Generator voltage

Eg, pu = VL pu + (I pu x j0.183 + 0.005252 + j 0.05252 +j0.08)


= (0.913 00) + (0.608 -25.840) x (0.005252 + j0.3155)
132

= 1.014 9.7230

Eg, act = Eg, pu x Eg, base


= (1.014 9.7230)(13.8 kV)
= 13.993 kV 9.7230

iii. Generator power

Sa, pu = Eg, pu x I pu*


= (1.014 9.7230) x (0.608 25.840)
= 0.5015 + j0.3586
= 0.6165 35.560 pu

Sa, act = 0.6165 x 10 MVA


= 6.165 MVA #

133

4. Prepare a per phase schematic of the system shown in Figure 4 below and show all
impedances in pu on a 100 MVA, 132 kV base in the transmission line circuit. The
necessary data for this problem are as follow :

G1 = 50 MVA, 122.2 kV,

X = 0.15 PU

G2 = 20 MVA, 13.8 kV,

X = 0.15 PU

T1 = 80 MVA, 12.2 / 161 kV,

X = 0.10 PU

T2 = 40 MVA, 13.8 / 161 kV,

X =0.10 PU

Load = 50 MVA, 0.8 PF lagging, (operating at 154 kV)

Determine the Pu impendence of the load for the following cases:


a) Load modeled as a series combination of resistance and inductance.
b) Load modeled as a parallel combination of resistance and inductance.
40 MVA

80 MVA
12.2 / 161 kV
50 MVA

161 / 13.8 kV

40 + j 160

T2

T1

12.2 kV

20 MVA
13.8 kV

20 + j80

20 + j80

Load

Figure 4

Solution;

a). Load modeled as a series combination of resistance and inductance.

Common base:
SB =100 MVA
VB = 132 kV in the transmission line.
134

VB,G1

VB,TL

VB,TL

40 MVA

80 MVA
12.2 / 161 kV
50 MVA

VB,G2

161 / 13.8 kV

40 + j 160

T2

T1

12.2 kV

13.8 kV
20 + j80

20 + j80

VB,TL

Load

Figure 4a

VBTL = 132 kV
VBG1 = 12.2
161

x 132 kV

= 10.0025 kV

VBG2 = 13.8 x 132 kV


161
= 11.314 kV

For Xpu new:


Formula:

20 MVA

Zpu new = Zpuold x [ SBnew ] x [ VBold ]2


SBold
VBnew

XG1 = 0.15*(100/50)*(12.2/10.0025)2
= 0.446 pu
XG2 = 0.15*(100/20)*(13.8/11.214)2

135

VB,TL

= 1.1158 pu
XT1 = 0.10*(100/80)*(12.2/10.0025)2
= 0.18595 pu
XT2 = 0.10*(100/40)*(13.8/11.314)2
= 0.372 pu

For ZPU transmission line :

Z pu

Z act
Z base

Z base, line

VB , Line

SB

132 k 2

100 MVA
174.24

ZL1 PU = (40 + j160) / 174.24


= 0.2296 + j0.9183 PU
ZL2 PU = (20 + j80) / 174.24
= 0.1148 + j0.459 PU
Z L3 PU = (20 + j80) / 174.24
= 0.1148 + j0.459 PU
For ZPU load :
Data given, S = 50 MVAcos-1 0.8 (operated at 154 KV)
S load = 5036.870 MVA
Z = V2
S*
ZL = 154 KV2 00
50-36.870 MVA
= 379.46 + j284.59
136

= 474.32 36.870
ZL base = 132 kV2 / 100 MVA
= 174.24
So,
ZL PU = ZL, act / ZL base
= (379.46 + j284.59)/ (174.24)
= 2.18 + j1.63 PU
So, the diagram for series combination of resistance and inductance:

0.2296 + j0.9183

j0.446

j1.1158
0.1148 + j0.459

0.1148 + j0.459
2.18
j1.63

Figure 4b

b). Load modeled as a parallel combination of resistance and inductance.


