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Basic Car Air Conditioning

DENSO Europe BV

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Training program

OBJECTIVE
Basic Car A/C Training:
After completion of this training you will be able to:
1. Understand basic principles of the refrigeration cycle;
2. Understand system layout and operation of Car Air Conditioning;
3. Understand system components and their operation;
4. Understand service techniques for high quality repairs.

DENSO Europe BV

T his information is exclusive property of DENSO corporation. Without their consent, it shall not be reprinted or given to third parties.

Training program

TRAINING PROGRAM
Basic Car Air Conditioning:
Day 1:
Theoretical explanation of basic principles,
refrigeration cycle and component operation
Practice; system operation, refrigerant recovery,
evacuation and charging, performance test.
Day 2:
Theory: Compressor types and compressor oil,
system pressures and system diagnosis;
Practice; trouble shooting and diagnosis;
Final test
DENSO Europe BV

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Basic Principles
Various factors affecting passengers comfort

Human factors

Environmental factors

Amount of physical

Temperature

activities (amount of
Humidity

Thermal Comfort

metabolic)

Others
Sex, age,

Air flow

season of year
Heat radiation

Clothing
Psychological
Odor, Noise
and visibility

DENSO Europe BV

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Basic Principles
FACTORS OF AIR CONDITIONING

Temperature

Cooling the Air


(Cooling Unit)
Heating the Air
(Heating Unit)

Humidity

Temperature
Heating or
Cooling
the Air

Humidity
Dehumidifying or
Heating
the Air

Dehumidifying the Air


(Cooling Unit)
Blowing the Air
(Blower Unit)

Air Flow

Purification

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Directing the Air


(Heating Unit/Ducts)
Purifying the Air
(Cooling Unit/Pollen filter)

Air Flow
Blowing and
Directing
the Air

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Purification
Cleaning the
Air

Basic Principles
Evaporation

GAS
Evaporating

Heat
Heat

Heat

Heat

Heat

Cotton with alcohol


Heat

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Heat

Basic Principles
Dehumidifying

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Basic Principles
Change of State

Liquid

Absorption
Gas

Solid

Emission

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DENSO Europe BV

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Basic Principles
CHARACTERISTICS OF HFC134a

Water

Water

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Basic Principles

Expansion / Evaporation
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Compression / Condensation

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Refrigerant Temperature (C)

Basic Principles

90
80

60

40

20

-20
-30
0.00
(0)

0.50
(5.1)

1.00
(10.2)

1.50
(1.50)

2.00
(20.4)

2.50
(25.5)

Gauge Pressure Mpa (kgf/cm)


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System layout

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System layout
CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM

Heating Unit

Cooling Unit
Cooling Hoses

Water Valve

Receiver / Drier
Condenser
Compressor

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System layout

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System layout
FRONT CAR A/C

Heating Unit
Cooling Unit
Cooling Unit

Blower Unit
Warm Air
Cool Air

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System layout
DUAL CAR A/C

Rear Cooling unit


Blower Unit

Front Cooling Unit


Rear Cooling Unit

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System layout
OVERHEAD CAR A/C

Overhead Cooling Unit

Overhead Cooling Unit

Front Cooling Unit

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System control
MANUAL CONTROL

A/C Switch
Mode Switch

Air Inlet Control Switch

Temp. Control Switch


Blower Switch

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System control
FRESH
Heater core
Air Mix Chamber
(DEF)

RECIRC

(FACE)

Air Mix Door


Blower motor

(FOOT)
Evaporator

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System control
FRESH
Heater core
Air Mix Chamber
(DEF)

RECIRC

(FACE)

Air Mix Door


Blower motor

(FOOT)
Evaporator

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System control
FRESH
Heater core
Air Mix Chamber
(DEF)

RECIRC

(FACE)

Air Mix Door


Blower motor

(FOOT)
Evaporator

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System control
FRESH
Heater core
Air Mix Chamber
(DEF)

RECIRC

(FACE)

