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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
Geological mapping is an information collection activity surface geology
which made to reconstruct the conditions in the form of geological maps. The map
can provide an overview of deployment and composition of rock layering, and
contains information about symptoms that affect the geological structure of the
rock distribution patterns of a region. Geological mapping is very important not
only for geology students but also for all the community because due to the
presence of geological mapping, we can determine the condition of an area based
on geological conditions. It also can be used for various purposes such as
academic, economic and much more.
The authors conducted geological mapping as a graduation requirement in
degree (S1), Faculty of Geology, Padjadjaran University. Further mapping was
conducted in the Padalarang district precisely in the area of Padalarang, Bandung
regency, West Java province. In this area, there are many new outcrops are visible
because of the mining area. At this area consists of sedimentation by gravity flow
deposition mechanisms are mostly in the form of sediment such as tuff, sandstone
and interbedded clay and limestone. There are also a Rajamandala formations,
Citarum formations, older volcanic products and sedimentary rocks, alluvial and
lake deposits in this area. Therefore, further geological mapping as one of the
subjects that are important in the field of geology was conducted in the area
Padalarang, Bandung Regency, West Java Province.

1.2 Identification and Problem Formulations


Issues to be examined related to aspects of the geology in the introduction of
research area in geological mapping which is:

How geomorphology conditions in research areas and what are the


processes that influence?

How variations in lithology that make up the research area, including its
characteristics, age, depositional environment and spreading until divided
into how many lithologies as well as how the stratigraphic relationships?

What is geological structure developing in the research area?

How the geological history of the research area?

How geological resources and disaster in research area?

1.3 Purpose and Objectives


The purpose of this study was to understand the geological conditions of the
area mapping, whereas the objective among others.

Collecting, analyzing and presenting data based on the geological research


field.

Assessing geological structures that develop in the area of research so that


data to reconstruct the history of tectonic.

Reconstruct the geological history that developed in the study area

Knowing the potential of the resource that has economic value and
beneficial to local communities Padalarang, Bandung Regency, West Java
Province

1.4 Methodology of Geological Mapping


1.4.1

Object of Research

Objects that may found in the field is a rock outcrop which, usually found on
the edge of the river, the banks and roadsides .These samples will be brought to
laboratory to study details about it such as the nature of rocks and nature of the
strike and dip of the rock layers of rock .These details can be insert in geological
mapping in few manner:

Geomorphology includes characteristics such as slope, drainage patterns


and morphogenetic river, as well as formations of materials. This material
will be done precisely using the media topographic maps, Landsat image
and data of the field works.

Rocks, covers all types of fresh outcrops representing an entity body, not
yet undergoing weathering process, representing a geological phenomenon
such as contact structures, stratigraphic contacts, lithological
characteristics found in the study area and then grouped into units of rock.

Stratigraphy covers up bedding of rock and rock sequence ranging from


the oldest to the youngest as well as the distribution of rock units.
Paleontology, in the form of content analysis to determine the age of
fossils and bathymetry of each unit in the sedimentary rocks as well as to
facilitate the preparation of stratigraphic.

Indication of the geology structure that can be used to determine the type
and the growing pattern of geological structures in research area.
Sedimentary structures, to determine the depositional environment of each
rock units and to determine the history of their ancient stream

Geological history, it is about the translation of the geological evolution of


the structure over time. Geological history, including the reconstruction of
the stratigraphy is based on fossil analysis, periods of tectonic and
volcanic activities that take place in the area of research.

Minerals found in the area of research into consideration the development


potential of the area. Geological hazards found in the study area in
anticipation of the negative impacts that would be occured in the future.

1.4.2

The Equipments Used

Field tools that used in the field work to collect data during field work. Those
tools that are used for field work examples:

Camera

Scale topographic map 1:12500 is the digitized results on digital


topographical map of Indonesia (Bakosurtanal) in part of Padalalarang
sheet (1209-224) is used as a base map.

GPS (Global Positioning System) is used as a tool to determine the


location of outcrops based astronomical coordinate system.

Geological compass, used to determine the location of outcrops in the map


(field orientation) and measure the direction and inclination of bedding
rock stance and to measure the geological structure.

