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90

Saving money in the wrong place can make you richer - in experience!

The high-quality design and construction work that goes into every BMW, and the resulting performance and efficiency, are not offered for their own sakes. They are a basic requirement for total mobility on the modern overall transport scene. BMW Service plays the important role of main- tainingthe high quality of the product after sale. This is a sensible concept which prolongs and therefore further justifies the technological effort, the designer's work and the craftsmanship BMW have devo- ted to the manufacture of your car.

The decision to purchase a high-class automibile is a vote in favor of your own safety and that of other road users too. Protect this investment by regular and careful inspection and maintenance, per- formed by the people who know your BMW best; the skilled and carefully trai- ned personnel at your BMW service sta- tion. Their work not only guarantees the safety of your BMW but enhances the already outstanding durability and lasting value of the BMW so that it can 'eventually be sold for a worthwhile sum.

---~

No chain is stronger than its weakest link

By means of continuous tests on actual vehicles and a thorough program of simu- lation research, BMW critically examines every proposed improvement to its vehic- les with a view to ensuring that the multi- stage BMW safety system can accom- odate the proposed modification, and also to study the interaction of many hundreds of seemingly unimportant design details in the chain of performance and behavior.

Genuine BMW parts are not automatically , rendered more valuable just by bearing the BMW symbol. Instead, it is what this symbol stands for that constitutes their • real worth: the ability to pass rigorous and systematic quality assurance tests so that in an emergency each part plays its role in, the 'chain of safety' along with all the other design features of the car. Every part in a BMW has to make its own contribu- tion to the performance of the complete vehicle. Viewed in this way, no difference in price can possibly make up for the lack ofthe 'Genuine BMW Part' symbol and for failure to benefit from the organization that can install these parts incomparably well; the BMW Service Organization.

To sum up: unbeatable offers are a dime a dozen. For the responsible BMW owner, loyalty to BMW Parts and Service can pay off - possibly sooner than he thinks!

BMW Automobiles

Supreme automobile engineering for dri- vers prepared to add their own skill and enlightened approach to those of our designers.

Oil change

91

Description of maintenance operations

Engine oil changes • The engrne oil must be

changed together

with the oil filter every 7 500 km (5000 miles) or at least twice a year before and aher the cold season. Use only good quality HD oil for gasoline engines of API class SE or API class SF. Before using any unconventional engine oils (synthetic oils etc.). consult your BMW service station to ensure that the oil selected has been approved by the facto- ry. The choice of SAE grade depends on the prevailing ambient air temperature range.

The diagram on the right shows which SAE grades should be used for different temperature ranges.

SAE grades should be used for different temperature ranges. • The maximum and minimum temperature limits

The maximum and minimum temperature limits for the SAE grades may be excee- ded for short periods of operation. Changing engine oil:

Remove drain plug (17 mm wrench) on bottom right of the sump. Replace and tighten securely aher draining old oil.

Total oil capacities BMW 316, 318 i: 3.75 liters (4.0 US quarts, 6.6 Imp. pints) plus 0.2 5 liter (0.26

if filter is also

US quart, 0.45 changed.

BMW 320, 323 i: 4.0 liter (4.1 US quarts, 7.0 Imp. pints) plus 0.25 liter (0.26 US

also

quart,

changed. Oil level: Fill to the upper mark on the dipstick, never higher.

Imp. pint)

0.45

Imp.

pint)

if

filter is

never higher. Imp. pint) 0.45 Imp. pint) if filter is !""- /ltl----'O 120 30 '00 20

!""-

/ltl----'O

120
120

30

'00

20 -10 -20 --40 ------""""'''' E 1278
20
-10
-20
--40 ------""""''''
E 1278

92 Oil (.hange, checking oil level in automatic transmission

Oil filter

Renew throw-away cartridge filter every 7 SOD km (S 000 miles) when the engine oil is changed:

Unscrew filter.

Lightly oil the seal of the new filter element. Then screw in the element until the seal makes contact and tighten by hand half a turn,

Check the filter for leaks with the engine running.

Check the filter for leaks with the engine running. • Change the oil in the manual

Change the oil in the manual gearbox only while at normal operating temperatu- re, after 1000 km (600 miles). then every 30000 km (20000 miles).

Remove oil drain plug (17 mm Allen key), then oil filler plug 17 mm Allen key) on the side of the gearbox housing, This will help the oil to drain more rapidly,

When fully drained, replace the drain plug (screw in firmly). Both plugs have conical threads and must not be replaced with plugs having metric threads.

Total oil capacity:

4-speed box: 1.0 liter (1.1 US quarts, 1.8 ! Imp. pints)

S-speed box: 1.5 liters (1 ,6 US quarts, 2,7 Imp. pints).

S-speed box: 1.5 liters (1 ,6 US quarts, 2,7 Imp. pints). Oil level: up to lower

Oil level: up to lower edge of filler hole Oil grade: Branded SAE 80 gearbox oil to MIL-L-21 05 or API-GL 4 specification. In an emergency, HD engine oil.

level in the automatic

transmission:

Park the car on a flat, level surface, apply the handbrake and run the engine at normal operating temperature with the selector lever in the 'P' or 'N' position at iding speed. Remove the transmission oil dipstick, wipe with a non-fluffy cloth, re-insert and measure oil level. This must lie between the two marks on the dipstick,

To

check

oil

Change the oil in the automatic trans- mission only when at normal operating temperature, every 30000 km (20 000 miles):

the oil in the automatic trans- mission only when at normal operating temperature, every 30000 km
the oil in the automatic trans- mission only when at normal operating temperature, every 30000 km

Oil change, half-shafts, checkin-g oil level

93

Place the car on a flat, level surface and apply the handbrake. Engage selector

engine.

Unscrew the oil drain plug (5 mm Allen key) on the oil sump of the automatic transmission, allow the oil to drain (at least approx. 5 minutes will be needed), then tighten the drain plug again firmly.

Add 1.5 liter (1.6 US quart, 2.6 Imp. pint) of oil initially; run the engine at idle speed and continue to add oil up to the upper third of the space between the dipstick marks.

Oil capacity app. 2.0 liters (2.1 US quarts, 3.5 Imp. pints) when changing the oil. Total content when initially filling new or exchange transmissions: 2.2 liters (2.3 US quarts, 3.9 Imp. pints).

