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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENT, RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT

ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENT, RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

Term Paper II

Shampoo Production

Course: ED 78.20 Industrial Waste Abatement and Management

Instructor:

Prof. C. Visvanathan

Prepared by:

Mr. Oukham

Phounpakone

ID.104319

Ms. Lalitcha

Imchuensri

ID.104480

Ms. Jarussaeng

Molen

ID.104509

Mr. Bidur

Dahal

ID.104539

Mr. Artid

Prakitcharoensuk ID.104689

Mr. Pradeep

Munasinghe

ID.104713

Ms. Cao Thi Van Hau

ID.104771

Mr. Seng

Bunrith

ID.104748

Date of submission: 26 April, 2007

Table of Contents

1

Introduction

1

1.1 Background

1

1.2 Cosmetic Market in Thailand

1

1.3 Types of Cosmetics

1

1.3.1 Shampoo

1

1.3.2 The Worldwide Market Potential of Shampoo

2

1.3.3 Asia Market

3

1.3.4 Thailand

3

2

Shampoo production process

3

2.1 Raw materials

3

2.2 Processing

4

3.

Waste Treatment Practices

6

3.1

Wastewater

6

3.1.1 Pretreatment

7

3.1.2 Primary Treatment

7

3.1.3 Secondary Treatment

7

3.1.4 Tertiary Treatment

7

3.2 Air pollution

7

3.3 Solid Waste

8

3.4 Noise Pollution

8

4

Environmental issues related to shampoo production

8

5

Cleaner Production

10

6

Pollution Norms

10

7.

Case study – Unilever Thai Holding Ltd.

11

 

7.1

Introduction

11

7.3

Wastewater management

12

7.4

Solid waste management

14

7.4.1 Type of solid waste

14

7.4.2 Waste management

14

7.4.3 Waste collection

14

Appendix A-F

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

P age

| 1

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd P age | 1 1 Introduction 1.1 Background The word “cosmetics”

1

Introduction

1.1 Background

The word “cosmetics” comes from the Greek word kosmetikos meaning “skilled in adornment/decoration”. The way people wear makeup and the reasons why they wear it have changed dramatically over time and through different cultures. It is believed that cosmetics have been used as early as Egypt circa 4000 BC to fulfill beautifying needs. According to some sources numerous forms of cosmetics were extracted from the fertile land of the Nile River. The shepherds and hunters of the Mesolithic Period would often smear their bodies with locally made cosmetic products.

1.2 Cosmetic Market in Thailand

The cosmetics industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in Thailand. The year 1997 saw the fastest growth period in the cosmetic industry, with a growth rate of 20 percent. Although the economic crisis has had a negative impact on consumption levels, results during 1999-2000 show that the cosmetics industry’s growth rate was at 15 percent.

Thailand’s exports of cosmetic products increased by 72 percent in 2003 compared to a year before. The cosmetics market was expected to grow at an average of 18 percent in 2004, due mainly to Thailand's positive economic situation and expected positive GDP growth.

In 2005 cosmetics and toiletries in Thailand continued to record strong growth increasing by 7% of the previous year. The main factor behind growth of the market was increasing retail prices caused by an increase in energy prices and a change in consumer behavior in favor of expensive products. The most dynamic performances in 2005 were seen in skin care, fragrances and men's grooming products. On the other hand, growth in areas such as bath and shower products, hair care and oral hygiene was significantly lower as these products had already achieved widespread penetration.

Imported cosmetic products accounted for approximately 24 percent of the total market. Major countries of origin included Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, Italy, China and the United States.

As of 2003, there were 800 manufacturers of cosmetic products listed with the Industrial Works Department of the Thai Ministry of Industry. Approximately 70 percent of them are clustered in the Bangkok metropolitan area. Thailand is a major producer and exporter of shampoo products, which accounted for 40 percent of the total export value of cosmetic products in 2003.

1.3 Types of Cosmetics

Today the cosmetic products range from simple skin creams, soaps and shampoos to special lotions, base creams, moisturizers, nourishers, cleansers, protectors, rejuvenators and conditioners for body, face, hands, eyes, lips, mouth, hair, nails and so on.

1.3.1 Shampoo

Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair (without stripping out).Shampoo, when lathered with water, is a surfactant (surface active

water, is a s u r f a c t a n t (surface active Instructor:
water, is a s u r f a c t a n t (surface active Instructor:

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 2

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 2 agents, i.e., wetting agent). Shampooing is frequently followed

agents, i.e., wetting agent). Shampooing is frequently followed by conditioners which increase the ease of combing and styling.

1.3.2 The Worldwide Market Potential of Shampoo

The latent demand (or potential industry earnings) for hair care shampoo was estimated to be $7.4 billion in 2005. The distribution of the world potential industry earnings, however, is not evenly distributed across regions. 2005 data shows that Asia is the largest market with $2.4 billion or 33 percent, followed by Europe & the Middle East with $2.2 billion or 29 percent, and then North America & the Caribbean with$1.9 billion or 25 percent of the world market.

 
  601

601

1,862 25% 8% 93 1% 2,360 33% 289

1,862

25%

1,862 25%
8% 93 1%
8% 93 1%
8%
93
1%
8% 93 1%

2,360

33%

289

 

4%

2,163

2,163

29%

Asia Africa

Asia

AfricaAsia

Europe & Middle East   Oceana

Europe & Middle East

 

OceanaEurope & Middle East  

North America & Caribbean Latin America

North America & Caribbean

Latin AmericaNorth America & Caribbean

Figure 1: Worldwide market potential (US $ mln: 2005)

World Market Trend (2000-2010)

The world market for hair care shampoo had steadily declined from the period between 2002 and 2004 as these products had already achieved widespread penetration. However, it showed positive growth after 2005. The main factor behind growth of the market was increasing retail prices caused by an increase in energy prices and a change in consumer behavior in favor of expensive products. Increase in demand by growing population, widespread commercial advertisement of the hair care products, change in life style due to improved quality of life in major regions like China and India, etc were

It shows the top 3 regions cover come 87 percent of the global latent demand for hair care shampoo

Table 1: Worldwide Market Potential for Hair Care Shampoo (US $ mln): 2005

 

Latent

 

Region

Demand

% of

Globe

 

US $ mln

Asia

2,360

33

Europe & the Middle East

2,163

29

North America & the Caribbean

1,862

25

Latin America

601

08

Africa

289

04

Oceana

93

01

Total

7,368

100.0

Source: Philip M. Parker, INSEAD, 2005

www.icongrouponline.com

some

growth.

other

reasons

for

its

continued

8.2 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.4 7.2 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 World m
8.2
8.0
7.8
7.6
7.4
7.2
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
World m arket [US $ billion]

year

Figure 2: World market trend

m arket [US $ billion] year Figure 2: World market trend Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental
m arket [US $ billion] year Figure 2: World market trend Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

P age | 3

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd P age | 3 1.3.3 Asia Market In case of Asia,

1.3.3 Asia Market

In case of Asia, three most populated countries China, India and Japan have a bigger share of the product. 2005 data shows that China is the largest market with $796.18 million or almost 34 percent, followed by Japan with $539.3 million or 22.85 percent, and then India with $385.47 million or 16.33 percent of the Asian market. It shows that the top 3 regions cover 73 percent of the Asian potential demand for hair care shampoo. The other top three nations with one digit percentage share of Asian market of the product include South Korea, Indonesia and Thailand with approximately six percent, five percent and three percent respectively (Detail data in Appendix A). It has also been observed that the market of hair care shampoo shows a similar fashion as that of world market with a slight decline till 2004 from 2000 and then increase steadily after that.

Market Potential for Hair Care Shampoo in Asia:2005

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 China Japan South India Indonesia Korea
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
China Japan
South India Indonesia Korea
Thai lan Philippines Taiwan d
Malaysia
Bangl adesh
Hong Kong
Vietnam
Singapore Burma Sri
Lanka
Nepal Korea Cambodia
North
Percent (US $ mln)

Countries

Figure 3: Comparison of shampoo market in Asia

1.3.4 Thailand

Thailand is also a major player of hair care shampoo market contributing around one percent of the total global market share. Asia contributes about 33 percent of total world shampoo market where Thailand contributes three percent of the market share. The shampoo market is almost steady for the last few years in Thailand. It has been predicted that the market would continue to grow in the similar fashion for next five years, i.e. till 2010. Bangkok city, world rank 14 in hair care market, alone contributes about 94 percent of the Thai shampoo market share whereas the city contributes 2.83 percent in the Asia region and 0.91 percent of the world market share (Appendix B).

2 Shampoo production process

2.1 Raw materials

Hair shampoos are highly formulated products based on a limited range of cosmetically acceptable surface active agents, plus conditioning agents, pearling agents, antimicrobials agents, colours and fragrance. Shampoo ingredients must be biodegradable as other body care products to minimize health effects. Each ingredient has specific functions and roles in shampoos. Following points given below are some of

roles in shampoos . Following points given below are some of Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental
roles in shampoos . Following points given below are some of Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 4

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 4 the main components of shampoos along with their

the main components of shampoos along with their characteristics. However, the description of shampoo ingredients is given in details in Appendix C.

Surfactants, including five categories (primary anionic - basic, secondary anionic - mild, amphoteric, cationic and nonionic), serve as foamers and detergents which are easy to soluble in water.

Thickeners and foam stabilizers remain viscous to avoid precipitation and stability against hydrolysis at higher temperature or extreme pH. They can be polymers, natural gums or cellulose derivatives.

Conditioning agents make hair easy to comb after drying. Since conditioners are effective than shampoo, very low concentrations (0.5% by weight) are sufficient. Conditioners are normally fatty components such as fatty alcohol, monoglyceride, vegetable oils, lanolin, herbal extracts and silicon.

Shampoos can be made in various physical forms such as liquids, creams, paste, aerosol and dry. Liquid shampoos are common, either clear or opaque (pearlised), containing 20–40% solids, adjusted to approximately pH 5.5 and viscosities in the ratio of 500– 1500 centipoise.

Composition of shampoos can be modified for special application. Medicated shampoos generally use similar ingredients and added specific medicant. For instance, dandruff shampoos contain fungicides such as zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide which reduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. Shampoos for infants are formulated with particular emphasis on minimal eye irritancy and skin mildness. A limited range of proprietary ingredients are used to meet these needs. Totally different from hair care products for human, shampoo for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange.

2.2 Processing

Shampoos are manufactured by simple blending in a stirred vessel. Sometimes a moderate amount of heat is used to reduce the viscosity and so facilitate ease of mixing therefore vessels are equipped with low pressure steam heating coils. Vessels are typically constructed from stainless steel, although glass-lined vessels are still used in some processes.

Ingredients are weighed or metered incrementally into the mixing vessel, with thorough mixing between each addition. Dispersed and emulsified mixes are achieved by means of the central rapid speed movement. Some pearlising agents are waxy solids at ambient temperature and require melting in a drum oven or similar before use.

Demineralized water is most commonly used in order to minimize contamination of the product. In cosmetic industry, reverse osmosis membranes play a role in production of demineralized water. These membranes act as a molecular filter to remove 95 to 99% of dissolved salts and inorganic molecules, as well as organic molecules with a molecular weight greater than 100. The reverse osmosis membrane also removes more than 98% of residual biological and colloidal matter from the feed water.

biological and colloidal matter from the feed water. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
biological and colloidal matter from the feed water. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 5

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 5 No further processing is required after blending, and

No further processing is required after blending, and the product may be packed off directly from the mixing vessel by filling system which composes of auto-bottle settling machine, bottle-washing machine, filling machine, lid-revolving, label-attaching and aluminum foil clapper.

In some segments of the industry, one manufacturer may produce a shampoo base which is sold to, and further processed by, the formulator. Typically, this second level processing will involve only the addition of water, color and fragrance. Proprietary and/or therapeutic ingredients may also be added at this stage (Appendix D).

Washing water 60 m 3 /day

Process

Chemicals 21.6 tons/day

Deionized water 23.3 m 3 /day

Chemicals 21.6 tons/day Deionized water 23.3 m 3 /day Product 43.5 m 3 /day Losses 0.73

Product 43.5 m 3 /day 3 /day

Losses 0.73 tons/dayDeionized water 23.3 m 3 /day Product 43.5 m 3 /day Wastewater 59.8 m 3 /day

Wastewater 59.8 m 3 /day

Note:

Shampoo density : 1020 kg/m 3

Figure 4- Mass balance diagram for shampoo production

Inputs:

Chemicals

-

- Deionized water

- Washing water

- Inputs Outputs:

- Product

- Waste water

- Outputs

Material balance:

Inputs 104.9 tons/day Losses Percentage losses

= 21.6 tons/day

= 23.3 m 3 /day x 1 tons/m 3 = 23.3 tons/day

= 60 m 3 /day x 1 tons/m 3 = 60 tons/day

= 21.6 + 23.3 + 60 = 104.9 tons/day

= 43.5 m 3 /day x 1.02 tons/m 3 = 44.37 tons/day

= 59.8 m 3 /day x 1 tons/m 3 = 59.8 tons/day

= 44.37 + 59.8 = 104.17 tons/day

= Outputs + Losses = 104.17 tons/day + Losses = 0.73 tons/day = 0.73/104.9 = 0.7%

tons/day + Losses = 0.73 tons/day = 0.73/104.9 = 0.7% Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
tons/day + Losses = 0.73 tons/day = 0.73/104.9 = 0.7% Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 6

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 6 3. Waste Treatment Practices Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing produces

3. Waste Treatment Practices

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing produces only hair care shampoo with the capacity of 44m 3 /day. As this factory is small, it produces fewer amounts of pollution, wastewater, solid waste, air pollution, and noise pollution.

In order to meet the Thai standard of wastewater effluent discharge, wastewater treatment plant was implemented. Wastewater is collected and mixed together from washing operation, cleaning, laboratory experiment, and domestic wastewater (Appendix D).

Air pollution is one of the problems found in this factory but it is not a big problem because fewer amounts of gas emission, NO x , SO x , dust and soot, and aerosol, is emitted to the atmosphere. All gases coming from the factory are treated by using wet scrubbers and bag house filters.

Solid waste is another pollution factor in the factory. Most of the solid wastes are plastics, cardboards, bottles, and food waste and yard waste. The recycled materials such as plastic, bottle and cardboard are sold to recycling shop, and food waste and yard waste are collected by municipal solid waste collectors.