Geological hammer, used to take rock samples and the opening of bedding
rock in outcrop in certain conditions.

Magnifier loop with magnification 10 x and 20 x to observe the texture


and composition of the rocks.

Comparator mineral grain size, compare the grain size, grain shape,
mineral and diagrams to estimate the percentage of the volume of rock
fragments.

Plastic samples, stationary, measuring tape and other tools that can be
usable during the fieldwork.

HCL 0.1 N is used to identify the content of carbonate rocks.

1.4.3

Workflow of Research

Preparation Phase
Preparation phase is an early stage in conducting a study that will determine
every phase of next steps. In preparation phase, the activities carried out by
collecting information on the mapping area from various sources as a reference
and to learn more about the conditions of geology area to be input in map finally.
The preparation phase includes the following below:

Permit request to Kesbang, Bandung state, Padalarang districts and


following several villages.

Base map is a topographic map and a map of the drainage pattern of the
area to be mapped, ie with repeated returns to scale 1:12500 digitization
Digital Topographic map of Indonesia (Bakosurtanal) Padalarang sheet
(1209-224) in the scale of 1:12500.

The implementation of this method can be done by creating a temporary


interpretive area mapping based topographic maps, together with
information from previous researchers and other references relating to the
foregoing circumstances geomorphology map. Next, also be noted that
relevance of geomorphology term of the research area, so it can be
determined the pattern of hills, river drainage, patterns, density of contour
and alignment topography. Hence, these steps can be done with the help of
interpretation of image landsat.
Field Work Phase

Plotting observation station location on map

Observations of rock outcrops found in the field include the type, physical
characteristics megascopic, measuring the direction and slope of the
bedding, coating thickness and sedimentary structures, so that they can be
grouped into units of rock.

Observation of the indications that may indicate a change in lithology and


geological structure.

The description of sketches and photo shoot.

Sampling of rocks that are considered to represent a rock units for


subsequent analysis in the laboratory.

Measurement of stratigraphic cross sections perpendicular to the track


direction and the change in the distribution of rock lithology.

The method used in this study is the method of field orientation and is
supported by the use of GPS(Global Position System).Methods of field
orientation began by drawing a line directionally from the observation
point to an object which are clear and recognizable on the map or by
observing and matching the landscape around the observations. GPS
(Global Position system) applied to plot existing stations in the field in the
geographic coordinate even though observations made at other fields.

Processing Stage and Analysis Data


At this stage there are few geological analysis may occur such as
Geomorphology, Stratigraphy, Geology Structural, Geology History, and
Geological Resources, Paleontology and Petrology.
Geomorphology analysis
In the distribution of geomorphological units of the author refers to the
classification of landform BMB (Brahmantyo and Bandono, 2006). BMB
classification contains principles of the formation of the main geological
morphology refers to the geological processes both endogen and hexogen.
Interpretation and naming based on descriptive explanatory (genetic) and not by
empirical (geological common terminology) or parametric example of criteria
percent slopes.
a) Morphography
Morphology can be explained by using the outline shape of the earth surface or
the architecture. The difference of heights usually measured from sea level,
because the sea level is considered as an area that has a height of zero numbers.
The outline of morphology can be broadly divided into the hills landform,
mountains, volcanoes, valleys and flatland or plain. There are few type aspects of
morphology such as:
1. Plain land form has a slope of 0-2% which consists of marine origin form,
fluvial origin form, the origin of the mixture (delta) and form plateau
landform.

2. Hills or mountainous landform hills, consist 0-500 meters with a slope of


7-20%, while the mountains have elevations of more than 500 meters
above sea water level with a slope more than 20%.Landforms consists of
hills that form from intrusion, the hills of volcanic domes spices, karst
hills, hills extends to the constituent of sedimentary rocks and forms
mountainous landform.
3. volcanic landform has a height more than 1000 meter with slope 56-140%
4. valley, that consisting of valleys form u, blunt v and sharp v
5. Forms a slope consists of convex slope shape, concave and straight.
6. Pattern of ridge and drainage patterns
Drainage pattern is a collection of a drainage network in an area that is affected
or influenced by the rainfall or continuous stream flow. Drainage pattern flow
very easily recognized from topographic maps or photos virgin, drainage patterns
are closely related to rock type, geological structure, the condition erosion and the
shape of the earth's history (Howard1967,in Van Zuidam,1988) says drainage
pattern divides into two, namely, the basic flow pattern and flow pattern
modification. Archetype is a pattern that is readable and can be differentiate with
other patterns. The modification of drainage pattern is by observing the
characteristic of pattern archetype in table 1.1 and table 1.2.
Table 1.1
Basic
drainage
pattern
Dendritic