. lever position

'P'

and stop

the

3.9 Imp. pints). . lever position 'P' and stop the • Always ensure that the transmission

Always ensure that the transmission is at its normal operating temperature when checking oil level. The quantity of oil represented by the space between the two marks (when warm) is approx. 0.4 liter (0.4 US quart,

0.7 Imp. pint).

Oil grades: see ·SPECIFICATIONS·. Change the oil in the final drive (rear axle) when" at normal operating tempera- ture, at 1 000 km (600 miles), then every 30000 km (20000 miles). Remove the oil drain plug, followed by the oil filler plug (both 10 mm Allen screws) in the final drive cover so that the oil drains out more quickly. Clean the drain plug and tighten firmly.

Total oil capacity: 0.95 liters (1 US quart,

1.7 Imp. pints).

oil capacity: 0.95 liters (1 US quart, 1.7 Imp. pints). Oil level: up to lower edge

Oil level: up to lower edge of filler hole. Check every 15000 km (10000 miles). Oil grade: brand-name running-in and normal duty hypoid gear oil, SAE 90 (your BMW service station knows the factory- approved grades). Check the flexible gaiters on the half- shafts for leaks and the tightness of the retaining screws during a BMW inspec- tion, every 15000 km (10000 miles). The rack and pinion steering gear is permanently packed with grease and re- quires no routine maintenance. Check that the flexible gaiter is not leaking. Check oil level in hydraulic power steer- il'lg (optional extra) whenever engine oil is checked or routine maintenance work carried out.

94 Checking~I~~I.d~rib~~b:r:a:k:e~f:lu:·i:d

_

With the engine stopped, unscrew the wingnut and take off the reservoir cover. The oil level should be app. 5 mm (0.2 inl above the mark on the side of the reser- voir. Top up if necessary (for oil grades, see 'SPECIFICATIONS'). Next, start the engine and add more oil if required until the level stabilizes at the mark on the reservoir wall.

Aher the engine has been stopped, fluid level may rise by approx. 5 mm (0.2 in) above the level mark. Install the cover and tighten the wing nut. Make sure that the cover is properly seated and that there are no leaks from the power steering circuit. All other work, including filter renewal and checking operation, should always be entrusted to a BMW service station

should always be entrusted to a BMW service station The transparent reservoir for brake fluid (and

The transparent reservoir for brake fluid (and for the hydraulic clutch withdrawal mechanism) is inside the engine com- partment on the left, and enables the fluid level to be checked without removing the cap.

If the fluid level should fall below a certain

an electric warning device in the

reservoir will cause the red brake war-

ning lamp in the instrument cluster to light up.

Brake fluid is hygroscopic, that is to say it absorbs moisture from the air gradually over a period. In order to ensure that the safety and efficiency of your brakes re- main unaffected, the brake fluid must be renewed once a year by an authorized BMW service station.

level,

once a year by an authorized BMW service station. level, The distributor of the contactless transis-

The distributor of the contactless transis- torized coil ignition system needs no routin~ maintenance.

Warning transistorized coil ignition:

This is a high-performance ignition sys- tem, and touching any live components when the engine is running can be highly dangerous.

ignition sys- tem, and touching any live components when the engine is running can be highly

ignition sys- tem, and touching any live components when the engine is running can be highly

Clutch, interchanging wheels

95

Add fluid up to the upper 'MAX' mark. Your BMW service station is familiar with the factory-approved grades of brake fluid. The clutch ne&ds no routine maintenan- ce and is adjusted automatically for lining wear by the slave cylinder. During a BMW Inspection, clutch driving plate wear should be checked without removing the clutch from the car, every 30000 km (20000 milesl. As the clutch lining wears, distance 'a' will increase. When 'a' = 5mm (0.2 in). the wear limit has been reached.

be

The

clutch

driving

plate

must then

renewed by a BMW service station.

plate must then renewed by a BMW service station. • Loss of fluid from the hydraulic

Loss of fluid from the hydraulic clutch operating system and the penetration of air into the circuit can lead to incomplete clutch release and result in damage to the gearbox. The circuit must be checked for leaks and bled in good time at the bleed screw provided.

If, as a means of prolonging tire life, you wish to have the wheels changed round, please bear the following in mind:

Due to the design principles of the front

and rear

axles and taking into accou nt

load and operating conditions, the front tires reach their wear limit first on the shoulders and the rear tires in the center of the tread. The higher the stresses (load, acceleration, lateral forces) are the more wear will take place.

lateral forces) are the more wear will take place. Changing the wheels from front to rear

Changing the wheels from front to rear on the same side can in certain conditions have only a negligible effect on the service life whereas the handling and braking as well as the roadholding may be adversely affected. If so desired the spare wheel can also be put into use. In this case one must remember that this wheel. possibly new, must be run in and will at first not have the same degree of adhesion. Changing the wheels round must be done on the same side and at short intervals (max. 5 000 km (app. 3000 miles). During the following period a difference in rOjidholding and straight running (possibly brake pulling to one side, smaller contact surface of rear wheels on the road) must

be allowed for.

. In the interests of your safety and opti- mum running gear conditions we recom- mend that the wheels are not changed round, because the increase in service life is negligible. With non-standard wheels and tires the wheels should definitely not be changed round .

96 Balancing wheels, battery, cooling system

The four road wheels may be balanced statically and dynamically - on the car if possible- at the customer's request every 7 500 km (5 000 miles).

If a routine examination of the tires for wear reveals signs of damage, penetration by sharp objects etc., or severely uneven wear, we recommend that wheel align- ment be checked without delay with the car loaded as specified.

Every 7 500 km (5 000 miles), but at least once a month, the electrolyte level in the battery should be checked. Take off the cover and unscrew the 6 cell plugs. The electrolyte level should be about 5 mm (0.2 in) above the upper edges of the cell plates or at the mark visible in the cell filler aperture, depending on battery type.

If the level is too low, add distilled water, never acid.

Keep the upper part of the battery clean and dry.

Warning: Never allow battery acid or lead oxide deposits from the terminals to come into contact with the clothing. Do not bring a naked light close to the battery - risk of explosion.

To remove or install the battery, slacken or tighten the toggle screw with retaining bar.

Apart from regular checks on coolant level, antifreeze and corrosion inhibitor concentration (at least 35% all the year

round) and the condItion of hoses and hose clips, we recommend that the coo- ling system be drained and refilled every two years. At the same time, check that the filler cap seals properly and that the pressure relief and vacuum equalizing valves are in good working order.