Beside these three main pollutions, noise pollution is also found within the factory. Noise almost comes from blending machine and filling machine. This problem is solved by putting these processes in a closed room and all workers have to use ear plugs or ear mufflers.

Table 2- Wastewater Characteristic

Parameters

Unit

Concentration

BOD

mg/L

350

COD

mg/L

700

TDS

mg/L

3000

TSS

mg/L

650

Alkalinity

mg/L

200

Oil and Grease

mg/L

120

pH

 

-

10

Total N

mg/L

50

Total P

mg/L

9

Color

mg/L of pt

700

Temperature

o

C

29

3.1

Wastewater

Wastewater refers to the water discharged after use which contains the characteristics as shown in table 2. Wastewater treatment plant consists of primary treatment, secondary treatment, and tertiary treatment (Appendix E). Moreover, sludge dewatering and disposal is also implemented.

sludge dewatering and disposal is also implemented. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
sludge dewatering and disposal is also implemented. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 7

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 7 3.1.1 Pretreatment Coarse solid such as plastic, cardboard,

3.1.1 Pretreatment

Coarse solid such as plastic, cardboard, paper must be removed from the waste effluents to reduce abrasion and prevent damage to pumps, piping and sludge dewatering equipment. For the wastewater of this shampoo factory, mechanical bar screens and Equalization & Neutralization are used for the operation. Equalization & Neutralization play an important role of storing wastewater coming from the processes in batch operation and adjusting the pH between 6.5 and 8.0 to prevent disturbance in secondary biological treatment systems.

3.1.2 Primary Treatment

The main objective of primary treatment in the factory is to remove the settleable portion of SS and oil & grease. Floatation process is used to separate solid or liquid particle and to concentrate biosolids. Among the three unit operations - dissolved air floatation, dispersed air floatation, cavitations floatation - dissolved air floatation is used which consists of dissolved air under a pressure of several atmospheres introduced at the bottom of the tank, scrapper at the bottom and skimmer at the top of the tank to collect all settleable solid and to remove all the floating matter (oil and grease).

3.1.3 Secondary Treatment

Secondary treatment is designed to remove BOD associated with dissolved organic material in the effluent and normally uses biological processes. The biological treatment process can convert much of the dissolved organic material in effluent to water, CO 2 or organic suspended solids and expected BOD removal is 70-95%.

Suspended growth biological treatment process is used here to treat the wastewater. The process consists of the following three components: (1) a reactor in which the microorganisms responsible for treatment are kept in suspension and aerated; (2) liquid- solid separation, usually in a sedimentation tank; and (3) a recycle system for returning solids removed from the liquid-solids separation unit back to the reactor. The excess sludge from the secondary sedimentation tank is collected to sludge thickener in order to increase the solid content for dewatering process.

3.1.4 Tertiary Treatment

The components remaining after primary and secondary treatment are residual SS, residual BOD, Color and some other trace elements. Tertiary treatment designed to remove these components is activated carbon adsorption. The main purpose of using the activated carbon adsorption is to remove the color of the effluent treated water for reusing to the cooling tower, fire fighting, floor washing, gardening, road cleaning, and GAC back washing.

3.2 Air pollution

Nurture Shampoo factory is a small manufacturer which is equipped with all modern facilities and new technologies. Therefore, air pollution is not a big problem in this factory. However, air pollution is found from the boiler, by using heavy oil, and weighting room. The pollution control devices are shown in Table 3.

room. The pollution contro l devices are shown in Table 3. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental
room. The pollution contro l devices are shown in Table 3. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 8

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 8 Table 3- EOP Technologies for the Air Pollution

Table 3- EOP Technologies for the Air Pollution Abatement

Processes

Air Pollution Control Device

Raw material preparation (Dust)

Dust collection system (bag house filter)

Utilities (Boiler)

Wet Scrubbers

3.3 Solid Waste

In the process of making shampoo, it will not have large quantity of solid waste. Mainly we have paper, cardboard and plastic from production process and the office and food waste from the canteen and yard waste from cleaning the garden. Paper, plastic and cardboard will separate from the waste and sell for recycling. The other solid wastes will be collected by the municipal solid waste collection system (Table 4).

Table 4- Solid waste generation

Source

Waste

Unit

Quantity

Management

Office

Paper and Plastic

Kg/day

10

Recycle shop

Operation

Cardboard and

Kg/day

40

Recycle shop

plastic

Canteen

Food waste

Kg/day

65

Municipal collection system

Garden

Yard waste

Kg/day

5

Municipal collection system

cleaning

3.4 Noise Pollution

Mainly in Shampoo production process, noise is produced by dissolve tanks, boilers, mixers and filling machines. This is not a big environmental issue. But if we consider the cosmetic industry where we have size reduction processes will produce much more noise than the shampoo production alone.

In our industry we have separated sound proof rooms to keep these units and for the workers we will provide personal protective equipments like ear plugs and mufflers.

4 Environmental issues related to shampoo production

No by-products are produced during the shampoo manufacturing process. Washing out the blending vessel and other washing purposes will produce an effluent which will contain some shampoo. Since all reputable manufacturers of these products use fully biodegradable surface active agents, we use biological treatment process after removing oil and grease.

ological treatment pr ocess after removing oil and grease. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
ological treatment pr ocess after removing oil and grease. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 9

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 9 ‘Treated water’ using newest inventions like titanium mi

‘Treated water’ using newest inventions like titanium micro-dispersion water technology can be used for various cosmetic materials instead of normal demineralized water. This method produces high-function cosmetic materials offering the efficacies of active ingredients contained in the cosmetic material as well as the effects of titanium micro-dispersion water. But in our process we are using deionized water as the solvent media.Following are some of the Environmental Issues we found out in Shampoo manufacturing industry.

Air pollution: Mainly in shampoo production process we have air pollution due to NOx, SOx, and particulate matter and vapor. NOx is produced from the furnace and SOx and vapor from the fuel which is used to heat the boiler. Dust and soot is produced in the mixing units and the packaging area.

NOx and other emissions from the furnace will be absorbed by the packed tower which is connected to the furnace whereas we have implemented SOx reduction technologies like Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Processes (FDG).

In the manufacturing process of shampoo we experience odor problems due to the chemicals which we use in the production process. We can not eliminate the odor problem and we use a dilution method as these odors are non toxic. In our industry we provided more ventilation for the areas where we have these production units and for workers we provide personal protective equipments like dust masks and respirators.

Noise pollution: As mentioned earlier, noise is produced from dissolve tanks, boilers, mixers and filling machines. Noise pollution may be significant if we consider cosmetic industry as a whole.

Water pollution: The major pollution source is the waste water coming from the production process. It contains lot of colloidal particles and the spilling of the raw materials. Floor cleaning waste water also comes to the wastewater treatment plant. We try to minimize the wastewater amount generate in the production process by implementing CIP (Clean in Place) as much as possible. As a newly constructed industry our machines like mixers and filling units we have this technology. We will not be going to reuse the raw materials which are coming as waste.

In wastewater TDS content is considerably high, because we have lot of colloidal particles in the wastewater. In general Cosmetic industries contain high TDS values. And also the incoming wastewater contains lot of forms. When we adjust the pH of the incoming wastewater in the equalization tank, we can make this issue to minimum.