Parallel

Trellis

Characteristics
Common forms like leaves, growing in rocks with the same
relative hardness, sedimentary rocks are relatively flat and
resistant to weathering, the slope of the ramps, less influenced by
geological structure.
Tends to be parallel from the general form, changes through
moderate to steep, influenced by geological structure, located on
the elongated hills, influenced by folding, transition of a dendritic
pattern and pattern trellis.
Elongated along the direction of bedding stance sedimentary
rocks. Watercourses often arced turn to the extension of the cut
grooves mountain usually controlled by folding. Tilted or folded
sedimentary, volcanic rocks and degree of sedimentry rock with

low degree of weathering has obvious difference . This type of


pattern on the sides facing along the stream flow of subsequent.
Rectangle

Main river with tributary changes the direction of the tilted arch,
controller structure or fault that have slopes, lacked looping layer
rocks, and often shows a pattern of not continuous streaming.

Radial

Forms spreading from one Center, it usually occurs at the dome of


the intrusion volcanic cone and remnants of erosion. Consist two
centrifugal system with variable spread out from the Center
(dome-shaped) and the direction of centripetal spread out toward
the Center (basin).

Ring

The form of a ring that arranged by the creeks, whereas the parent
River tributaries cut almost perpendicular. Characterized adult
truncated have dome or eroded, prepared hard and soft rock.

Multi
basinal

The sediment surface avalanche results dune with the difference


scour or bedrock, is leveling the ground motion, volcanism,
dissolving limestone, and melt snow or permafrost.
Formed in metamorphic rocks with an intrusion dike, the veins
showed a relatively hard rocks area, the relatively long tributaries
into the direction of subsequent arch, generally a differentiator
between subduction for anticline or syncline.

Contorted

Table 1.2

Modification
drainage
pattern
Sub dendritic

General structural

Pinnate

The texture is smooth and has further eroded rocks

Anastomotic

Floodplain, delta or swamp

Dichotomy

Alluvial fans and deltas such as weaving

Sub parallel

The extension of slope is controlled by the extended landforms.

Collinear

Straight landform which contains material composition of soft


sandshore
Homocline ramps example, beach shoal

Directorial
trellis
Trellis turn

Characteristics

Extended folding

Stout trellis

Parallel fault

Angular
Karst

Robust and fault on sloping terrain


Limestone

b) Morphometric
Morphometric quantitative assessment of the shape of the land, as supporting
aspects of morph graphic and morphogenetic, so that the classification of the
increasingly assertive with the numbers clearly.
Analysis of the tilt the slope is done by creating a grid squares (grid cell) size 2 x
2cm on a topographic map of the area of research (1:12500).Then drawn
perpendicular to the contour lines from the highest point to the lowest point in the
lattice and the calculate tilt of the slopes by using the following equation:
In Table 1.3, the distribution of slope and landform quantitatively, by calculating
the amount of gratuity and grouped by large slope angle, to determine the number
of comparisons by calculating the difference in height with a flat distance formed.
Verstappen and Van Zuidam (1968 and 1975) says that endogenous and
exogenous processes of the past and present is the most prominent factor of the
development of a landscape, so it should be clearly described and used symbols
are used to characterized the colour. Geomorphological symbol aspects of striking

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and has important meaning in the map, such as morphogenetic aspects in


determining the geomorphological units.
Table 1.3
Class
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Slope angle
(%)
( )
0-2
0-2
2-7
2-4
7-15
4-8
15-30 8-16
30-70 16-35
7035-55
140
>140 >55

classification
plain
Slightly sloping
Sloping
Rather steep
Steep
Very steep
High pitched

c) Morphogenetic
Horizon landform on the face of the Earth in two processes that incur
endogenic which is a process which is influenced by the strength of the Earth's
crust, and the exogenous process is a process which is influenced by climate, such
as vegetation, erosion, manmade. Seen from the main formation control of
genesis, landform can expand into a form of structural origin, volcanic, fluvial,
marine, karst, Aeolian and denudation. Symbols recommended to be used as a
symbol of geomorphological units based on genetic aspects (Van Zuidam, 1985)
in Table 1.4.