 

,

The cooling system including heater circuit holds approx. 7.2 liters (7.6 US ~uarts, 12.1 Imp. pints) on the BMW 316, 318i and approx. 12 liters (12.7 US quarts, 21.1 Imp. pints) on the BMW 320 and 323 i.

 

To drain the coolant:

Loosen the hose clip on the lower radiator

#

stub pipe and pull off the hose.

Warning: risk of scalding if the engine is still warm.

--

radiator # stub pipe and pull off the hose. Warning: risk of scalding if the engine
radiator # stub pipe and pull off the hose. Warning: risk of scalding if the engine
radiator # stub pipe and pull off the hose. Warning: risk of scalding if the engine
radiator # stub pipe and pull off the hose. Warning: risk of scalding if the engine

\-oollng sYSlem

';j I

Remove

the

hexagon

bolt

(19

mm

wrench) at the right-hand rear end of the .engine block.

The left sliding heater control on the facia must be set to 'WARM'.

Use only BMW-approved long life anti- freeze and corrosion inhibitors (your BMW service station can advise you).

inhibitors (your BMW service station can advise you). • Refilling the cooling system after drai- ning:

Refilling the cooling system after drai- ning:

Slide the left heater control to 'WAR M' and slowly add long-life antifreeze and corrosion inhibitor mixed with water in a concentration of 35%. This will provide protection against freezing at temperatu-

res down to -25 0 C (-13 0

On the BMW 320 and 323 i the coolin~ system must be bled during filling. Sla- cken the grub screw in the thermostat housing and add coolant via the header tank until it emerges free from air bubbles at the bleed slot. Then retighten the grub screw.

Seal the cooling system by screwing on the filler cap as far as the second stop.

F).

by screwing on the filler cap as far as the second stop. F). 2000- 2500/min until

2000-

2500/min until warm, then switch off.

After about 1 minute, restart the engine and run at no less than 4000/min for 30 seconds. Next, allow the engine to idle and check that the heater is delivering warm air.

Allow the engine to cool down until the coolant thermometer needle is in the lower third of the scale. Add coolant until not more than 2 cm ('a') below the top of the filler pipe, then seal again by screwing on the cap.

Adding more water will dilute the concen- tration of the antifreeze and corrosion in'hibitor in the system, as liquid will be lost via the overflow.

Run

the

engine

at

approx.

98 Windshield and headlight cleaning system, air cleaner

The windshield and headlight washer systems can be prevented from freezing by adding antifreeze to German Industrial Standard DIN 51421 in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Check correct operation of the system at regular intervals.

The air cleaner element in the intake air silencer should be renewed every 15000 km (10 000 miles) duringa BMW inspec- tion, or earlier in very dusty conditions-.

A clogged air filter element increases fuel consumption and prevents full engine power from being developed

BMW 316, 320

.Release the snap fasteners, take off the

cover and remove the element.

BMW 318 i, 323 i

Release the snap fasteners, swing the cover open and pullout the air cleaner element.

the element. BMW 318 i, 323 i Release the snap fasteners, swing the cover open and
the element. BMW 318 i, 323 i Release the snap fasteners, swing the cover open and
the element. BMW 318 i, 323 i Release the snap fasteners, swing the cover open and

the element. BMW 318 i, 323 i Release the snap fasteners, swing the cover open and

ruel 111lt::::1~, lutn ~lIdlfltHS

::J::J

BMW'316,320

The mesh filter in the fuel pump should be cleaned every 30000 km (20 000 miles) during a BMW Inspection: unscrew fastening bolt.

Remove the mesh filter and wash out in clean fuel. When replacing, use only good sealing rings.

in clean fuel. When replacing, use only good sealing rings. • Fuel filters Every 30000 km

Fuel filters Every 30000 km (20000 miles), the mesh strainers in the fuel circuit should be cleaned and the main fue.l filter element renewed.

On the BMW 318 i and 323 i renew main filter every 15000 km (10000 miles).

Mesh strainer in fuel feed to carburetor (BMW 320) Detach the fuel pipe from the carburetor, take out the mesh strainer and wash in clean fuel.

Main fuel filter (BMW 318 i, 323 i)

1. Loosen the hose clips on the fuel hoses and on the filter.

2. Pull off the hoses and renew the complete filter.

2. Pull off the hoses and renew the complete filter. Warning: flow through the filter (shown

Warning:

flow through the filter (shown on label)

when installing.

Fine-mesh filter in the fuel tank immer- sed level sensor (intake unit):

1. Take out rear seat bench and remove cover.

2. Detach the feed and return hose clips liInd pull the hoses away from the fuel intake unit.

3. Turn the intake unit anticlockwise with suitable levers (e.g. screwdrivers) to • release the bayonet catch, then lift out.

4. Clean the fine-mesh filter.

Note the correct direction of

Note: Always use a new sealing ring when refitting. Avoid damage to the fine-mesh filter.

IUU

,::)lJdlK. IJIUHtt, UW~II dljYIt:~, 1\J'illlUII lllllll.~, 1.'(HI1UCI •• CUV ,::nUU';'

Check spark plug electrode gaps:

Before new spark plugs are fitted, their gaps should always be checked with a feeler gauge, and the earth (ground) elec- trode bent if necessary to achieve the prescribed gap 'a' of 0.6 + 0.1 mm (0.024 + 0.004 in).

km

(10000 miles) during a BMW inspection.

Details of the correct spark plugs are given on the final page of this handbook.

Check dwell angle and Ignition timing every 15000 km (10000 miles) during a BMW Inspection with the BMW Service Test unit or Digitial Tester:

Dwell angle

BMW316-323i

21°-25°at

900/min.

Ignition timing Check dynamically without vacuum ad- vance: - BMW 316 25° BTDC at 2500/min BMW 318 i 28° BTDC at 3500/min BMW 320,323i, 22° BTDC at 1 500/min Dwell angle and ignition timing must always be checked and adjusted by a BMW service station with the aid of the BMW Service Test unit or Digital Tester.

Warning: Transistorized coil ignition This is a high-performance ignition sys- tem, and it can be highly dangerous to touch any live components when the engine is running.