SL = 50 MVA 36.870
= 40 MW + j30 MVAR

137

VL L
P

= 154 kV2
40 MW
= 592.9
RPU = 592.9
174.24
= 3.402

VL L
Q

= 154 kV2
30 MVAR
= 790.53

XPU = 790.53
174.24
= 4.537

0.2296 + j0.9183

j0.446

j1.1158
0.1148 + j0.459

0.1148 + j0.459

3.402

jJ4.357

Figure 4c

138

5. Consider the simple power system network shown in Figure 6.61. The rating of each
components are given in the Table 5.

Table 5
Generator

300 MVA

20 kV

X = 0.2

T1

350 MVA

20 / 230 kV

X = 0.1

T2

3 x 1

100 MVA

127 / 13.2 kV

X = 0.1

M1

200 MVA

13.2 kV

X = 0.2

M2

100 MVA

13.2 kV

X = 0.2

Length = 64 Km (40 miles), series reactants = 0.5 / Km

Choose the generators rating as the base rating in the circuit and draw an impedance diagram
for all the reactants in per unit system.

13.2 KV

VB1

VB2
k

T1

VB2
l

VB3
T2

M1
n

G
13.2 KV
300 MVA
20KV

M2
350 MVA
20 / 230KV

100 MVA
127 / 13.2 KV
Per phase

Figure 5

Solution;
Common base: using the generators rating

SB

= 300 MVA

VB

= 20 kV at the generator

VB1

= 20 kV

139

VB2

= 230 kV x 20 kV
20 kV
= 230 KV

VB3 refer to 3 transformer rating (change the single phase rating to the 3 rating)
ST2 = 3 X 100 MVA
= 300 MVA

N (ratio)

T2

= 3 x 127 / 13.2 kV
= 220 / 13.2 kV

VB3

= 13.2 kV x 230 kV
220 kV
= 13.8 kV

Formula:

Zpu new = Zpuold x [ SBnew ] x [ VBold ]2


SBold
VBnew

Zpu G1 = 0.2 [300 MVA / 300 MVA] x [20 kV / 20 kV]


= 0.2 pu

Zpu T1 = 0.1 [300 MVA / 350 MVA] X [230 kV / 230 kV]


= 0.0857 pu

Zpu T2 = 0.1 [300 MVA / 300 MVA] X [220 kV / 230 kV]


= 0.0915 pu

Zpu M1 = 0.2 [300 MVA / 200 MVA] X [13.2 kV / 13.8 kV]


= 0.2745 pu

Zpu M2 = 0.2 [300 MVA / 200 MVA] X [13.2 kV / 13.8 kV]


= 0.549 pu

Zpu TL = Zact / Zbase


140

Zbase TL = (VB TL) / SB


= (230 kV)
300 MVA
= 176.33
Zact TL = 0.5 x 64 kM
1 kM
= 32

Thus,
Z pu TL =

32 .
176.33

= 0.1815 pu

j0.0857 pu

j0.1815 pu

j0.0915 pu

j0.2 pu

j0.2745 pu

j0.549 pu

VM

Vg
Eg

EM1

Figure 5a: Impedance Diagram

141

EM2

6. If both M1 and M2 motors in Q5 need supply powers of 100MW and 50MW at


13.2kV and 0.8 lagging power factors, find the voltage at the generator.
PM1 = 100 MW, cos = 0.8 lagging
PM2 = 50 MW, cos = 0.8 lagging

Solution;
S= P .
cos

SM1

= 100 MW 36.87o
cos
= 100 MW 36.87 o
0.8
= 125 MVA 36.87 o

VM act = 13.2 kV
VM pu = 13.2 kV
13.8 kV
= 0.956 pu
SM1 pu = 125 MVA 36.87 o
300 MVA
= 0.417 pu 36.87 o

SM1 pu = 62.5 MVA 36.87 o


300 MVA
= 0.208 pu

S
IM1 M1
VM

= 0.417 36.87 o* pu

142

0.956 0o
= 0.4362 -36.87 o pu

IM 2

S
M2
VM

= 0.208 36.87 o *
0.956 0o
= 0.2176 -36.87 o pu

Vg pu

= VM + (IM1 + IM2) x (j0.0857 + j0.1815 + j0.0915)


= (0.956 0o) + [(0.4362 -36.87 o) + (0.2176 -36.87 o)] x (j0.3587)
= 1.0967 + j0.1876
= 1.1126 pu 9.707 o

Vg act = (1.1126 pu 9.707 o) x 20 kV


= 22.25 kV 9.707 o

143