TABLE 1.4
Genetic class
structural origin of landforms
origin of volcanic landform
landform origins denudasional

Color symbol
purple
red
brown

landform marine origin

green

landform origin rivers(fluvial)


landform origins of ice(glacial)
landform origins wind(Aeolian)
origin limestone landforms(karst)

Light blue
Dark blue
yellow
orange

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Stratigraphic Analysis
On the field, firstly stratigraphic analysis will be done through megascopic.
Division unit of rocks based on the units of the unofficial litostratigraphy, i.e. the
naming unit of rocks based on the physical characteristics of rocks that can be
observed in the field, including, the type of rock, the uniformity of the symptoms
lithology and stratigraphic positions (Sandi Stratigraphy Indonesia, about
15).Whereas the determination of the boundaries of dissemination unit must meet
password requirements stratigraphy of Indonesia 1996. .Examples:
1. The litostratigraphy unit is a touch between two units of the different traits
of the lithology which is basic of the units of the both differentiate.
2. The unit is placed on a real field changes to its lithology or in the event of
such changes are not real, its boundary is the estimated field position.
3. Units are continues to fade or changes its transition can be separated as its
own unit if it fulfill the requirements.
4. Spreading a litostratigraphy unit is solely determined by the continuation
of the traits that characterize the determining lithology.
5. In practical terms, the deployment of a unit litostratigraphy depositional
basin is limited by restrictions or other geological aspects.
6. Boundaries of the law (geography) should not be used as a reason for the
end of the lateral spread of the unit.
Naming litostratigraphic unit based on the most dominant species in units as
mention above. Observation against lithology field on rock through megacopic
covers the rock colour such as mouldy colour or fresh color, grain size, grain
shape, packing, sorting, hardnesss, additional minerals, sedimentary structure,
content fossils and others.

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Indicative of stratigraphic touch found in the field is very useful to determine the
relationship between one unit rocks with different unit of rocks. There are also
few basic stratigraphic types can be determined:

1. Bedding is characteristic of sedimentary rocks that exhibit parallel fields


caused by the sedimentation. Layer formed due to changes in
sedimentation processes, such as tides, flooding or temperature
differences.
2. Bedding plane is a plane which is the bedding and can be realized in the
form of a stretch of a particular mineral, grain size, or sharp touch area
between two different kinds of rocks.
3. Layer is the smallest stratigraphic unit consisting of one kind of rock is
homogeneous, the top and bottom bedding plane bounded by a sharp or
gradual.

Limitation of stratigraphic units determined in accordance with the


characteristics of the unit and limitation spreading of a layer of lateral
uniformity depends on the type of lithology and deposition medium. Contact
between unit of rocks or stratigraphic touch can be sharp or gradual. There are
three kinds of touch stratigraphy, examples;
1. In harmony: sedimentation takes place continuously without interruption
or influence alosiklik causes the condition of non-deposition or hiatus.
2. Not aligned above unconfirmity: not continuous sedimentation cycle,
caused by diastem or non-deposition conditions in a significant time span.
3. Not aligned erosional: erosional conditions on the strata, caused by
tectonic activity or shift fundamentally deposition system.
Determines the age and depositional environment is determined based on
analysis of the content of the fossil using fossil foraminifers plantonik age range
according to Postuma (1971) and Blow (1969) as well as a range of depositional
environments of fossil foraminifers bentonic by Phleger (1960). Identification of
lithologic characteristics and proportionate to the results of previous research
studies into the additional information in determining the relative age and
depositional environment.