Adjusting the pH is a must in our treatment process because we are going to use biological treatment process to remove BOD. Waste water coming out of the production process will have a higher pH value because we use some basic solutions as our raw materials. (Eg. Caustic)

Solid wastes: We do not get large quantity of solid waste from the process. Mainly we have paper, cardboard and plastic from production process and the office whereas food waste from the canteen and yard waste from cleaning the garden. Paper, plastic and cardboard will be separated and sold for recycling. The other solid wastes will be collected by the municipal solid waste collection system.

collected by the municipal so lid waste collection system. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
collected by the municipal so lid waste collection system. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 10

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 10 5 Cleaner Production Cleaner production is the main

5 Cleaner Production

Cleaner production is the main tool to reduce the pollution from industries which applies integrated preventive strategies to processes, products and services to increase economic efficiency and to reduce risks to humans and environment.

Cleaner production means economic savings from reduced consumption of raw materials and energy, and lower treatment costs, as well as other benefits such as a better company image and better working conditions. Implement cleaner production may not solve all environmental problems at a facility, but it will decrease the need for installing and operating end of pipe treatment equipment and reduce the quantity of hazardous waste that must be treated and disposed of.

Following are some of the aspects addressed as cleaner production approaches.

Process modification: When environmental issues becomes more important, shampoo manufacturers care about non-polluting materials such as organic ingredients (saponin extracted from pods of Acacia aulucumiformis), biodegradable bottles. Shampoo bottles made from beet extracts that biodegrade in compost pile, or fabrics that break down in soil safely, without any toxic by-products.

As a new industry we have the best available technology in the present days. Most of the machines are run by computer softwares which will give accurate measurements on batching and mixing of ingredients. This will lead to optimum raw material usage.

Recycling: In the boiler water will be recycled and use it back. We need to supply what ever the amount we loose due to evaporation losses. For the Cooling tower we plan to use the treated effluent. And that will be used in floor cleaning, fire fighting, road cleaning and gardening purposes.

Dust Control: Dust and soot can be controlled using bag filters or wet scrubbers. Unloading the raw material will be one of the dust generating points. By directly unloading the raw material in to the storage silos will reduce the dust generation.

Noise reduction: Even though this is not a big issue in Shampoo production, we have a plan to do regular checking of noise generated by the machine units. We will maintain the machines according to the guidelines provided in Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specification.

Raw Material quality will also be monitored and changed accordingly to achieve optimum conditions.

Solid waste management: Segregation of solid waste will be promoted as an essential part of the process. Especially plastic, paper and cardboard will be separated from other solid wastes and sell to the recycling shop. Plastic bottles from the quality assurance unit will be washed and reused.

6 Pollution Norms

Pollution norm is used to compare the pollution loading from the actual practice to the standard or guideline. For shampoo production, there is no specific pollution norm in

shampoo producti on, there is no specific pollution norm in Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
shampoo producti on, there is no specific pollution norm in Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 11

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 11 the WHO guideline. Therefore, we compar e the

the WHO guideline. Therefore, we compare the pollution load of our production with some of the soap production processes given in WHO guideline as shown in table 5.

Table 5- Typical Pollution Norms for Soap Production

   

Unit

 

Waste

 

BOD5

   

TSS

 

Oil

[U]

Volume

[kg/U]

[kg/U]

[kg/U]

 

[m

3 /U]

     

Soap from kettle boiling

tn product

 

4.5 6

   

6

 

0.9

Liquid Soap

 

tn anhydr

 

- 0.1

 

0.1

 

0.1

Liquid Detergent

tn anhydr

 

- 2

 

-

 

-

 

Table 6- Wastewater Pollution Load

 

Parameter

Flow

Unit

Flow

 

BOD

 

COD

 

TSS

0il

[m

3 /day]

[U]

[m

3 /tn]

[Kg/tn]

[Kg/tn]

[Kg/tn]

[Kg/tn]

Pollution

 

110

tn

2.5

 

0.875

 

1.75

 

1.625

0.3

load

 

product

   

7. Case study – Unilever Thai Holding Ltd.

7.1 Introduction

Unilever is a part of Thai people’s lifestyle. It has penetrated deeper not only into their culture but also in the commercial market within a span of 70 years in the country. So far, as they claim, Unilever’s products have been the most sold items in Thailand market.

Currently, Unilever has about 3000 professionals in their factories located at various parts of Thailand. Their products range from food products, cleaning products, garment products and others that fulfill every demand of Thai lifestyle. The company’s vision is “to respond every demand with new products”.

Shampoo products from Unilever were introduced in Thailand in 1976 with brand names of “Clinic & Clear” and “Sun silk”. They have been the trade leaders in Thailand for the past 30 years or more. Product categories include anti-flat, anti-proof, straighten- up, etc.

7.2 Shampoo process

Shampoos are produced by mixing all ingredients (Figure 5). Raw materials must be prepared and weighed by weighing machine. Then they are mixed in bulk material mixer at approximately 80 o C. Some components vaporize easily such as perfume so that they need to be mixed separately at lower temperature of 25 o C in side mixer.

separately at lower temperature of 25 o C in side mixer. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental
separately at lower temperature of 25 o C in side mixer. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 12

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 12 After premixing, ingredients are mixed properly in main

After premixing, ingredients are mixed properly in main mixer at about 32 o C. After that, the liquid is transferred to storage tanks before being filled into bottles or refill bags. When production batch completes, machines are cleaned by hot water at 80 o C.

Raw Materials

Perfume (25 o C)

8 1 2 3 5 4 6
8
1
2
3
5
4
6

1. Pre-weight station

2. Bulk mixer

3. Side mixer

4. Main mixer

5. Bulk material storage

6. Filling machine

7. Storage tank 8. Clean in place unit

7

Figure 5- Shampoo process flow diagram

7.3 Wastewater management

Waste water of shampoo production in Unilever Thai Holding Ltd. varies in pH values (Table 7). Flow rate is of 4,500m 3 /day. Treatment includes physical-chemical processes as well as biological process as shown in figure 6.

Table 7- Waste water characteristic of Unilever Thai Holding Ltd.

Parameter

Influent

Effluent

IEAT Standard

1. pH

5.8 – 11.5

7 – 8

6 – 9

2. BOD (ppm)

3,243 – 5,035

15 – 50

500

3. COD (ppm)

4,849

30 – 150

750

4. Oil & Grease (ppm)

61 – 202

< 10

10

5. Suspended Solid (ppm)

492 – 1,635

< 50

200

Suspended Solid (ppm) 492 – 1,635 < 50 200 Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental
Suspended Solid (ppm) 492 – 1,635 < 50 200 Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental
Suspended Solid (ppm) 492 – 1,635 < 50 200 Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 13

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 13 Chemical Treatment Biological Treatment Incoming Liquid waste Fat

Chemical

Treatment

Biological

Treatment

Incoming Liquid waste

Fat Trap
Fat Trap

Equalization Tank

pH Tank
pH Tank

Coagulation Tank

waste Fat Trap Equalization Tank pH Tank Coagulation Tank CO 2 Alum and CaCO 3 Polymer
waste Fat Trap Equalization Tank pH Tank Coagulation Tank CO 2 Alum and CaCO 3 Polymer

CO 2

Alum and

CaCO 3

Tank pH Tank Coagulation Tank CO 2 Alum and CaCO 3 Polymer CO 2 Flocculation Tank

