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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN , PATNA REGION MASTER CARDS/SURE SHOT QUESTIONS SUBJECT -BIOLOGY, CLASS-XII

Chapter 1 (Reproduction in Organism)

Q1.

What is life span? Give example life span of Parrot and Crow.

Q2.

What is juvenile phase?

Q3.

What is senescence phase?

Q4.

What is Hermaphrodite? Give two examples of such animals.

Q5.

Name any two organisms and the phenonenon involved where the female gamete

Q6.

undergoes development to form new organisms without fertilisation. Which is haploid or diploid among following:-

Q7.

ovary, egg, anther, pollen grain, zygote, male gamete. A moss plant produces a large number of antherozoids but relatively few egg cells.

Q8.

Why? What is homothallic and heterothallic? Give examples.

Q9.

What is the difference between oviparous and viviparous? Give examples.

Q10.

What is the difference between Asexual and Sexual reproduction? Discuss Binary

Q11.

fission and Budding. What are Zoospores , Conidia, Gemmules? Give examples of organisms having such

Q.12.

spores. What is the difference between external and internal fertilisation?

Q.13.

What are the events of sexual reproduction. Mention post fertilisation events.

Q.14.

Describe the post-fertilisation changes in a flower.

Q.15.

What is pericarp? Define fruit seed and embryo.

Q.16.

Rearrange the following events of sexual reproduction in the sequence in which they occur in a flowering plants : embryogenesis, fertilisation, gametogenesis, pollination.

Sexual Reproduction in Plants (Chapter-2)

Q.1.

Draw a well labeled diagram of T.S. of Anther.

Q.2

Draw a well labeled diagram of micro sporangium showing different wall layers.

Q.3.

What is micro-sporogenesis? Write a flow chart showing the development of male

Q.4.

gametophyte. Pollens are good sources to study evolution. What is the reason behind it?

Q.5.

Define the term ‘Megasporogenesis’.

Q.6.

Draw a well labeled diagram regarding development of female gametophyte.

Q.7.

What do you understand by the term pollination? What are its types?

Q.8.

Write any two difference between cleistogamous & cghasmogamous flower.

Q.9.

What are the features of the flowering plant to which is pollinated by wind.

Q.10.

Describe double fertilisation.

Q.11.

Draw a well labeled diagram of L.S. of an embryo of grass.

Q.12.

Draw a well labeled diagram maize seed.

Q.13.

Explain the term with examples.

  • a) False fruit

  • b) Parthenocarpic fruit

  • c) Albuminous & Non-Albuminous seed

Q.14.

In some flowering plants like grasses & asteraceae, there is development of seed without fertilisation. Name the process adopted by them.

Q.15.

What is Polyembryony? Give two examples.

Q.16.

Seed is the basis of our agriculture. give your view regarding this in brief.

CHAP-3

Human Reproduction

(1) At what stage is the human embryo implanted in the uterus?

1

(2) Where is acrosome present in human body?

1

(3) How many sperms will be produced from 50 primary spermatocytes?

1

(4) Expand(1)hCG(2)FSH

1

5) (a)is it important to feed the new born babies on colostrums?

1

(b)The human testes are located outside the abdominal cavity. (6) Menstrual cycles are absent during pregnancy. Why?

2

(7) Explain the hormonal regulation of the process of spermatogenesis

In

male

3

(8). What is menstrual cycle .Describe briefly the cycle highlighting the role of harmones 3

(9) A married couple goes to the hospital for regular checkup of the lady who is pregnant.

The man is curious and asks the doctor to tell him the sex of the child,But the doctor refuses

.Answer the following questions based on above information

A-Did the doctor do the right thing .Which value is being promoted by the doctor?

B-What is this process of determining the sex of the foetus called?Explain.

C-What should be the result if all the doctor do not act in the same manner as

mentioned?