If specified by the factory, the cylinder head studs should be tightened in the sequence shown and to the prescribed torque loads during the first BMW Inspec- tion at 1 000 km (600 miles)

A 4-cylinder engines

B = 6-cylinder engines

Renew spark plugs every

15 000

tion at 1 000 km (600 miles) A 4-cylinder engines B = 6-cylinder engines • Renew
tion at 1 000 km (600 miles) A 4-cylinder engines B = 6-cylinder engines • Renew

E217598

tion at 1 000 km (600 miles) A 4-cylinder engines B = 6-cylinder engines • Renew

}-III creaiH,', Valve clearances

I U

I

Detaching the air cleaner (BMW 316) Remove retaining nut from air cleaner cover, open the snap fasteners and take off the cover. Unscrew the air cleaner retaining nut, pull off the vacuum hose for intake air preheating and the secondary breather hose. Take off the air cleaner.

and the secondary breather hose. Take off the air cleaner. • Detaching the air cleaner (BMW

Detaching the air cleaner (BMW 320) Unscrew the nut holding the air cleaner. Pull off the hoses for intake air preheat (1), primary (2) and secondary (3) breathing. Take off the air cleaner.

(2) and secondary (3) breathing. Take off the air cleaner. Check valve clearances and adjust if

Check valve clearances and adjust if necessary during a BMW Inspection eve- ry 15000 km (10000 miles) with the engine stopped and cold - coolant tem- perature not more than 35° C (95° F) - or in accordance with workshop instruc- tions.

The prescribed valve clearances of 0.1 5 -

0.20 mm (0.006 - 0.008 in) for the

BMW 316 and 318 i, or 0.25 mm (0.01 in) for the BMW 320 and 323 i for both inlet and exhaust valves should be adju- st~d with a feeler gauge between the valve and the rocker, in an order corres- ponding to the engine's firing order:

BMW 316, 318 i:

1-3-4-2

BMW 320, 323 i:

1-5-3-6-2-4

Check or adjust at top dead center on the compression stroke.

316, 318 i: 1-3-4-2 BMW 320, 323 i: 1-5-3-6-2-4 Check or adjust at top dead center

'I UL

Vaive Clearances, air cleaner, mtaKe air prenedlltllJ

BMW 316, 318 i TOC on the compression stroke is obtai- ned when the valves in the next-but-one cylinder in the firing order are on the overlap:

Compression

Valve

stroke TOC

overlap

in cyl.

in cyl.

1

4

3

2

4

1

2

3

BMW 320, 323 i

Top dead center on the compression stroke is reached when the valves of the sym metrically opposite cylinder on the other side of a line through the center of the engine are on the overlap:

Compression

Valve

stroke TOC

overlap

in cyl.

in cyl.

1

6

5

2

3

4

6

1

2

5

4

3

To adjust valve clearances, loosen the hex nut (10 mm wrench) on the rocker.

Turn the eccentric with a slightly angled. section of 2.5 mm (0.1 inch) dia. wire until the corect clearance is obtained.

Tighten the hex nut and check that valve clearance has not altered.

Caution: Turn BMW 320, 323 i at the camshaft only after having removed the spark plugs.

Attaching the air cleaner (BMW 316) Connect up secondary breather hose and vacuum hose for intake air preheating, place air cleaner on top of carburetor and secure in position. Fit the air cleaner element. Secure cover with snap faste- ners and retaining nut.

Attaching the air cleaner (BMW 320)

. Connect the secondary engine breather (3) and mount the air cleaner on top of the

carburetor. Connect the primary breather

i (2) and intake air preheat hose (1 ). Secure the air cleaner body with the cap nut.

The flap valve for automatic intake air

~ preheating on the BMW 316 and 320 is

located in the intake pipe of the air cleaner and is opened or closed by vacuum (BMW 316) or an expansible element (BMW 320). Every 15000 km (10 000 miles) during a BMW Inspection the flap valve should be checked for free movement and correct operation. and the pivots oiled if necessary. When the flap valve is closed, air preheated by the exhaust manifold is supplied to the engine. As outside tempe- ratures rise, the flap valve gradually opens and cuts off the preheated air supply:

Check V-belt tension during a BMW Inspection every 15000 km (10000 miles). The V-belt is correctly tensioned when it can be pressed in by 5 - 10 mm (0.2 - 0.4 in) with the thumb midway between the pulley and the alternator.

Correcting V-belt tension

Loosen the two retaining bolts (13 mm wrench) at the top and bottom of the alternator, and move the alternator along Its tensioning strap to correct V-belt ten- sion.

along Its tensioning strap to correct V-belt ten- sion. • -- ----- t , ,"""'''::; "

-- -----

t

,

,"""'''::;

"

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IU.,)

--------------=------=----.---

Renewing V-belt

Slacken the top and bottom alternator retaining bolts (13 mm wrench) and move the .alternator as close as possible to the engine block. Place the new V-belt over the crankshaft vibration damper, the fan pulley and the alternator belt pulley, and adjust to correct tension.

Adjusting the brakes (BMW 316, 318 i. 320): • Adjust the brakes during a BMW

Adjusting the brakes (BMW 316, 318 i.

320):

Adjust the brakes during a BMW Inspec- tion every 15 000 km (10 000 miles). The disc brakes on the front wheels have automatic compensation for wear. Two eccentric adjusters (17 mm) are fit- ted on each brake shield of the rear wheel brakes. and must be turned to adjust each of the brake shoes as desired.

When viewed from above, the left-hand eccentric hexagon must be turned coun- terclockwise and the right-hand eccentric hexagon clockwise - while the wheel is being turned forcibly - until the brake shoe locks the brake drum. Then turn the hexagon back about 1/8th turn until the wheel just begins to turn without binding.

turn until the wheel just begins to turn without binding. Note: when adjusting the brake shoes

Note: when adjusting the brake shoes the handbrake must be released.

If the brake pedal becomes springy and has excessive travel, the brake system must be bled (see 'DRIVING HINTS, MINOR DEFECTS').

Adjusting handbrake (BMW 316,318 i,

320):

If the handbrake can be pulled up 4 notches without any braking effect being perceptible, the handbrake must be adju- sted.

 

,

The handbrake should normally only be adjusted by a BMW Service Station. In

exceptional cases, however, proceed as follows:

.

Adjusting handbrake (only after adjusting the brake shoes):

Push back rubber sleeve protecting the handbrake lever, slacken the locknut (10 mm) on each adjusting screw, pull the handbrake up 4 notches, tighten the adjusting nut (10 mm) while holding the adjusting screw with pliers to prevent it from turning and check that the rear wheels can still be turned easily by hand.