Polymer

CO 2

Flocculation TankTank Coagulation Tank CO 2 Alum and CaCO 3 Polymer CO 2 Sedimentation Tank Sludge pond

Tank CO 2 Alum and CaCO 3 Polymer CO 2 Flocculation Tank Sedimentation Tank Sludge pond
Tank CO 2 Alum and CaCO 3 Polymer CO 2 Flocculation Tank Sedimentation Tank Sludge pond

Sedimentation TankTank CO 2 Alum and CaCO 3 Polymer CO 2 Flocculation Tank Sludge pond pH Tank

Sludge pond pH Tank Filter Press 150 ton Tank Sludge cake Holding Pond Disposing by
Sludge pond
pH Tank
Filter Press
150 ton Tank
Sludge cake
Holding Pond
Disposing by
WMS
Aeration Pond
Treated Water
Pond
Sludge pond
To CETP
Polymer Mixer
Sedimentation Tank

Figure 6- Wastewater flow diagram

Mixer Sedimentation Tank Figure 6- Wastewater flow diagram Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
Mixer Sedimentation Tank Figure 6- Wastewater flow diagram Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 14

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 14 7.4 Solid waste management 7.4.1 Type of solid

7.4

Solid waste management

7.4.1

Type of solid waste

a.

Paper i.e. box, casket, office paper, etc.

b.

Plastic i.e. plastic bags, sheath, bags to put raw materials, etc.

c.

Hazardous waste i.e. batteries, fluorescent bulbs, spray bottles, etc.

d.

Common waste i.e. yard, food waste, etc.

7.4.2

Waste management

a.

Waste for sell consists of paper, plastics, metal container, metallic scrap and oil waste. Annual revenue from waste selling is of 1.7 million Bath.

b.

Waste for disposal by incinerator consists of scrap common waste and hazardous waste. Disposed waste annual expenditure is 1.8 million Bath.

7.4.3

Waste collection

Waste collected to landfill site includes scrap hazardous waste which consists of chemical contaminated container i.e. canned, fluorescent bulbs, used oil etc. Layout of waste collection zone is shown in appendix F.

Layout of waste collection zone is shown in appendix F. Figure 7 . Waste collection a)
Layout of waste collection zone is shown in appendix F. Figure 7 . Waste collection a)

Figure 7. Waste collection

a) Contaminated container; b) Waste collection and recycle process

a. Compression

Waste from residue raw materials; wrapping up plastics, detergent, scrap of paper etc. are compressed as shown in figure 8.

scrap of paper etc. are compressed as shown in figure 8. Figure 8. Compression solid waste
scrap of paper etc. are compressed as shown in figure 8. Figure 8. Compression solid waste

Figure 8. Compression solid waste

b. Incineration

After waste separation, they will divide waste 2 groups consisting of recycle waste and un-reusable waste. The latter will send to incinerator inside factory or landfill outside factory.

to in cinerator inside factory or landfill outside factory. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
to in cinerator inside factory or landfill outside factory. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Page | 15

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Page | 15 c. Transportation Rubbish is both compressed and loose

c. Transportation

Rubbish is both compressed and loose waste by using container as shown in figure 9.

and loose wast e by using container as shown in figure 9. Figure 9. Waste collecting
and loose wast e by using container as shown in figure 9. Figure 9. Waste collecting

Figure 9. Waste collecting truck and transportation

d. Contaminated container

Plastics tank size 200 L, metal tank size 200 L, fiberite and carton, used oil etc.

Revenue from contaminated container is around 1,700,000 Bath/annual.

e. Waste disposal

Waste disposal process selected in Unilever company have two ways are compound of incineration which is situated in factory and other wastes not be able to burn going to landfill to be buried.

wastes not be able to burn going to landfill to be buried. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan
wastes not be able to burn going to landfill to be buried. Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd Reference APO’s Demonstration Projects, 2000-2004, As ian Productivity

Reference

APO’s Demonstration Projects, 2000-2004, Asian Productivity Organization #HC 415 I 52 G74 2000-04

Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu, Hair Care Products. Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Chemical & Laboratory Equipment. 2005. Material Safety Data Sheet: Citric acid. (online). Available: www.sciencelab.com [ 2007, January 28]

Eckenfelder Jr., W. Wesley, 1989, Industrial Water Pollution Control #TD745 E23 1989

Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand, Annual Report 2005 # HD 890.55 A1 I 53 2005;

Mary Ann H. Franson, Srandard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, Fifteenth Edition, Washington DC 20005, 1981.

Metcalf& Eddy, Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Fourth Edition, 2003.

Available:

Michican

OPTEK.

(online).

State.

2005.

Reverse

Osmosis

(CIP)

(RO).

(online).

2005.

Clean-In-Place

Applications

Stepan. 2007. Product shampoo. (online). Available:

http://www.stepan.com/en/products/formulations.asp?id=384 [2007, January 28]

Laws and Standards on Pollution control in Thailand, 4 th Edition 1997.

Lecture of Air pollution (ED78.06) Dr.Kim AIT

http://energyconcepts.tripod.com/energyconcepts/airenergy_tips.htm

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2006/TatyanaNektalova.shtml

www.ab6.net/Library/AB6%20VMI%20Trimix.pdf

www.cashflo.co.uk/index.html

gy/hearing/workplaceguidelines.cfm www.icongrouponline.com Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering
gy/hearing/workplaceguidelines.cfm www.icongrouponline.com Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan Enviromental Engineering

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management

Appendix A

Market Potential for Hair Care Shampoo in Asia (US $ mln): 2005

Country

Latent Demand US $ mln

% of Asia

China

796.18

33.74

Japan

539.30

22.85

India

385.47

16.33

South Korea

135.94

5.76

Indonesia

113.92

4.83

Thailand

71.73

3.04

Taiwan

67.73

2.87

Philippines

53.68

2.27

Malaysia

39.69

1.68

Bangladesh

35.45

1.50

Hong Kong

32.34

1.37

Vietnam

26.99

1.14

Singapore

19.62

0.83

Burma

11.10

0.47

Sri Lanka

10.96

0.46

Nepal

5.84

0.25

North Korea

3.69

0.16

Cambodia

2.79

0.12

Papua New Guinea

2.11

0.09

Laos

1.56

0.07

Macau

1.34

0.06

Brunei

1.02

0.04

Mongolia

0.80

0.03

Bhutan

0.40

0.02

Maldives

0.10

0.00

Other

0.10

0.00

Total

2,359.86

100.00%

Source: www.icongrouponline.com

The Market for Hair Care Shampoo in Asia: 2000 -

Hair Care Shampoo (US $ mln):

Thailand 2000 - 2010

 

US $

% of

   

% of

% of

Year

mln

Globe

Year

Thailand

Region

Globe

 

2000 2,534.52

33.14

2000

75.33

2.97%

0.98%

 

2001 2,487.84

32.73

2001

74.51

3.00%

0.98%

 

2002 2,423.90

32.38

2002

73.14

3.02%

0.98%

 

2003 2,353.82

32.06

2003

71.54

3.04%

0.97%

 

2004 2,307.42

31.80

2004

70.51

3.06%

0.97%

 

2005 2,359.86

32.04

2005

71.73

3.04%

0.97%

 

2006 2,430.69

32.36

2006

73.35

3.02%

0.98%

 