1+2+1=4

above

(10) (a) When and where does spermatogenesis occurs in human male? (b) Draw a neat diagram of a mature human male gamete. Label the following parts Acrosome, nucleus, middle piece and tail. (c) Mention the functions of acrosome and middle piece.5 (11)During the reproductive cycle of a human female, when, where and how does a placenta develop? What is the function of placenta during pregnancy and embryo development ? 5

------------------------

CHAPTER -4

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

Q1.Expand a)IUD

b)MTP

1

Q2.Why do intensely lactating mothers not generally conceive? Q3. After a brief medical examination a healthy couple came to know that both of them are

1

unable to produce functional gametes and should look for an ‘ART’ (Assisted Reproductive Technique). Name the ‘ART’ and the procedure involved that you can suggest to them to

help them bear a child.

2

Q4.What are the measuers one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?

3

Q5.i) All sexually transmitted dieases are completely curable. ii) In fertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities or defects in the female partner. iii) In ET techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.

3

Q6

Your School has been selected by the Department of Education to Organize and host an interschool seminar on "Reproductive Health-Problems and Practices". However, many

 

parents are reluctant to permit their wards to attend it. Their argument is that the topic is "too embarrassing". Put forth four arguments with appropriate reasons and explanation to justify the topic to be

Q7

very essential and timely. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.

5

4

Chapter-5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Sure Shot Questions

Chapter-5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Sure Shot Questions
Chapter-5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Sure Shot Questions
Chapter-6 MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE 1. DNA Page:-2  Polynucleotide chain  Double stranded  -

Chapter-6 MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE

  • 1. DNA

Page:-2

Polynucleotide chain

Double stranded

- vely charged

hydrophillic

  • 2. Nucleotide= Nitrogenous base + Pentose sugar +

Phosphate group.

  • 3. Nitrogenous base = Purines & Pyrimidine’s

Chapter-6 MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE 1. DNA Page:-2  Polynucleotide chain  Double stranded  -

Adenine + Guanine

cytosine + Thymine + Uracil

 

(A)

(G)

(c)

(T)

(U)

A Combines with T. (A=T)

G Combines with C. (G=C)

4.

Double helix model of DNA(1953)

 

James Watson and Francis crick.

Two chains have anti polarity.

One chain has polarity 5’ – 3’ & other has 3’- 5’

Double helix model based on X-ray diffraction data produced by Maurice wilkins and Rosolind Franklin.

5.

Erwin Chargaff’s rules:-

(i)

Amount of A is equal to T.

(ii)

Amount of G is equal to C Double H-bond between A & T i.e A=T,

(iii)

Three H-bond between G & C i.e. GC

  • 6. Central Dogma Francis crick states that genetic information always flows in uni-direction. (except bi-direction in some viruses)

  • DNA Transcription mRNA Translation

5. Erwin Chargaff’s rules: - (i) Amount of A is equal to T. (ii) Amount of

Replication

Protein

5. Erwin Chargaff’s rules: - (i) Amount of A is equal to T. (ii) Amount of
  • 7. Packaging of DNA (1) In prokaryotes, well defined nucleus is absent so DNA present in a region called nucleoid. (2) In eukaryotes vely charged DNA wraps around the + vely charged histone proteins to form a structure called nucleosome.

Nucleosomes contain 200bp of DNA helix.

  • 8. Chromatin

Repeating units of nucleosome form the chromatin in nucleus.

  • 9. Euchromatin

loosely packed

stains light

transcriptionally active

  • 10. Heterochromatin

Densely packed

Stains dark

transcriptionally inactive

  • 11. Transforming principle(1928)

Fredrick Griffith

S strain

  • inject into mice

  • micedie

R strain

  • inject into mice

  • micelive

S strain

  • inject into mice

  • micelive

(Heat killed)

S strain

  • inject into mice

  • micedie

(Heat killed)

+

R Strain

He concluded that heat killed S-type bacteria caused a transformation of R-type bacteria into S-type bacteria but he was not able to understand the cause of transformation.

Page:-5

  • 12. Biochemical characterization of transforming principle (1933-44)

Oswald Avery, Colin Macleod &MaclynMc Carty.

They reported that DNa causes the transformation of R- type to S-type bacteria

they also discovered:- Proteases: Didn’t affect transformation. RNase: Didn’t affect transformation Dnose: affect transformation.