Then check that the rear wheels rotate freely with the handbrake fully released.

Adjusting the handbrake (BMW 323 i):

If the handbrake lever can be pulled up by 4 notches on its ratchet Without any braking effect resulting, it must be adju- sted.

Normally speaking, handbrake adjust- ment should always be carried out by a BMW service station. In an emergency, ,however, proceed as follows:

Slacken and remove one wheel stud at each rear wheel. Jack up the car. Turn the wheel stud hole until it is 10° clockwise of

vertical at each side. In this position the

adjusting nut will be visible through the wheel stud hole.

Insert 'a screwdriver and engage in the teeth of the adjusting nut.

Turn the adjusting nut with the screwdri- ver until the handbrake shoes are pressed against the drums and the brake discs cannot be turned. Then back off each adjusting nut by 4 - 6 teeth or serrations.

Screwdriver

moved down '" handbrake

applied.

Screwdriver moved up", handbrake relea- sed

Repeat the procedure on the other rear wheel.

relea- sed Repeat the procedure on the other rear wheel. • After this, the handbrake cables

sed Repeat the procedure on the other rear wheel. • After this, the handbrake cables must

After this, the handbrake cables must be adjusted. Pull up the rubber gaiter on the handbrake. Slacken the locknut (10m m wrench) on each adjusting screw, apply the handbrake lever by 4 notches of its ratchet and take up the slack at the adjusting nut (10 mm wrench), holding the screw with pliers to prevent it from turning. Check that both rear wheels can just be turned by hand but are not unduly stiff. Tighten the locknuts again.

Finally, check that the rear wheels turn perfectly freely when the handbrake lever is released.

the locknuts again. Finally, check that the rear wheels turn perfectly freely when the handbrake lever

106

Carburetor

BMW 316

Zenith 2 B 4 two-stage downdraft carburetor

7

Automatic choke

8

Air bypass screw

9

Throttle butterfly positioner

10

Throttle valve adjusting screw

11

Stage 2 vacuum diaphragm

12

Idling mixture control screw

The Zenith 2 B 4 caburetor has a combi- ned automatic choke system with electric and coolant heating of the bimetallic spring. It is maintenance-free.

1 Heat-sensitive air slide

2 Throughflow valve

3 Pulldown

4 Fuel feed

5 Idle speed shutoff

6 Heat-sensitive bypass starting system

3 Pulldown 4 Fuel feed 5 Idle speed shutoff 6 Heat-sensitive bypass starting system 9 12

9

12

1

E2180111

3 Pulldown 4 Fuel feed 5 Idle speed shutoff 6 Heat-sensitive bypass starting system 9 12

6

7

8

~2180110

3 Pulldown 4 Fuel feed 5 Idle speed shutoff 6 Heat-sensitive bypass starting system 9 12

BMW 320 So/ex 4A1 duplex tv/in-choke carbure- tor

1

Ca rbu retor cover

2

Throttle butterfly

3

Choke butterfly

4

Heat-sensitive bypass starting system

5

Fuel feed

6

Damper valve

7

Ca rbu retor body

8

Pulldown

9

Automatic choke mechanism

10

Accelerator pump lever

11 Idle speed shutoff valve

12 Throttle stop screw

13 Throttle butterfly damper

14 Stage 1 throttle lever

15 Stage 2 throttle lever

16 Throttle butterfly section

The Solex 4A 1 carburetor is a duplex twin-choke instrument with 2 first-stage barrelsof 32 mm (1.26 in) diameter and 2 second-stage barrels of 44 mm (1.73 in) diameter. It is equipped with cold starting and warm-up systems using a combined automatic choke (electrically and coolant heated), a thermostatically controlled by- pass starting system and a vacuum speed r!lgulator. Both carburetor and automatic choke need no routine maintenance.

L.arourelOr

lUI

Adjustment work on carburetor or fuel injection system

All equipment is adjusted on the test bench to meet the exhaust emission standard imposed by the Type II ECE R 15 test or other relevant standards, and lead seals attached to prevent unauthorized tampering with the settings thus obtai- ned.

Any adjustment work which is subse- quently necessary is to be carried out only by a BMW service station, which posses- Sfls all the essential measuring apparatus, the latest factory adjustment data and servicing instructions.

1

2

3

4

5

12

13

all the essential measuring apparatus, the latest factory adjustment data and servicing instructions. 1 2 3

-

108 Air conditioning

Maintenance of air conditioning

Every 15000 km (10 000 miles). check compressor V-belt tension. The V-belt is correctly tensioned when it can be pres- sed up by 12- 15 mm (0.5 - 0.6 in) with the finger at a point midway between the compressor and crankshaft pulleys.

Adjusting V-belt tension

Loosen the three mounting bolts (17 mm wrench) and move the compressor bodily along the upper tensioning strap until V- belt tension is correct.

Take up slack at compressor mounting bolts every 15 000 km (10 000 miles).

at compressor mounting bolts every 15 000 km (10 000 miles). Checking oil level Whenever working

Checking oil level

Whenever working on a drained air condi- tioning refrigeration system, check the oil level. When the compressor is full it is pressurized and the level cannot then be checked.

Use only suitable oils designed for refrige- rating equipment, e.g. Suniso 5 BP Energol LPT 100 Shell Clavus 129 Texaco Capella E.

Note in particular that all maintenance and repair work must be carried out only by suitable workshops.

You will find the addresses of the BMW service stations dealing with air conditio- ning at the end of your 'BMW SERVICE. EUROPE' list.

Safety precautions

The air conditioning cooling circuit must be filled only with a safe refrigerant (Frigen 12). Although this substance is non-toxic and non-flammable at normal temperatures, and does not form an ex- plosive mixture with air in any concentra- tion, certain safety precautions are none the less essential. Note in particular the 'following points:

Avoid touching the liquid refrigerant, or • frostbite symptoms will develop. Pro- tect the eyes in particular by wearing goggles. If an accident occurs, obtain

11 medical attention without delay.

Frigen is heavier than air, and so should not be drained off in an enclosed space. There is a risk of suffocation, particularly in inspection pits.

Never perform any welding work on a charged air conditioning system or close to it, or pressure may build up on account of the heat thus developed and lead to an explosion (the same precau- tion applies to any sealed vessel). Fur- thermore. Frigen decomposes at high temperature or when exposed to a fla- me, and the chemicals then produced constitute a health risk.

