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ENGINE CONTROL MODULE (ECM) OPERATION

A . GENERAL

D. SAFETY INPUTS

T h e engine c o n t r o l module (E.C.M.)


is a
microprocessor based module t h a t m o n i t o r s
the control and safety inputs and provides
a l l t h e r e q u i r e d S T A R T and S T p P f u n c t i o n s
automatically.

1 . Low Oil P r e s s u r e S h u t d o w n

(LOP)

M o n i t o r i n g o f o i l p r e s s u r e b e g i n s 12seconds a f t e r unit s t a r t s a n d remains


i n e f f e c t u n t i l u n i t i s s h u t down (.e x c e p t as n o t e d in "loss o f f r e q u e n c y i n p u t " below).'
T h e LOP signal i s der i v e d from an oil p r e s s u r e s w i t c h
mounted on t h e engine.
-

2. H i g h Water T e m p e r a t u r e S h u t d o w n
(HWT)

T h e engine coolant sensor temperature


m o n i t o r i n g b e g i n s immediately w i t h t h e
s t a r t signal.
If water t e m p e r a t u r e i s
heat
excessive at time o f s t a r t , (i.e.,
soak a f t e r s h u t d o w n ) ,
t h e HWT r e d
l i g h t o n l y goes o n ( n o alarm), a n d t h e
unit i s permitted to start.
T h e HWT
condition i s p e r m i t t e d to e x i s t f o r u p
to 60 seconds a f t e r t h e u n i t i s r u n n i n g
b e f o r e s h u t d o w n w i t h alarm occurs.
If
the excessive water temperature cond i t i o n i s c o r r e c t e d w i t h i n t h a t time
period, t h e r e d light i s e x t i n g u i s h e d ,
a n d t h e HWT c i r c u i t b e g i n s normal
monitoring.
T h e HWT signal i s d e r i v e d
from an e l e c t r i c t e m p e r a t u r e sensor
s w i t c h mounted o n t h e engine.

Figure 1 . E.C.M.

6. CONTROL SWITCH INPUTS:


T h e following f r o n t panel c o n t r o l s a n d i n s t r u m e n t s a r e w i r e d i n t o t h e microprocessor
t h r o u g h t h e E.C.M. terminal blocks.

I . Run-Off-Auto Switch
a. "Run"
erator
iatel y

r u n p o s i t i o n causes t h e g e n set t o s t a r t a n d r u n immed-

,CDS

Adiust

S Adiust

b. " O f f "
o f f position prevents u n i t
o p e r a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s of s t a t u s o f r e mote c o n t r o l signal s t a t u s .

c. " A u t o "
a u t o p o s i t i o n allows u n i t t o
b e c o n t r o l l e d v i a a n y remote singlepole " d r y " contact ( t r a n s f e r switch,
s t a r t a n d r u n , while contact o p e n i n g
causes u n i t t o s h u t down.

2. Lamp T e s t
Push b u t t o n energizes a l l f o u r alarm
l i g h t simultaneously.
This feature i s
disabled w i t h t h e r u n - s t o p - a u t o s w i t c h
i n t h e "stop" position, and has n o o t h e r
e f f e c t o n u n i t operation.
C. RELAY FUNCTIONS

(See F i g u r e 1.)

c o n t r o l r e l a y - (CR-1)
operates f u e l solenoid, elapsed time meter,
etc.

1. Master

2. C r a n k i n g c o n t r o l r e l a y

(CR-2)

Adjustment

3. Overspeed A d j u s t m e n t

(0s)

Overspeed p r o t e c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d b y a
f r e q u e n c y sensing n e t w o r k w i t h i n t h e
controller.
The t r i p point of the freq u e n c y n e t w o r k i s adjustable v i a a
r h e o s t a t located o n t h e t o p o f t h e cont r o l l e r a t t h e r i g h t h a n d side.
(See
Clockwise (CW) r o t a t i o n
F i g u r e 2).
increases t h e
trip
frequency
and,
t h e r e b y , raises t h e s h u t d o w n speed.

con-

trols engine cranking.

- (AR)
p r o v i d e s isolated
contact (10-amp maximum) f o r remote
alarm indication, bell, etc.

3. Alarm r e l a y

Figure 2 . E.C.M.