  • 13. Alfred Hershey and Martha chase (1952)

Worked on bacteriophage to prove that DNA is the genetic material.

Infection: Virus were allowed to infect E-coli.

Blending: Bacterial cells were gently agitated in blender to remove viral coats from bacteria.

Centrifugation: Culture was also centrifuged to separate the viral particle from bacteria.

  • 14. Properties of genetic material:

Able to replicate itself.

Chemically & structurally stable.

Senitise toward mutation.

obey Mendel’s inheritance law.

  • 15. DNA Versus RNA.

Page:-6

RNA is more reactive due to presence of uracil.

Additional OH group in RNA at C no.2

DNA is better genetic material

DNA is evolved from RNA.

  • 16. Replication (1953)

Watson & Crick proposed that DNA replication was semi conservative.

Matthew Meselson& Franklin stahl

(1958) worked on E coil to prove that DNA replication is semi conservative. Taylor (1958)worked on eukaryotic plant Viciafaba to prove DNA rep is semiconservative.

  • 17. Enzymes in Replication:

DNA dependent DNA polymerase.

Helicase

DNA ligase

Primase

Leading strand: 3’-5’- Continuous

Lagging strand: 5’-3’- discontinuous

18.

Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate:

Acts as substrate

Provide energy.

  • 19. In Eukaryotes, replication accures at S-phase.

  • 20. Transcription:

process of copying genetic information from one strand of the DNA into RNA is termed as transcription.

Promoter: Binding site for RNA polymerase

Structural gene: Codes for enzyme or protein for structural functions.

Terminator: Region where transcription ends.

DNA dependent RNA polymerase.

Only single strand copied into RNA.

  • 21. Transcription in prokaryotes:

Polycistronic

RNA polymerase

factor and factor

Initiation, elongation & termination.

  • 22. Transcription in Eukaryote:

Monocistronic RNA polymerase I rRNA RNA polymerase II mRNA, hn RNA

RNA Polymerase III tRNA

Cappling – methyl guanosine triphosphate in added to 5’ end of hnRNA

Tailing- adenylate are added at 3’ end

  • 23. Splicing: Removal of introns and exons are joined to form mRNA.

  • 24. Genetic Code: (George gamow) Triplet Universal Specific Degenerate Commaless AUG-initiator

Total 64 codons in which three are stop or terminating codon i.e. UAA,UGA, UAG.

  • 25. Mutations: Sudden inheritable change in the genetic material.

Point mutation: Sickel cell anaemia.

frame shift mulation.

Insertion

Deletion

  • 26. t-RNA

Clover leaf like structure.

Adapter molecule

Anticodon loop (5’)

Aminoacid acceptor end (3’)

Specific

  • 27. Translation:

Polymerisation of amino acid

Charging of tRNA.

aminoacylation of tRNA

Ribosome factory for protein synthesis.

Ribozyme from peptide bond.

UTR.

Peptide bond is formed between CooHgroup of amino acid at P site and NH group

Initiation Elongation and termination.

Activation of Amino acid: AminoacyltRNAsynthetase.

A site: Smaller

P Site: larger

of amino acid at A site by the enzyme by peptidyl transferase. Dissociation of polypeptide from ribosome catalysed by released factor.

  • 28. Lac Operon Concept:- (1961)

Jacob and Monod

Structural gene

Promoter

Operater

Regulator gene

Inducer

  • Three structural gene:- ZB galactosidase- Lactose -Glucose + galactose. y->Permease increases permeability. a->transacetylase transcetylation.

  • Switch on inducer present(lactose) Switch off- inducer absent.

    • 29. Human genome Project (HGP) Mega project (13 year) & 9 billion U.S dollar. Expressed sequence Tags.

BAC, YAC, SNPs. ELSI(ethical legal social issues)

Frederick Sanger-> Method for determination amino acid sequence in protein.

  • 30. DNA finger printing:-

Repetitive DNA Satellite DNA(Micro & Mini) Polymorphism.