11 Z

Specifications

Specifications

Engine - BMW 320

Engine - BMW 320 E 21 77 201

E

21

77

201

ENGINE

Type

.

4-cylinder (BMW 316, 3'8 i) or 6-cylin- der (BMW 320, 323 i) four stroke inline water-cooled, with overhead camshaft (OHCl. inclined valves and combustion chambers adapted to suit mixture supply system.

Position

Over front axle, inclined at 30 0 to vertical, (20 0 on BMW 320, 323 i) with three- point location: front mounting close to center of gravity, with two rubber moun- tings attached direct to the front axle beam. Rear of engine flange mounted to gearbox, with single rubber mounting on gearbox cross-member.

Cylinder block

Special grey cast-iron.

Cylinder head

Light alloy, with shrunk-in valve seats and guides.

Crankshaft

Forged, heat-treated steel (cast on BMW 320, 323 i); 4 counterweights, 5 three- layer main bearings (BMW 316, 318 j) or 12 counterweights and 7 three-layer main bearings. All main bearings with 2 oil supply dnllways.

316, 318 j) or 12 counterweights and 7 three-layer • main bearings. All main bearings with
• Connecting rods and pistons Forged steel connecting rods with repla- ceable three-component bearings. Pis-

Connecting rods and pistons Forged steel connecting rods with repla- ceable three-component bearings. Pis- tons with raised flat crown and chromium plated spheroida'l cast-iron uppper rings.

Valves

 

Overhead; inclined in inverted V arrange- ment. Exhaust valve armored, with stem hard chromium plated. Valve clearance

adjustment

by

means

of

eccentrics

in

rockers.

Valve gear Light alloy rockers with chill-cast pads and overhead camshaft. Camshah drive by roller chain with automatic oil-damped tensioner and recoil protection (toothed belt with tensioning pulley on BMW 320. 323 D.

Valve clearances

 

BMW 316, 318 i

Inlet and exhaust: 0.15 - 0.20 mm (0.006 - 0.008 in).

 

BMW 320, 323 i Inlet and exhaust: 0.25 mm (0.010 in) with engine stationary and cold (max. coolant temperature 35 0 C (95 0 F).

Lubrication Pressurized oil circuit with full-flow filter and pressure regulating valve in filtered oil circuit. Rotor-type oil pump (Eaton sys- tem) chain-driven from crankshah or gear-type pump driven by worm from an intermediate shah via an extension of the distributor shaft (BMW 320, 323 i). f!lressed steel oil sump .

Engine - BMW 323i

Engine - BMW 323i E 21 77 202

E 21

77 202

1 14.

::>pecltlcatlolls

Oil consumption

max. 0.1 5 liter per 100 km (app. 220-250 miles per pint)

Oil filter

Full-flow, with throw-away cartridge type filter and pressure relief valve opening at 2.5 ± 0.3 bar (35.6 ± 4.2 Ib/in 2 ).

Engine breathing

Crankcase and valve chest connected, and ducted to intake side of engine.

Air cleaner

One filter element in the intake air silen- cer.

Intake airflow BMW 316. 320

Through flap for automatic intake air pre- heat opened and closed by vacuum (BMW 316) or expanding element.

BMW 318 i. 323 i Through intake air silencer. air flow meter. throttle butterfly manifolds, air collector and six intake air pipes with injectors.

Fuel supply BMW 316. 320

Mechanical fuel pump. pressure 0.22 bar

(3.13 Ib/in 2 ) at 4000/min.

BMW 318 i. 323 i

Electrical fuel delivery pump with expan- sion vessel. Delivery rate 120 liters (26.4 Imp., 31.6 US gal/h).

System pressure 4.7 bar (66.8 Ib/in 2 )

Fuel filters BMW 316. 320

Fine-mesh filters in both fuel pump and pick-up tube in tank; on BMW 320, also in feed line to carburetor.

BMW 318 i. 323 i Full-flow filter with throw-away cartridge type filter in feed line. One fine-mesh filter in the tank pick-up unit.

,

~lJt:::a 'II\

dllUII:;'

110

 

BMW 316

 

BMW 318 i

 

Displacement,

fiscal

1754

cm 3

(107.0

in

3 )

1754

cm 3

(107.0

in

3 )

effective

1766

cm 3

(108.8

in

3 )

1766

cm 3

(1088

in 3 )

Maximum output (DIN 70020) at engine speed

66 kW (90 bhp)

77 kW (105 bhp)

5500/min

5800/min

Max. torque at engine speed

140 Nm (103.2 Ib.fl)

145 Nm (106.8 Ib.fl)

4000/min

4500/min

Output per liter

37.4 kW

43.6 kW

(51.0 bhp)

(59.5 bhp)

Max. permissible engine speed

6400/min

6400/min

Max. continuous engine speed

6000/min

6000/min

Compression ratio

9.5

10

Stroke/bore (ratio)

71/89 mm

71/89 mm

Mean piston speed at engine speed

13.7 m/s (2697 fl/min)

13.7 m/s (2697 fl/min)

5800/min

5800/min

Power/weight ratio Car ready for road, with full tank

kg/kW'

kg/kW'

(bhp/ton)

(bhp/ton)

All seats occupied, with luggage

kg/kW'

kg/kW'

(bhp/ton)

(bhp/ton)

Fuel

consumption

6.8 liters/1 00 km' (34.5 US mile/gal)

7.1 liters/100 km'

at 90 km/h (56 mile/h)

(33.1

US mile/gal)

Fuel

consumption

at 120 km/h (75 mile/h)

Fuel

consumption

during town driving

(41.4 Imp. mile/gal) (39.7 Imp. mile/gal)

9.1 liters/100 km' (25.8 US mile/gal) (31.0 Imp. mile/gal) 10.4 liters/100 km' (22.6 US mile/gal)

Imp. mile/gal)

(25.6 Imp. mile/gal) (27.1

9.3 Iiters/1 00 km' (25.3 US mile/gal) (30.3 Imp. mile/gal) 11.0 liters/1 00 km' (21.3 US mile/gal)

.f

Not available at time of going to press

I

I 0

~l-JtH.,IIICdllUllb

 

BMW 320

 

BMW 323 i

 

Displacement,

fiscal

 

(120.6

in 3 )

2291 cm 3 2315 cm 3

(139.8

in 3 ) in 3 )

 

effective

1977 cm 3 1990 cm 3

(121.4 ,"3)

(141.3

Maximum output (DIN 70020)