Air Mix Door


Blower motor

(FOOT)
Evaporator

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System control

Air outlets
Mode
Face

Cooling Fan

B/L

Intermediate

Foot

Heating

F/D

Heating/defrosting

DEF

Defrosting

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Upper air outlets


Center
Side

Lower
air outlet

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Defrost

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System control
AUTOMATIC CONTROL

Sunlight
Exterior
Temperature

Desired
Tem perature
Autom atic Control
Outlet Air Tem perature

Computer
Room Temperature

Blow ing Air Volum e


Air Outlet Control
Air Inlet Control

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Basic principle
REFRIGERANT CYCLE : expansion valve
Evaporator

Capillary tube

Expansion valve

Heat sensing bulb

Low tem p
Low press
Liquid
Low tem p
Low press
Gas

High tem p
High press
Liquid
High tem p
High press
Gas

High pressure
Low pressure

Compressor

Refrigerant flow
Receiver /
Dryer
Condenser
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Basic principle
REFRIGERANT CYCLE : orifice

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Basic principle
REFRIGERANT CYCLE : HOT GAS

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Basic principle
REFRIGERANT CYCLE : HOT GAS

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Basic principle
REFRIGERANT CYCLE : HOT GAS

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Coffeebreak

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System components

Compressor

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System components

Condenser
Construction
Tube
Fin

Refrigerant

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System components

Condenser
Flow Type

Dual Flow

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Triple Flow

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System components

MF Condenser
Flow Type

Multi Flow (U-turn)

DENSO Europe BV

Multi Flow (S-turn)

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System components

Receiver / Drier

IN

OUT

Desiccant
Strainer

Storage
tank

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System components

Super Cool Condenser


Receiver type

Super Cooler type

MF Condenser

MF Condenser

Modulator
Sight glass
Receiver/Dryer

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System components

Super Cool Condenser

Dessicant
Modulator

MF Condenser
(Parallel flow)

Super cooling part

Filter / Plug

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Supercooler
Condenser

High pressure gas

Receiver

To expansion valve

High pressure liquid

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Supercooler
Condenser

High pressure gas

Receiver

To expansion valve

High pressure liquid


Super cooler

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System components

Super Cool Condenser


Bubble disappearing point

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System components

Expansion Valve

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System components

Expansion Valve
Operation

Needle Valve

Diaphragm

From Receiver
Enclosed
Refrigerant gas

Heat sensing bulb

Spring

Evaporator

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To Compressor

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System components

Expansion Valve
External Equalizer

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System components

Expansion Valve
Internal Equalizer

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System components

Expansion Valve
Operation ZFC type External Equalizer

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System components

Expansion Valve
Construction Box type

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System components

Expansion Valve
Operation Box type

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System components

Evaporator
Serpentine type

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System components

Evaporator
Drawn Cup ST type

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System components

Evaporator
Drawn Cup MS type

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System components

Piping
Cooling Unit
Low pressure tube
D5/8 ; D3/4
High pressure tube
8mm dia.

Low pressure hose


D5/8 ; D3/4

Receiver
Dryer

Compressor

High pressure hose


D1/2

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Condenser

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System components

Frost prevention

4.8

Resistance
(K)

1.5

2.5
Temperature (C)

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System control

Frost prevention

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System control

Pressure Switch Control

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System control

Pressure Switch Control

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Basic Car Air Conditioning

DENSO Europe BV

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DENSO Europe BV

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System components

Compressor History
Decade

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Market Needs

Energy Saving / Comfort


More compact
Quieter
Lighter
Cooling
power
Variable capacity type
Rotary type
Scroll type
Rotary type
Vane type
Swash plate type
Crank type

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System components

Super Cool Condenser


Function of the Modulator
Modulator

Condenser area

Gas

High Pressure Gas

Liquid
Sub-cool area

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Sub-cool Liquid

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System layout
SUPER COOLING SYSTEM

Refrigerant tubes & hoses


Service valve low pressure

Evaporator

Service valve high pressure

Super cool condenser


Compressor

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