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Structural Geology Analysis


Topographic interpretation needs to be done to see indications that include the
interpretation of the geological structure density contour lines, rivers straightness,
straightness ridge, drainage patterns, and so on.
All indications have been found to be reconstructed in conjunction with the
reconstruction of the pattern of rock stance that will result in the type, direction
and pattern of geological structures that develop in the area which was then
poured in Structural Pattern Map. The period of the structure drawn by or under
the age of proportionality regional lithological units are affected.
a) Fold
Multiplicity is the result of deformation or change in shape or volume of an
indicated as an arch or arches set on a line element or fields in rocks. Line element
or field in question is a bedding plane. Based on the geometry, structure folds can
be divided into:
Anticline: fold is where its convex part facing upward. In this case, the
older the rock deeper lying. If the rock has undergone a reversal of the
crease was called Synform.
Syncline: folds where the basin is its pointing upwards. Where the younger
rocks located deeper. If the rock has undergone a reversal of the crease
was called Antiform.
In order to observe multiplicity structure in the field is to see gradual changes in
slope (dip) of rock layers and looping sequence variations in lithology.

b) Shear/Joint
Shear is defined as a fracture in the earth's crust that has not or slightly shifted
along the field, as a result of further pressure. Shear break the rock with a
relatively smooth fracture lengths ranging from a few centimeters to hundreds of
meters. Genetically, stout can be divided into two types namely.
1. Muscular shear zones (Shear joint) is a fracture of his field formed because
of the tendency for each shift (shearing) fracture in the direction of the
field.

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2. Muscular pull (Extensional joint) is a fracture which areas are formed by


circumstances tendency to attract each other (stretched) or shifted
perpendicular to the plane of the fracture.
Shear can be differentiating as:
Tension Fracture, which shear fracturing field direction of the sharpness.
Shear type is usually filled by hydrothermal fluids which then turned into a
vein.
Release Fracture, which namely tensile shear formed by the loss or
reduction of pressure, orientation perpendicular to the main force. This
structure is commonly referred to as "stylolite".
Shear is one of the structures that are difficult to observe, because the burly can
form at any time of geological events, such as before the occurrence of folds.
Another difficulty is the absence or relatively small shift of shear, so it cannot be
determined which groups are formed before or afterwards. However in the
analysis, shear can be used to help determine the sharpness pattern, with the
assumption that the burly-burly in the whole region is formed before or during the
formation of the fault.
As noted by several authors, and explicitly by Bott (1959) that the movement of
the fault will follow the direction of the fracture scissors (Conjugate Shear). The
analysis is used in determining the stocky Anderson reference as follows:
1. is at the midpoint of the intersection of two conjugate shear field which
has a narrow angle
2. are at a point of intersection between the fields of conjugate shear.
3. is at the midpoint of the intersection of two conjugate shear field which
has an obtuse angle.
4. The orientation of the joint direction of the tensional.
5. Stylolites orientation with the orientation or direction of the orientation.
6. Shear and tensional field will form a narrow angle.
7. Shear field with a joint release will form an obtuse angle.
Vein is a mineral filled tensional strapping. As we map out and analyze the
grinding lines, veins are often found in large numbers. Most veins are generally

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associated with a path filled with mineral crushing quartz and calcite. Vein can
also be filled by minerals contained in the hydrothermal fluids that break through
the cracks, such as feldspar, mica, oxides, and gypsum in a particular rock type.
Vein can be a reliable indicator to determine the characteristics of the grinding
path. Vein direction generally perpendicular to the axis of the minimum sharpness.

c) Fault
Observation of the existence and the direction and type of faults in the field is
done by analyzing the existing indications, such as the existence, fault plane, fault
mirror, drag fold (drag folds), offset lithology, stocky, brecciation (fault rock),
crushed zone, the pattern of alignment, springs hot and waterfalls.
Classification of fault has been raised by experts earlier, given the fault
structure is fracture in the rocks with a significant shift, the analysis of fault
structure is emphasized in order to determine the type, direction and magnitude of
the shift.
Given the direction of the "net slip" that has some possibilities, "pitch" that
ranges from 0-90 then Rickard (1972) makes the fault grouping that includes
"strike slip with a" dip-slip ". Grouping the fault, example:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Pitch 0 - 10: Pure horizontal


