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Laboratory Report

Osmosis Lab
Date: 12/2/2015 ~ 13/2/2015
Group Member: 1.Pin Pinsinee Mekpanuwat
2.Pang Samitra Ngenpisutsin
3.Put Puttaruksa Pisansrisomsuk
4.Japan Jiratchaya Sakulboonthanom
5.Win Jiramet Techasuppatrakun
Introduction: Water is a fluid substance that play important role for life and consist of
h2o. Water is a pH balance substance, so it is a good solvent. Without water all the
living things will die because living things need water for their body to function properly.
All parts of living things have water because cell consist of water. Osmosis is a kind of
passive transport which not require energy to work. This is a kind of diffusion. The
movement of water depend on the concentration of solutes between inside and outside
the cell. Water is a main substance in osmosis process. When water move from low
concentration to high concentration, to make the solute and water on both side equal is
called isotonic solution. When the water inside the membrane is lower than the outside
this because the solute at the outside is more, water have to go out of the cell. So cell is
shrink and this process called hypertonic solution. When the water inside the membrane
is higher than the outside because the solute at the outside is less, water have to go
into the cell. So the cell is swell and this process called hypotonic solution.
Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory experiment is to know how osmosis work and
how it differ from diffusion by observing from potatoes.
Hypothesis: If we put potato into distilled water, then it will stay the same, but if we put
the second potato into the salt water, then it get shrink and change color.

Material list:

-2 Beakers
-Electronic Balance
-Ruler Groups bring their own ruler
-Distilled water
-Concentrated salt water
-2 pieces of potatoes
-Calculator groups bring their own calculator Weighing paper
-Gloves
-Lab Coat
-Goggles
Procedure:
Day 1:
1. Collect materials for your group.
5

2. Use your ruler to find the height, length, and width of each Potato.

5 3. Calculate the volume of your Potato (LxWxH).


5 4. Use the electronic balance to find the mass of your Potato. Remember
to lay down a piece of weighing paper and set to zero.
5 5. Record descriptive observations in your notebook about the Potato
prior to the experiment.
5 6. Fill your beaker half way with distilled water. Put one of your Potato into
the beaker. Set the beaker aside for one day.
5 7. Fill your 2nd beaker with concentrated salt solution half way. Put your
2nd Potation into that beaker. Set beaker aside for one day.
Day 2:
1. Collect groups beakers with Potato.
5 2. Carefully remove the Potato from the beakers.
5 3. Repeat steps 2-5 from Day 1
5 4. Calculate the percent change in the size of each Potato.
5
5 Percent change in height (Height after- Height before/
Height before x 100% = ?)
5 > Percent change in width
5 >Percent change in length
5 > Percent change in volume
5 >Percent change in mass

5
Data Table A For Potatoes Volume
Potato 1

Potato 2

Dimensions

Initial: Before
Soaking

Final: After
soaking in
distilled water

Initial: Before
Soaking

Final: After
soaking in salt
water

Length (cm)

1.8

1.8

1.3

1.5

Width(cm)

1.3

1.5

1.1

1.1

FanHeight (cm)

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.6

Volume
(LxWxH)

3.978

4.86

2.717

2.64

Data Table B For Potatoes Descriptions


Potato 1

Potato 2

Descriptive Observations Before Soaking


in Distilled Water:
Shape:square
color:yellow
fresh potato
hard and have some water

Descriptive Observations Before Soaking


in Soaking Water:
Shape:square
color:yellow
fresh potato
hard and have some water

Descriptive Observations After Soaking in


Distilled Water:
Shape: square
color:yellow
color of water is a bit

Descriptive Observations After Soaking in


Soaking Water:
Shape:square
color:a bit purple (like taro)
color of water is the same

Data Table C For Potatoes Mass

Potato 1

Potato 2

Mass in grams

Initial: Before
Soaking

Final: After
soaking in
distilled water

Initial: Before
Soaking

Final: After
soaking in salt
water

Potato mass
(g)

4.03

4.93

3.59

3.26

Data Table D For Potatoes Percent Changes


Potatoes

Potato 1

Potato 2

Percent change in height

5.88%

15.385%

Percent change in width

0.2%

no change

Percent change in length

no change

-15.789%

Percent change in volume

22.172%

-2.834%

Percent change in mass

22.33%

-9.19%

Volume Bar Graph

5
5

Analyzing results

Mass Bar Graph

1. What happened to the potato after being soaked in distilled water overnight?
Why? Be descriptive and detailed in your answer. Use your knowledge of membrane
transport.
Answer After a potato being soaked in distilled water overnight, it get bigger and
heavier. This is due to the concentration (salt and other chemicals) in the potato is
higher than the concentration in distilled water. This make water move from the distilled
water into the potato to make it balance in both distilled water and potato. This process
called hypotonic solution.
2. What happened to the potato after being soaked in salt water overnight? Why?
Be descriptive and detailed in your answer. Use your knowledge of membrane
transport.
Answer After a potato being soaked in salt water overnight, its look much
different. A potato changes its color into brown, and it shrink. This due to the
concentration in salt water is higher than inside the potato, so water in the potato move
out from potato to salt water to make it balance in concentration. This process called
hypertonic solution.
3. Define the terms diffusion, passive transport, active transport, and osmosis. In
each of your definitions, describe the role of a concentration gradient.
Answer
Passive transport is a type of transport that molecule can move between plasma
membrane and inside the cell which not require energy, but some type of passive
transport requires channel and carrier proteins to perform tasks. Type of passive
transport are diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
Diffusion is a types of passive transport that molecules from higher concentration
gradient will move toward the side that have lower concentration gradient until it
equilibrium. This mainly focus on solute.
Osmosis is a type of diffusion that mainly focus on water (solvent).
Active transport is a kind of transport that require energy from ATP to perform
task The reason it need energy is the molecules move against concentration gradient,
and they need carrier protein to transport molecule. Example,Sodium-Potassium pump.

4. Biological membranes are said to be selectively permeable (or


semipermeable). What does this term mean, and how does this affect the way that
molecules are able to move through cellular membranes?
Selectively permeable membrane mean the membrane is select only specific
molecules to pass and also prevent some molecules from passing through the plasma
membrane. Only small, non-charge and non-polar molecule can move freely across the

plasma membrane. Large molecule, ions and polar molecule cant pass through the
plasma membrane. The factors affecting the movement are shape, size, charge and
chemical properties.
5. Which type of molecule is more likely to quickly pass through a cellular
membrane via simple diffusion, polar or nonpolar? Why?
Non-polar more likely to quick pass through a cellular membrane because nonpolar molecule are small and non-charge.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, we can learn a lot more how osmosis work by observing from the
potatoes. In this experiment, we dont none mistakes. Osmosis is a movement of water
from high concentration to low concentration which shown in potato that put in salt water
and distilled water. Before the first potato will put in distilled water, its mass is 4.03g and
its volume is 3.978, but after one day its mass increase to 4.93g or about 22.33% and
its volume is increase to 4.68 cm3 or about 22.172%. The second potato before put in
salt water mass is 3.59g and volume is 2.71 but after 1 day its mass decrease to 3.26g
or about 9.19% and its volume decrease to 2.64cm3. The first potato which put in
distilled water after 1 day it become bigger because the solute in potato is more than
water, so water have to osmosis in to make it balance. On the other hand, the second
potato which sacked in the salt water for 1 day is smaller because the solute in salt
water is more than the solute in potato, so water in potato have to come out to make it
balance.

Pictures: