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# SISTEMAS DE IMAGEM

(September 2016)

## 1 - Implement a lens with 50 mm focal length and 30 mm diameter.

(a) Consider a thin (paraxial) lens
(b) Consider the STOP 12 mm before the lens with a diameter equal to
the lens.
(c) If a collimated beam of monochromatic light (wvl 550 nm) hit the
system:
i. Focus the system.
ii. Presents the systems design. What is the f/#?
iii. What is the dimension of the spot? Compare with the expected
diffraction limit (Airy disk).
iv. Simulate the resulting image.
(d) Repeat the previous analysis IF the beam hits the system with a 10
tilt (in Y).
(e) Repeat the previous analysis IF the object is defined by its vertical
position regarding the optical axis (consider 10 mm).
(NOTE: after the change, do an update of all the Windows and
analyze the results)
If necessary, position the object on the axis, 100 mm before the lens.
2 - Repeat the previous exercises (1 and 1b) but replacing the paraxial
(thin) lens with a real lens.
NOTE: Choose the available lens that is more similar to the thin lens from
the Lens Catalogue.
3 - Consider two thin lenses with a distance of 20 mm between each other.
The first has a 10 mm focal length and the second one has a 5 mm focal
length. Both have 12 mm diameter.
Implement in ZEMAX.
Question: Which of the surfaces should represent the Aperture STOP?
Consider an object placed on the axis, 15 mm before the first lens. The
light has a wavelength of 550 nm and a 10 mm diameter relative to the
entrance pupil.

Besides the object considered previously, add two other objects at the same
place BUT with a height (in Y) of 1 mm and 2mm, respectively.
Question: Identify the position of the EXIT PUPIL.
4 - A telescope has the following parameters:
Objective: 100 cm focal length; 10 cm diameter
Ocular: 5 cm focal length; 2 cm diameter
Distance between lenses: 105 cm.
Consider paraxial lenses (thin lenses).
1. In Zemax, which of the surfaces should be defined as the aperture
STOP?
2. If the telescope points to a star, what are the positions of the entrance
pupil and exit pupil?
5 Galileo's first telescope had a planar-convex objective (5.6 cm in
diameter, f = 1.7 m, R = 93.5 cm) and a planar-concave eyepiece, both of
which he ground himself. The magnification of this telescope was 3x. The
last built by Galileo had an amplification of 32X.
Implement in Zemax the 1st telescope built by Galileo assuming that the
objective is made of QUARTZ and has a thickness of 10 mm. Since there is
no data regarding the negative lens, consider it as a thin lens.
6 - A telescope has the following parameters:
Objective: 100 cm focal length; 10 cm diameter
Eyepiece: 5 cm focal length; 2 cm diameter
Distance between lenses: 105 cm.
Consider 3 wavelengths: 380 nm, 550 nm e 780 nm.
(a) Implement this telescope using simple lenses (singlets); analyse.
(b) Use a spherical mirror instead of the previous lens; analyse.
7 - A telescope consists of two mirrors with the following characteristics:
Mirror 1: Concave, parabolic (k = -1), with a radius of curvature
457.2 mm, maximum diameter 200 mm, minimum
diameter 50 mm
Mirror 2: Convex, hyperbolic (k = -3.236), with radius of curvature
192 mm and diameter 70 mm.
The two mirrors are separated by 150 mm.
(a) Implement it in ZEMAX and identify the type of telescope.
(b) Transform the previous telescope on a Cassegrain with a Coud-focus.
2

## 8 - A telescope consists of a lens and a mirror.

Its characteristics are:
Lens: Plano-concave, with a spherical surface with radius of
curvature of 15540 mm, 200 mm diameter, 10 mm
The concave surface faces the lights input side and has
the following aspheric parameters (even):
2nd order: -0.2825E-5
4th order: -0.1716E-8
Mirror: Concave, spherical, with radius of curvature 262.15
mm and diameter 204 mm.
The two are separated by 150 mm.
Implement in ZEMAX.

## 9 - An objective with 8 mm focal length and 12 mm diameter is used in

conjunction with an ocular 25.4 mm focal length and 20 mm diameter in
order to obtain a finite conjugates microscope. The plan where the samples
are placed is 8.4 mm from the lens.
(NOTE: Consider 3 wavelengths: 380 nm, 550 nm e 780 nm)
(a) What is the resolution of the objective and the angular
magnification of the microscope?
(b) Considering thin lenses and a 160 mm tube length, implement
this microscope in ZEMAX.
(c) What is the maximum field that the microscope can capture?
(d) Simulate an object with 10 m height (Field Object Height).
(e) Implements this microscope with simple lenses.
(f) Implements this microscope with doublets. Compare with the
previous.

## 10 - Consider a beam of parallel rays with 10 mm diameter incident into a

Prism in which each surface is tilted 20 relative to the perpendicular, it is
made of glass (BK7), and has a central thickness of 10 mm.
A thin lens with f = 100 mm is placed at 5 mm from the 2nd surface of the
prism. Considering that the light source emits wavelengths between 400 nm
and 800 nm (with 50 nm steps), implement the system using surfaces of
the type "tilted"; Analyze the results.

## 11 - In the exercise 10 replace the two surfaces of the prism by a surface of

the type Diffraction Gratting with the following characteristics:
Material: BK7
Number of lines/m: 0.05
Diffraction order: 2
Analyse the results.

## 12 - Implement a system in which a beam of parallel rays with a

wavelength of 550 nm and diameter (on the entrance pupil) of 10 mm is
incident on a 45 mirror.
This mirror has a diameter of 20 mm and is 50 mm from the origin of the
source.
(a) Using Coordinate Breaks (beside those already used to make the
45 angle) and the Multi-configuration Editor (introduce the operator
PRAM) make the beam scan a plan at 100 mm of the mirror.
Analyse.
(b) Enter a spherical lens with a focal length of 100 mm and diameter
24 mm (e.g. Edmund Optics, ref. 32481 or ref. 32482) 10 mm
AFTER the mirror.
Analyse the results.

## 13 - Optimize the system created in exercise 9d to obtain a collimated

beam. Start by placing a distance between lenses as variable and evolve for
(Only for Zemax versions > 2006)

## 14 - Optimize the system created in exercise 2 to obtain an optimal

focusing (place as variables the two radii of curvature).

## 15 - Simulate a system in which a beam of parallel rays with 20 mm

diameter, cover a biconvex lens BALKN3 with radii of curvature of 60.448
mm and 49.2 mm, 9 mm thick and a diameter of 40 mm.
Considering 3 wavelengths, 480 nm, 550 nm e 680 nm, introduce a 3rd
surface and optimize it in order to obtain a doublet in which the second
(glued) lens is made of SF15 and has a thickness of 3 mm.