2007 2,504.11

32.68

2007

75

3.00%

0.98%

 

2008 2,580.21

33.00

2008

76.69

2.97%

0.98%

 

2009 2,659.10

33.33

2009

78.42

2.95%

0.98%

 

2010 2,740.90

33.66

2010

80.19

2.93%

0.98%

Source: www.icongrouponline.com

Appendix B

Thailand: Hair Care Shampoo in 2005, US $ mln

World US $ City %Country %Region %World Rank mln Bangkok 14 66.78 93.11 2.83 0.91
World
US $
City
%Country
%Region
%World
Rank
mln
Bangkok
14
66.78
93.11
2.83
0.91
Chon Buri
435
2.48
3.46
0.11
0.03
Songkhla
933
0.76
1.06
0.03
0.01
Nakhon
Ratchasima
1,150
0.45
0.63
0.02
0.01
Chiang Mai
1,167
0.44
0.61
0.02
0.01
Khon Kaen
1,217
0.39
0.55
0.02
0.01
Nakhon Si
Thammarat
1,361
0.28
0.4
0.01
0
Phitsanulok
1,629
0.12
0.17
0.01
0
Hat Yai
1,966
0.02
0.02
0
0
Total
71.73
100
3.04
0.97

Source: www.icongrouponline.com

Appendix C

Raw Materials

   

Quantity Day

Purpose for which it is used

Chemical Name

Trade Name

(Kg)

PEG-150 Distearate

STEPAN PEG 6000 DS

244.4

To increase the viscosity

Sodium Laureth Sulfate

STEOL CS-230

8,976

Surfactants are surface active ingredients, meaning they can interact with a surface

Disodium

   

To improve the foaming characteristic.

Cocoamphodiacetate

AMPHOSOL 2C

8,976

Cocamidopropyl

 

2,692.8

To improve the foaming characteristic.

Hydroxysultaince

AMPHOSOL CS-50

DL-2,4-Dihydroxy-N-(3-

   

To modify these characteristic, manufacturers add fragrance and governmentally approved.

hydroxypropyl)-3,3-

Panthenol

22.4

dimethylbutyramide,

Butyramide

   
 

2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-

 

To adjust pH

Citric acid

propanetricarboxylicacid

112.2

Sodium hydroxide

Caustic Soda

112.2

To adjust pH

Sodium chloride

Salt or Sea salt

112.2

To adjust viscosity

-

Orange blossom 600

112.2

To add smell aromatic

4-(2-Hydroxy-1-

   

To modify

naphthylazobenzenesulfonic acid, Sodium salt)

D & C Orange No.4

244.4

characteristic, adding dye.

Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy- ,propyl ester

Propylparaben

22.4

To preserve

Appendix D

Processes Diagram

Waste water Reverse Osmosis Ground DI water Ingredient water Boiler Weighting Cooling tower Air Steam
Waste water
Reverse
Osmosis
Ground
DI water
Ingredient
water
Boiler
Weighting
Cooling tower
Air
Steam
heat up to
Pollution
70 o C
Dissolve tank
Mixing tank
Condense water
Hot water
QC
Lab Test
Holding tank
Waste
Drying
Bottle Cleaning
Filling
water
Waste water
Packing & Labelling
DI – Deionized
QC – Quality Control
QC
Dispatch
Wastewater
Steam

Appendix E

WastewaterWastewater TreatmentTreatment FlowFlow ChartChart

Industrial Process

Industrial wastewater

FlowFlow ChartChart Industrial Process Industrial wastewater Screening Equalization & Neutralization Floatation

Screening

Equalization & Neutralization
Equalization &
Neutralization

Floatation (DAF)

Coarse solid DisposalEqualization & Neutralization Floatation (DAF) Flow and pH adjustment Oil and Grease & Settled

Flow and pH adjustmentOil and Grease &

Oil and Grease &

Settled Suspended Solid removal removal

Biological Treatment (Aerobic)

Suspended Solid removal Biological Treatment (Aerobic) Sludge Secondary Sedimentation Adsorption (GAC) Thickener
Sludge Secondary Sedimentation Adsorption (GAC)
Sludge
Secondary
Sedimentation
Adsorption (GAC)
Thickener Dewatering
Thickener
Dewatering

Landfill

Discharge

(Reuse)

Operation Process Equalization & Neutralization Flow meter and Control device Floatation Screening Chemical
Operation Process
Equalization &
Neutralization
Flow meter and
Control device
Floatation
Screening
Chemical
Waste
Water
Pressure
control
Waste Water Analysis
valve
Sludge
Secondary
Air blower
Clarification
Discharge
Return Sludge
Activated Carbon
(Reuse)
Effluent Water
Analysis
Thickener
Primary
Landfill
Dewatering
Flowchart of Wastewater Treatment Plant
Sludge Cake
Coarse solid
Effluent Water
Effluent
Effluent
Water

Appendix F

Figure G: Layout of Waste management Unit

Route

Empty

Bin

Truck

Parking 1

Route Empty Bin Truck Parking 1 Disposal Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink
Route Empty Bin Truck Parking 1 Disposal Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink
Route Empty Bin Truck Parking 1 Disposal Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink
Disposal Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Disposal Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Disposal Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Disposal Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building

Disposal Waste

Empty bin 2

Recycle Waste

Disposal Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building

Truck

Empty

Shrink

Incinerator

Bin 1

Wood

Building

Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Waste Empty bin 2 Recycle Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building
Parking 2
Parking 2
Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building Parking 2 Empty container to be sold
Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building Parking 2 Empty container to be sold
Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building Parking 2 Empty container to be sold

Empty

container to

be sold

Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building Parking 2 Empty container to be sold
Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building Parking 2 Empty container to be sold
Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building Parking 2 Empty container to be sold
Waste Truck Empty Shrink Incinerator Bin 1 Wood Building Parking 2 Empty container to be sold

Storage Tank

Toilet

Room

Equipment

Room

Rest Room

Garden

SHAMPOO MANUFACURING UNIT

INTRODUCTION

Indian shampoo market is valued at Rs. 1,207 crore in year 2001-02. Shampoo market in India has grown at compounded annual growth rate of about 10% during period 1997-98 to 2001-02. NER market for Shampoo is valued at Rs. 33.4 crore in year 2001-02 and accounts for about 2.8% of the domestic shampoo market. NER market has grown at a CAGR of about 16% during the period 1997-98 to 2001-02. Based on the demand-supply gap analysis, Consumer preferences/ profile and consumption pattern, the shampoos have significant demand in the North-East Region (NER) as well as at national level. The following shampoo variants can be manufactured at the proposed manufacturing unit:

(a)

Normal Shampoo

(b)

Shampoo with Conditioner

Apart from the basic classification indicated above, various other types of shampoos can be manufactured like- anti-dandruff shampoos, herbal based shampoos, etc. It is important to note that, in the case of shampoo manufacturing unit, with the same infrastructure, a unit can manufacture a multiple variants without significant changes in the equipment, tools and processes.

MARKET POTENTIAL

Exhibit 1 provides the shampoo market size in terms of all India domestic market and NER market in year 2001-02.