Pitch10 -45:Dominant horizontal
Pitch 45-80: Dip-slip dominant
Pitch 80-90:Dip-slip pure

Fault indication in the field is not easy to find for it is necessary to know the data
processing stocky main emphasis (Anderson, 1951 in The Mapping of
Geological Structures, McClay, 1987) classifies the fault .Anderson into three
main types based on the orientation sharpness and expressed in (principle stress),
(intermediate stress), and (minimal stress) that are perpendicular to one another as
triaxial. Dynamically, fault can be classified into:
1. Normal fault, where the vertical and horizontal as well. The magnitude of
the tilt angle (dip) fault plane approaching 60.
2. Horizontal fault, where the vertical and horizontal as well as

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3. Reverse fault, where the vertical and horizontal. The slope of the fault
plane near 30.

Geological History Analysis


Writing is the result of the interpretation of the geological history of all aspects
of geology, particularly stratigraphy and geological aspects of the structure and
stratigraphy The results of the geological structure of the discussion is based on
the sequence of events and geologic time, so in order to know the evolution of the
changing patterns of sedimentation, tectonics, and erosion that has occurred
during the period geologic time.
Petrology Analysis
Research in this laboratory is done to get an overview of the description and
thin section of the rock, which can later be used to determine the naming of rocks,
based on the composition and mineral content of rock constituent. The aspects
analyzed include boxed (relationships between components, materials
cementation), component size, shape and mineralogy composition of a rock
constituent, as well as naming a specific classification of rocks according to thinly
slice preparations by using a polarizing microscope.

Paleontology Analysis
The research conducted in this laboratory to analyze fossils obtained in the
field, to determine the age and bathymetry of rock samples were analyzed.
Analysis of small foraminifera fossils consist of two phases, namely the
separation of fossils from rocks and fossil identification using a dissecting
microscope is then used to determine the relative age and rock depositional
environment. Plantonic foraminifera fossils to determine the age determined by
the zoning Bolli and Saunders (1985).

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Geological Resources Analysis


Research in this laboratory is done to get the sharpness of the measurement
pattern burly in the field, and to determine the type of geological structures that
developed in the study area, by way of entering data cesarean mirror and
processed using the stress series 8 or program using data stocky using program
dips 5 series, thus directly note working toward sharpness.
Report Phase
The writing of the report is the final stage of all research activities. This stage is
realized in the form of a written report containing a synthesis of all the data
analysis.

Mapping Phase
At this stage of reconstruction and interpretation of field data that is supported
by the results of laboratory analysis. The result will form in aspect of geological
mapping and the various maps such as framework map, bedding rock pattern map,
geomorphology map and geology map.

1.4.4

General Geographic Area of Research

The location of the study area is administratively located in the Padalarang area,
Bandung Regency, West Java Province. Geographically, the study area is located
at 107o25o40 until 107o28o10 and -6o48o40 until -6051010. The study area
included in the Regional Geological Map Cianjur sheets according to Sujatmiko
(1972) whereas Bakosurtanal map, research areas included into Padlalarang sheet
(1209-224).

Deadline of Mapping Work


Further geological mapping was done on November 2015 until February 2016.
This mapping is done in phases as follows: Figure 1.1

Preparation Phase
Field Work Phase

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Processing Stage and Analysis Data


Report Phase
Mapping Phase

Preparation Phase
Ask permission
Request permit
Base camp
Study Literature
Base Map
Geomorphology tentative
map, Morphometry and
Before Mapping
Morphography
Preparation of Chapter I
and II
Guidance with the
supervisor

Work Flow Chart

Processing
Mapping
PhasePhase

Outcrop
Mapping
Observation
Activities
Sample of
outcrop
Structural Data
Geomorpholog
y data

Geomorphology
Arrangement
of Daily
ReportAnalysis
Petrology
Framework
MapAnalysis
Structural
Pattern
Stratigraphy Map
Geomorphology
Analysis Map
Geology
Map
After
Mapping

Paleontology
AnalysisPhase
Report
Structural Geology
Preparation
of Chapter
Analysis
Geology
History
III and
IV
Power Analysis
Point
Guidance with the