E. CRANKING CONTROL
1. o v e r c r a n k Protection -(OC).
TWO d i f f e r e n t c r a n k i n g cycles a r e programmed
into the controller.

a. F i x e d s i n g l e c y c l e
the controller
is factory supplied with t h e "cranking l i m i t e r " f e a t u r e w h i c h p r o v i d e s
a single, non-adjustable, c r a n k p e r i o d o f 48 seconds.
Failure o f t h e
engine t o s t a r t w i t h i n t h a t time r e s u l t s in a n " o v e r c r a n k " s h u t d o w n
a n d alarm.

b. Cycle cranking feature


t h e cont r o l l e r may b e f i e l d - c o n v e r t e d t o t h e
" c y c l e c r a n k i n g " f e a t u r e by c u t t i n g
t h e j u m p e r w i r e located t h r o u g h t h e
access hole n e a r e s t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
back of the controller.
(See F i g u r e
3).
T h i s f e a t u r e p r o v i d e s a series
o f f i v e c r a n k i n g cycles, each 12 seco n d s l o n g w i t h a 12-second r e s t p e r F a i l u r e o f t h e eni o d between each.
g i n e t o s t a r t b y t h e e n d o f t h e fifth
crank period results i n an "overc r a n k " shutdown: a n d alarm i n d i c a tion.

PROGRAM NOTES

Loss o f f r e q u e n c y i n p u t .

'

I n t e r n a l p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t loss o f f r e q u e n c y
i n p u t t o t h e c r a n k i n g disconnect c i r c u i t i s
programmed in a f t e r t h e unit has s t a r t e d
normally.
I n t h e e v e n t t h e f r e q u e n c y goes
t o zero (engine r u n s o u t o f fuel, alternator
fails, etc.),
t h e LOP s h u t d o w n c i r c u i t i s
b y p a s s e d a n d a 12-second w a i t p e r i o d i s i n i tiated.
I f frequency returns within this
t i m e period, LOP m o n i t o r i n g resumes a n d
operation continues normally.
If f r e q u e n c y
has n o t r e t u r n e d a t t h e e n d o f t h i s time
period, t h e e n g i n e o i l p r e s s u r e s t a t u s i s o b s e r v e d t o determine w h e t h e r t h e e n g i n e i s
a c t u a l l y r u n n i n g o r stopped.
If t h e e n g i n e
has s t o p p e d (i-e.,
a i r in f u e l , etc), t h e
u n i t is shut down w i t h an "overcrank" ind i c a t i o n a n d alarm.

WARNING:
"Overcrank"
indiret i o n c a n mean a l o s s o f c r a n k d i s c o n n e c t s i g n a l during t h e
e. , alp r e v i o u s run p e r i o d i.
t e r n a t o r b e l t broken. Attempting t o r e s t a r t t h e e n g i n e , w i t h
no-crank disconnect s i g n a l can
destroy
the
starter
motor,
which can cause s e r i o u s p e r s o n a l i nj u r y .

CRANKING
JUMPER

Figure 3 . E.C.M. B a c k s i d e
2. C r a n k i n g D i s c o n n e c t A d j u s t m e n t
(CDS A d j u s t m e n t )

F. E.C.M

T h e c r a n k i n g disconnect signal i s obt a i n e d by a f r e q u e n c y n e t w o r k w i t h i n


T h e trip p o i n t o f t h e
t h e controller.
frequency network i s adjustable v i a a
r h e o s t a t located o n t h e t o p o f t h e cont r o l l e r a t t h e l e f t h a n d side.
(See
CW r o t a t i o n increases t h e
Figure 2 ) .
t r i p f r e q u e n c y and,
thereby,
raises
t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r d r o p - o u t speed. T h e
frequency i n p u t is usually obtained from
t h e engine b a t t e r y charging alternator.

T h i s i s o f particular note since t h e tendenc y is t o pursue only cranking and start


related faults.
T h e c r a n k i n g disconnect
signal s o u r c e ( b a t t e r y c h a r g i n g a l t e r n a t o r )
i s a k e y component in t h i s s y s t e m a n d m u s t
b e checked o u t t h o r o u g h l y w h e n e v e r a n
"overcran k " shutdown occurs.

NOTE:
The c o n t r o l l e r does n o t p r o v i d e protection
against
loss o f signal
during
A shutdown w i t h alarm, due t o any
startup.
o f t h e above c o n d i t i o n s , w i l l p r e v e n t any
subsequent o p e r a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a t o r set.
The run-stop-auto
s e l e c t o r s w i t c h on t h e
c o n t r o l panel must be momentarily p l a c e d i n
t h e "stop" p o s i t i o n t o r e s e t these func- .
tions.