Exhibit 1 Shampoo Market Size (2001-02)

(Unit: Rs. Crore)

Particulars

All India

NER

Market Size

Market Size

Shampoo

1,207

33.4

Total (Shampoo)

1,207

33.4

Source: AFF Research

Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) is the only large organised shampoo manufacturer in NER and it is catering to the national demand from its facility in Doom Dooma in Tinsukia district in upper Assam. All other organised players are meeting the demand of NER from sources/ manufacturing facilities outside the NE region. The estimated demand-supply gap for shampoo products is about 34% of the total NER shampoo market (2001-02) and is valued at Rs. 11.3 crore in the year 2001-02. The domestic shampoo market has grown at a CAGR of about 10% during the past the period 1997-98 to 2001-02. Considering that the market will grow at the same growth rate in next 10 years, the domestic shampoo market in India is estimated to be Rs. 3,000 crore in the year 2011- 12. The NER shampoo market is estimated to grow at about 12% over next 10 years. In the year 2011-12, the NER market for shampoos is estimated to be Rs. 104 crore.

PLANT CAPCITY AND PRODUCTION TARGETS

Plant capacity and production targets for the proposed unit have been arrived at based on following factors:

(a)

Product Mix (based on various shampoo products proposed for manufacturing)

(b)

Demand : Supply Gap (in the North East Region)

(c)

Minimum Economic Plant Size- The economic size for manufacturing for NER

region is 200-Kg batch size (Based on the discussion with large shampoo manufacturers and various units involved in contract manufacturing). Rated Capacity of the key equipment The proposed plant will have a batch size of 200 kg in one shift and will operate on two-shift basis. With annual sales realisation of Rs. 2.6 crore, the manufacturing unit will be accounting for about 15 to 16% of the total NER shampoo market (considering the retail value of the products as the unit will be involved in contract manufacturing) and about 45% of the demand- supply gap of NER shampoo market in year 2001-02. It is proposed that the unit would be involved in contract manufacturing for a larger shampoo manufacturing/ marketing company. It would primarily cater to the needs of the NER. There is an opportunity for about 2 to 3 shampoo manufacturing units of similar size in NER.

Summing up:

Batch Size: 200 Kg. on a single batch basis (two batches per day) Plant Capacity: 11.4 lakh bottles per annum (@ 100 ml per bottle) Capacity Utilisation: 50% (Year 1) Full Capacity Utilisation: Year 2

RAW MATERIALS AND INPUTS Raw Materials

Raw materials used in the process depend upon the type of shampoo manufactured. Typically, in any shampoo manufactured there are two types of raw materials used:

- Active Ingredients (AIs) – These are the chemicals used in manufacturing the

shampoo. Active ingredients used in the manufacturing process are different for different variants. Commonly used active ingredients include emulsifying/ suspending agents like Ammonium/ Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Zinc Pyrithione, etc.

- Others- Other ingredients include Citric Acid, Sodium Hydroxide, Ammonium Chloride, Fragrances, Pigments, etc.

Water

The requirement of water for 200-kg batch shampoo-manufacturing unit is approximately 3,000 litres per day.

ELECTRICITY

Approximate power requirement of a 200-kg batch shampoo-manufacturing unit is 40 kW, which can be availed from the nearest sub-station of respective State Electricity Board (SEB).

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

The flow chart for the manufacturing process is as shown below in the Exhibit 2. The shampoo manufacturing process is a batch process. Initially, the raw material goes through a Quality Check (QC) and if approved various Active Ingredients (AIs) and other raw materials are dispensed for processing. Initially, active ingredients and other raw materials are taken into a vessel known as ‘Mixing Vessel’. In this vessel the raw materials are mixed with hot water. The water used for this process should be De-mineralised and free from any kind of impurities. The mixing process is carried out at a specific temperature (about 75 to 80 0 C). Subsequently, the solution is taken to another vessel (known as ‘Side Vessel’) and other ingredients like Fragrances, Pigments, etc. are added. The mixture is agitated for about 20-30

minutes to form a homogenous solution. If required, Citric Acid or Sodium Hydroxide is used to adjust pH of water. Finally, the solution is brought back to room- temperature and is ready for packing. Before, proceeding with packing, the solution goes through an Intermediate Process Quality Check (IPQC) related to the efficacy of the product.

Exhibit 2 Flow Chart for Shampoo Manufacturing Process

Raw Material

Handling

Raw Material

Mixing

Section

Product

Packing

Raw Material Sampling

Raw Material Sampling

Raw Material Sampling
Raw Material Sampling
Mixing Section Product Packing Raw Material Sampling QC Test QC Not Approved QC Approved Raw Material
QC Test
QC
Test

QC Not Approved

QC Approved Raw Material Dispensing Mixing Vessel Mixing Side Vessel

QC Approved

Raw Material Dispensing

Raw Material Dispensing

Raw Material Dispensing
Raw Material Dispensing
QC Approved Raw Material Dispensing Mixing Vessel Mixing Side Vessel

Mixing Vessel

Mixing Vessel
Mixing Vessel
Mixing Vessel
QC Approved Raw Material Dispensing Mixing Vessel Mixing Side Vessel

Mixing

Mixing
Mixing
Mixing
QC Approved Raw Material Dispensing Mixing Vessel Mixing Side Vessel

Side Vessel

Side Vessel
QC Approved Raw Material Dispensing Mixing Vessel Mixing Side Vessel

Mixing/ Agitation

Mixing/ Agitation
Mixing/ Agitation
Mixing/ Agitation
Mixing Vessel Mixing Side Vessel Mixing/ Agitation IPQC Test IPQC Approved Hot Water Fragrances,
IPQC Test
IPQC
Test
Mixing Side Vessel Mixing/ Agitation IPQC Test IPQC Approved Hot Water Fragrances, Preservatives,
Mixing Side Vessel Mixing/ Agitation IPQC Test IPQC Approved Hot Water Fragrances, Preservatives,

IPQC Approved

Hot Water
Hot
Water
Vessel Mixing/ Agitation IPQC Test IPQC Approved Hot Water Fragrances, Preservatives, Dyes, etc. Recover IPQC
Vessel Mixing/ Agitation IPQC Test IPQC Approved Hot Water Fragrances, Preservatives, Dyes, etc. Recover IPQC
Vessel Mixing/ Agitation IPQC Test IPQC Approved Hot Water Fragrances, Preservatives, Dyes, etc. Recover IPQC

Fragrances,

Preservatives,

Dyes, etc.

Recover

IPQC Not

Approved

Reject

Product

Information

Leaflet (if

required)

Primary Packing Inspection (If required) Secondary Packing QC Test
Primary Packing
Inspection (If required)
Secondary Packing
QC
Test
Inspection (If required) Secondary Packing QC Test QC Not- approved Re-packing QC Approved Product Thereafter,
Inspection (If required) Secondary Packing QC Test QC Not- approved Re-packing QC Approved Product Thereafter,

QC Not-

approved

Re-packing

QC Approved Product

Thereafter, the solution is transferred to the packing assembly through a pipeline. Normally, the capacity of the shampoo product assembly line is dependent on the throughput of packing machinery. Primary Packing for shampoo products can be done in the following ways depending upon the

requirement-

Bottle/ Container packing Sachet/ Pouch packing After filling the shampoo in a bottle/ sachet, it is sealed appropriately. In the primary packaging section, the various manufacturing details are printed onto the primary pack like batch number, date of manufacturing, maximum retail price of the product, etc. as required by The Drugs and Cosmetics Act. Additionally, the product is sent for secondary packing, if required. In most of the cases secondary packing is done manually. Also, product information leaflet is inserted inside secondary packing, if required.