90 kW (122 bhp)

 

105 kW (143 bhp)

at engine speed

 

6000/min

5800/min

Max. torque

 

160 Nm (117.9 Ib.tt)

190 Nm (140.1 Ib.ft)

at engine speed

4000/min

 

4500/min

Output per liter

 

45.2 kW

 

45.4 kW

 

(61.5 bhp)

(61.7 bhp)

Max. permissible engine speed

6400/min

 

6400/min

Max. continuous engine speed

6000/min

 

6000/min

Compression ratio

 

9.2

9.5

Stroke/bore (ratio)

 

66/80 mm

 

76.8/80 mm

 

Mean piston speed

 

13.2 m/s (2598 ft/min)

15.4 m/s (3031 ft/min)

at engine speed

6000/min

 

5800/min)

Power/weight ratio

 

Car ready for road, with full tank

12.4 kg/kW

 

10.8 kg/kW

 

(9.1 kg/HPJ

(7.9 kg/HPJ

All seats occupied, with

luggage

17.2 kg/kW

14.9 kg/kW

 

(12.7 kg/HPJ

(11.0 kg/HPJ

Fuel consumption

 

7.5 liters/l00 km (31.4 US mile/gal) (37.7 Imp. mile/gal) 10.1 liters/l00 km (23.3 US mile/gal) (28.0 Imp. mile/gal) 13.0 liters/l 00 km

7.8 liters/l00 km (30.2 US mile/gal) (36.1 Imp. mile/gal) 10.2 Iiters/ 100 km (23.0 US mile/gal) (27.6 Imp. mile/gal) 12.9 liters/l00 km (18.2 US mile/gal)

at 90 km/h (56 mile/h)

Fuel

consumption

at 120 km/h (75 mile/h)

Fuel

consumption

in town driving

 

(18.1

US mile/gal)

.f

(21.7 imp. mile/gal) (21.8 Imp. mile/gal)

::'peCl1lcatlons 117 Engine output and torque HP kW HP kW 170 170 120 120 i
::'peCl1lcatlons
117
Engine output and torque
HP
kW
HP
kW
170
170
120
120
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150
150
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11
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1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000

Engine speed/min

E 21 76203

Engine speed/min

E 21 76204

118

Specifications

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160

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120

100

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2000

3000

4000

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Engine speed/min

6000

£ 2180 205.1

Standard 4-speed gearbox

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4000

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£ 21 80205.2

• • Road speed - engine speed Optional 'economy' gearbox I / I I 111'

Road speed - engine speed

Optional 'economy' gearbox

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Engine speed/min

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~peclTlcallons

------------

-

---

Fuel consumption at steady speeds in 4th or 5th gears

BMW 316 - Consumption curve not available at time of going to press

Fuel consumption at steady speeds in 4th or 5th gears

BMW 318 i-Consumption curve not available at time of going to press

• Standard gearbox •• 'Economy' gearbox

Fuel consumption at steady speeds in 4th or 5th gears

20

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Fuel consumption at steady speeds in 4th or 5th gears

20

18

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::'peclTlcatlons

BMW 318 i, 323 i-fuel injection

system

Your BMW is equipped with 'K-Jetronic' continuous-acting mechanical fuel injec- tion. This system measures the volume of air drawn into the engine and injects the correct proportion of fuel to form the combustion mixture. The fuel and air combine in the intake tracts to make up this mixture. The fuel is injected just ahead of the inlet valves under pressure, and is thus finely atomised. The normal four- stroke combustion cycle then takes place in the cylinder as usual.

1. Fuel delivery

Fuel is drawn from the tank by an electric fuel delivery pump, and delivered to the fuel flow distributor by way of a reservoir and a fuel filter in the pressure line. A system pressure regulator in the fuel flow

distributor maintains line pressure at ap- prox. 4.7 bar above atmospheric pressure, and returns excess fuel to the tank. In this way, fuel free from vapor bubbles is always available at the injectors.

From the fuel flow distributor the fuel passes through the injector lines to the injectors. The starting valve is linked to the fuel flow distributor by a hose.

If the tank runs dry, the system does not need to be bled, but the starter motor must be run uninterruptedly (max. approx. 20 seconds) until the engine starts.

2. Cold starting and warming up

For cold starting, the engine

much richer mixture than usual. The pro- portions of fuel and air are controlled by

the warming-up regulator and an additio-

requires a f

nal air slide valve which have the effect of increasing the amount of fuel injected.

In addition, an electromagnetic starting valve operated by a temperature/time switch enriches the mixture still further for actual starting, during a period of time dependent on engine temperature.

3. Injectors

Each injector opens at a pressure of 3.3 bar above atmospheric presure, and in- jects fuel into the inlet tract.

4. Intake air supply

Intake air for combustion is drawn in via a large-capacity air cleaner and silencer, the airflow meter, the throttle butterfly stub pipe. the air collector box and the intake air . pipes, before passing into the cylinder of the engine.

butterfly stub pipe. the air collector box and the intake air . pipes, before passing into

-

- • K·Jetronic system BMW 318 i, 323 i , Fuel tank 2 Fuel delivery pump

K·Jetronic system

BMW 318 i, 323 i

,

Fuel tank

2

Fuel delivery pump

3

Fuel reservoir

4

Fuel filter

5

Fuel flow distributor

6

System pressure regulator

7

Warming-up regulator

8

Airflow meter

9

Baffle plate

, 0

Throttle butterfly

" Idle adjusting screw

, Additional air slide valve

, Electric starting valve

, Temperature/time switch

, 5

2

3

4

Injectors

,

124

Specifications

ZF 3 HP 22 automatic transmission

The ZF automatic transmission consists

of a 3-speed planetary gearbox mounted

behind a torque converter. Starting off from a standstill is performed by the torque converter which acts as a fluid coupling and a torque multiplier (conver- ter range), Once the transmission input speed approaches that of the engine, the torque converter operates purely as a fluid coupling and transmits engine torque directly, without any multiplication, to the transmission's input shaft (coupling ran-

gel.

A mechanical planetary gearbox with

three forward gears and one reverse gear

is arranged behind the converter and is

operative in all gears. Gear shifts are effected by hydraulically operated multip- le disc clutches which are not subject to wear and require no adjustment.

Gear shifts are performed via two free- wheels without any interruption in drive torque. A low loss oil pump is situated at the front end of the transmission and supplies oil to the converter, automatic control unit, gear shift mechanism and for lubrication. The output shaft of the plane- tary gear set has external teeth in which a pawl can engage to stop the car rolling away (park position).

The automatic control unit with selector valve, control piston and pressure valves is accommodated in the base of the

transmission housing. Gear shift points are dependent on a combination of road speed and throttle position. A centrifugal governor on the output shaft gives the necessary impulses according to road speed. The whole system operates hy- draulically.

Gears are changed automatically at preset points depending on the driving range selected.

If sudden acceleration and maximum en- ,gine power is required, the accelerator pedal can be pressed down fully beyond the pressure point (kick-down), Provided the car is travelling below a certain road , speed, the transmission then changes to a lower gear and only changes up again at a speed much higher than usual.

ZF 3 H P 22 automatic transmission

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-

Flywheel with starter ring

-

gear

-

Torque converter

-

Oil pump Multiple disc clutches

-

Planetary gear set

-

Centrifugal governor

-

-

Throttle cable Selector lever shah

-

Automatic control unit

10 Speedometer drive

,

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3 4
3
4

9

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ZF 3 HP 22 automatic transmission Power flow diagrams

1st gear (1) Clutch 3 is applied. The planet carrier drives through freewheel 10 during acce- leration, which is by-passed on overrun.

2nd gear (2) Clutch 3 and brakes 5 and 6 are applied. Freewheel 10 is overriden. The ring gear (annulus) and sun wheel are locked.

3rd gear (0)

are

applied. Freewheels 10 and 11 are overriden. The whole planetary gear set rotates as a bloc.k to produce a drive ratio of 1:1.

Clutches

3

and 4

as well

as brake 6

Reverse (R) Clutch 4 and brake 7 are applied. The direction of rotation of the output shaft is reversed via the locked planet carrier.

The bold lines show the power flow in the individual gears.

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Nl
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E 23 80 211.3

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• Carburetors BMW 316 BMW 320   Type 1 Zenith 2 84 1 Solex 4A

Carburetors

BMW 316

BMW 320

 

Type

1 Zenith 2

84

1

Solex 4A 1

two stage downdraft

 

duplex two-stage

Carburetor settings

Stage I

Stage II

Stage I

Stage II

Air venturi

34

34

20

 

44

Intake pipe diameter

32

44

Main jet

97,5

 

Air correction jet

90

 

Electromagnetic idle

shutoff valve

No. PE 20 273/2.5

 

"

Idle jet

42.5

 

Float needle valve

2.5

 

Thickness of float needle valve gasket mm (in)

Weight of float g (oz)

6.8 ±

0,35

(0.24 ±

0.012)

Pump injection volume (cm 3 /

stroke)

O.q ± 0.15

Jet needle

85

• Figures not available at the time of going to press

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COOLING SYSTEM

Radiator type

 

BMW 316. 3Hi i

Gilled tube; Automatic models with addi- tional transmission oil cooler in lower coolant box of radiator. Pressure and vacuum relief valves in filler cap.

 

BMW 320. 323 i

 

Cross flow gilled tube radiator with sepa- rate header tank; Automatic models with additional transmission oil cooler in right coolant box of radiator. Pressure and vacuum relief valves in header tank filler cap.

Opening pressure of cap valves:

 

Pressure relief:

 

+0.15bar

 

1.0

_ 0.10 bar

(142

~ t~ Ib/in 2

)

Vacuum: max. 0.1

bar (1.4 Ib/in 2 )

Fan - BMW 320, 323 i 9-bladed. with Holset system viscous fan coupling; auxiliary electric fan when air conditioning (optional) is installed.

Coolant thermostat Thermostatic control of engine coolant in output flow to engine coolant in output flow to engine with automatic equaliza- tion of engine load and outside tempera- oue variations (BMW system). Opens: 80 ± 1.5°C(176 ± app.3°F)

CLUTCH Single dry plate with diaphragm spring and hydraulic withdrawal mechanism:

torsional vibration damper fitted. Automa- tic adjustment of clearance. Automatic transmission; fluid coupling with torque converter.

GEARBOX a) Manual gearbox

Four-speed gearbox (five-speed sports gearbox optional extra on BMW 318 i,

320. 323 i), or five-speed 'economy'

gearbox (optional extra). Borg-Warner synchromesh on all forward ratios; 1

reverse ratio.

b) Automatic transmission

ZF 3 HP-22

Gear ratios

Gear

4-

5-speed

5-speed

Automatic

speed

sports

'economy'

trans-

 

mission

1st

3.764

3.764

3.682

2.478

2nd

2.043

2.325

2.002

1.478

3rd

1320

1.612

1.330

1.000

4th

1.000

1.229

1.000

5th

1.000

0.805

Rev.

4,096

4.096

3.682

2.090

Torque converter ratio

BMW 316

A

1-236:1

BMW

323

A, 318 i A, 320 i A

1-2.06:1

PROPELLER SHAFT Two-piece, centered at front end by joint disc in guide journal, needle roller bearing universal joints at rear and center; resilient center bearing mounting,

FINAL DRIVE Klingelnberg or Gleason type hypoid bevel gearing with taper roller bearings.

Finai drive ratio

 

Pinion/

No.

crown

 

of

wheel

teeth

8MW

316, 318 i

3.91

:

1

43 : 11

8MW

320

3.64 : 1 3.45 : 1

40

: 11

8t<1w

323 i

38 : 11

Optional: ZF disc-type limited-slip diffe-

rential (Lok-O-Matic), app. 25% action.

Rear axle drive Left and right double universal joint hatf- shafts with maintenance-free homokine- tic universal joints,

locking

I.:jV

::>peclTlcations

SUSPENSION Front suspension Front suspension Independent, with lower wishbones and spring struts with double-acting
SUSPENSION
Front suspension
Front suspension
Independent, with lower wishbones and
spring struts with double-acting telesco-
pic hydraulic dam pers; offset castor angl e
and lateral force equalization.
High-mounted coil springs off-center in
relation to strut axes, with rubber auxiliary
springs. Total travel at wheel 192 mm
(7.6 in). Torsion-bar stabilizer (anti-roll
bar) in maintenance-free rubber bushings.
Toe in"
1 5 + 1.0 mm
.
-0.5 mm
+ 0.04.
)
(0 06
.
_ 0.02 In
equivalent to
00
Camber angle"
±
30'
Castor angle"
8 0
20'
±