QUALITY, STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY

The plant should adhere to the norms laid out in Indian Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) standards under The Drugs and Cosmetics Act. The manufacturing unit should adhere to the norms laid out in The Drugs and Cosmetics Act. However, for the products, which are manufactured for exports markets should meet stricter norms, for example US FDA in case of the United States, etc. It should be noted that as the proposed unit would be involved in contract manufacturing, the manufacturing process related technology would be provided by the principal organisation for which the contract manufacturing would be carried out. The proposed unit would not be involved in the basic formulations related research in the initial years. Additionally, the manufacturing technology for NE region would not differ from other regions as the same is not region specific. As far as the shampoo manufacturing equipment is concerned, the process equipment is widely available in the country.

KEY ASSUMPTIONS The plant is a single assembly line unit. The unit operates in two shifts, eight working hours per

shift

The unit operates for 300 working days in a year The unit has a batch size of 200kg. The land is taken on a long-term lease. As per norms, fixed charges for land development are considered at Rs 250 per sq. mtr. Additionally, lease rentals are assumed at Rs. 3.5 per sft. The costs of the raw materials, packing materials, utilities like fuel, electricity, etc are considered constant. Cost of various other activities like manpower is assumed to be constant. The sales realisation from finished goods is also assumed constant for 10 years from the year of commencement .

Sr.

Items

Value

Basis

No.

1.

Land development

Development charges: Rs. 250 per sq. mtr. Lease Rentals: Rs. 3.5 per sft.

Assam Industrial Development Corporation

2.

Machinery and equipment cost

---

Costs of leading machinery suppliers inclusive of installation charges

3.

Miscellaneous fixed assets

---

Industry norm

4.

Provision for contingency

10% of total capital expenditure

Assumption

5.

Raw material prices

---

Landed cost (including transportation)

6.

Labour

---

Prevalent rate in NER

7.

Power and fuel

---

Prevalent charges in NER

8.

Repair and maintenance

---

Industry norm

9.

Inventory: Raw materials (RM)

2 Months

Industry norm

10.

Inventory: Finished goods (FG)

1 Month

Industry norm

11.

Bills receivable

1 Month

Industry norm

12.

Creditors

1 Month

Industry norm

13.

Product distribution expenses

7%

Taking into consideration average distribution costs.

14.

Other Expenses

---

Includes cost of conversion during manufacturing (i.e. utilities) and variable product distribution costs

15.

Interest on working capital

9%

3% subsidy on working capital loan under the Central Interest Subsidy Scheme, 1997

16.

Subsidy on plant and machinery

30%

Under the Central Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme, 2007

17.

Subsidy on insurance premium

100%

Under the Central Comprehensive Insurance Scheme, 2007

18.

Subsidy on Income Tax

100%

 

19.

Debt : Equity ratio

60 : 40

Industry norm

20.

Interest on term loan

12%

 

21.

Margin money for working capital

25%

 

22.

RM cost

 

Landed cost at the factory gate (inclusive of transportation cost and excise duty)

FINANCIAL ASPECTS

A.

Land and Site Development

Sr.

Particulars

 

Units

Unit Rate

Total (Rs.)

No

 

.

1.

Land and Site Development

500

sq. m.

Rs. 250/ sq. m.

125,000

 

Total

   

125,000

B.

BUILDING AND CIVIL WORKS

 

Sr.

Particulars

 

Units

Unit Rate

Total (Rs.)

No

 

.

1.

Building and Civil Work

400

sq. m.

Rs. 4,000/ sq. m.

1,600,000

 

Total

   

1,600,000

C.

PLANT AND MACHINERY

Sr.

Particulars

Quantity

Unit Cost

Total Cost

No.

(Nos.)

(Rs.)

(Rs.)

 

Manufacturing Equipment

     

1

Mixing Vessels

1 nos.

1,500,000

1,500,000

2

Side Vessel

1 nos.

1,000,000

1,000,000

3

Bottle Filling/ Packing Machine (16 Station)

1 nos.

500,000

500,000

4

Sachet Filling/ Packing Machine

1 nos.

500,000

500,000

 

Utilities/ Misc. Other Equipment

     

5

Electrification, Control Panels and Cabling, Transformer, etc.

   

1,000,000

6

Water Plant, Generation and Distribution

   

2,000,000

7

Steam Generation Units, Compressors

   

600,000

 

Total Machinery, Utilities and Equipment

   

7,100,000

Note: Above mentioned equipment is indicative for the proposed shampoo- manufacturing unit

D. MISCELLANEOUS FIXED ASSETS

Sr. No.

 

Particulars

Total (Rs.)

1

Furniture and Fittings

25,000

2

Office Equipment

100,000

3

Fire Fighting Equipment

50,000

4

Cost of Tube-well

20,000

 

Total Misc. Fixed Assets

195,000

E. PRELIMINARY AND PRE-OPERATIVE EXPENSES

Sr. No.

Particulars

Total Cost (Rs.)

1

Detailed Techno-economic Feasibility Study

100,000

2

Loan Processing Fees

10,000

3

Establishment expenses

200,000

 

Total Preliminary & Preoperative Expenses

310,000

F. PROVISION FOR CONTINGENCY

Provision for contingency- @ 10% of the total capital investment OPERATING COST

A. RAW MATERIAL

Raw materials consumed for manufacturing any shampoo are of two types-

Active Ingredients (AIs) Others (like binding materials, fragrances, pigments, etc. used in manufacturing process)

Sr. No.

Particulars

Units

Value

1

Average cost of raw material

Rs. per Kg.

110

2

Raw materials consumed per batch

Kg.

200

3

Number of batches per year

Nos.

600

 

Total Raw Materials Consumed per Annum

Rs.

13,167,000

Note: Above raw material consumption pattern is calculated at 100% capacity utilisation of the manufacturing unit working for 300 days per annum and two shifts per day basis.

B. LABOUR

Sr.

 

Particulars

Qualification

Nos.

Salary

Annual

No.

 

per

Manpower

Month

Cost

(Rs.)

(Rs.)

 

Direct Labour

 

1

Factory Manager

BE/B.Tech +

1

20,000

264,000

MBA/MMS

2

Production Manager

BE/B.Tech

1

15,000

198,000

3

Chemists

BE/B.Tech

2

12,000

316,800

4

Engineer and Technicians

BE/B.Tech

4

10,000

528,000

5

Skilled Workers

BE

2

5,000

132,000

6

Semi-skilled and Un-skilled Workers

Matriculate

8

3,000

316,800

7

Other Misc. Personnel

 

8

2,500

264,000

 

Total Direct Labour Cost

 

26

 

2,019,600

 

Indirect Labour

 

8

Finance Manager

MBA/MMS +

1

15,000

198,000

CA

9

Accountant

CA

1

10,000

132,000

10

Business Development Executives

Graduate

2

8,000

211,200

11

Security Personnel

 

2

3,000

79,200

 

Total Indirect Labour

 

6

 

620,400

 

Total Cost of man-power

 

32

 

2,640,000

Note: (1) Manpower cost also includes Perks @ 10% of annual salary (2) There is no specific requirement of other highly skilled and specifically trained manpower apart from the normally available qualified manpower as mentioned above at the proposed manufacturing location.