Source of DNA :-bood, hair follicle, skin, bone saliva etc. Allecejeffreys.

VNTR (Variable no. of Taendem repeats)

Steps:-

(i)

isolation.

(ii)

digestion by rest endonueleases.

(iii)

Separation by eletrpharesis.

(iv)

Amplification by PCR.

(v)

Blotting(nitrocellulose or nylon)

(vi)

Hybridisation by VNTR probe.

(vii)

Detection and representation.

DNA STRUCTURE

DNA is a long polymer of deoxyribonucleotides (Nucleotide1+ Nucleotide2+ Nucleotide+…… ) ..

Nucleotides-pentose Suger (deoxyribose)+ phosphate group +nitrogenous base

 Steps:- (i) isolation. (ii) digestion by rest endonueleases. (iii) Separation by eletrpharesis. (iv) Amplification by
 Steps:- (i) isolation. (ii) digestion by rest endonueleases. (iii) Separation by eletrpharesis. (iv) Amplification by
 Steps:- (i) isolation. (ii) digestion by rest endonueleases. (iii) Separation by eletrpharesis. (iv) Amplification by

NUCLEOTIDE

Poly NUCLEOTIDE

DNA

  • DNA STRUCTURE SALIENT FEATURES

 

Two polynucleotide chains are coiled to form a helix. Sugar-phosphate forms backbone of this helix while bases project in wards to each other.

 
 Guanine helix is 34 Å and includes 10.6

Guanine

helix is 34 Å and includes 10.6

Anti parallel(5' 3' -> 3' 5'

Thymine = Adenine, Cytosine

 

Bases are 3.4 Å apart

One turn of the double

bases

. Diameter 20 Å

  • DNA vs RNA

 
   

DNA

 

RNA

contains ribose sugar

contains ribose sugar

 Two polynucleotide chains are coiled to form a helix. Sugar-phosphate forms backbone of this helix
 Two polynucleotide chains are coiled to form a helix. Sugar-phosphate forms backbone of this helix

Deoxyribose sugar in DNA is less reactive because of C-H

Ribose sugar is more reactive because of C-OH (hydroxyl) bonds

bonds(STABLE)

(LESS STABLE)

adenine, guanine, cytosine and

adenine, guanine, cytosine, and

THYMINE

URACIL

less mutant

Can easily undergo mutation

never cross nucleus

can cross nucleus

double stranded

generally single stranded

  • Packaging of DNA Helix

1. DNA+HISTONE PROTEIN (OCTAMER) =NUCLEOSOME (DNA wraps around special proteins called histones, which form loops of DNA called nucleosomes) The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes shortens the fiber length

 Packaging of DNA Helix 1. DNA+HISTONE PROTEIN (OCTAMER) = NUCLEOSOME (DNA wraps around special proteins
 Packaging of DNA Helix 1. DNA+HISTONE PROTEIN (OCTAMER) = NUCLEOSOME (DNA wraps around special proteins

2. These nucleosomes coil and stack together to form fibers called

chromatin

  • become a "string-of-beads

 Packaging of DNA Helix 1. DNA+HISTONE PROTEIN (OCTAMER) = NUCLEOSOME (DNA wraps around special proteins
 Packaging of DNA Helix 1. DNA+HISTONE PROTEIN (OCTAMER) = NUCLEOSOME (DNA wraps around special proteins
  • chromatin is still much too long to fit into the nucleus

3.CHROMATIN + NHC(NON HISTONE CHROMOSOMAL) PROTEIN

Nucleosomes fold up to form a 30-nanometer chromatin fiber(SOLENOID FORM), which forms loops averaging 300 nanometers in length. The 300 nm fibers are compressed and folded to produce a 250 nm-wide fiber, which is tightly coiled and wrapped by NHC into the chromatid of a chromosome.

3.CHROMATIN + NHC(NON HISTONE CHROMOSOMAL) PROTEIN Nucleosomes fold up to form a 30-nanometer chromatin fiber (SOLENOID

Proof that DNA is Genetic Material

  • 1. The transforming Principle-by Frederick Griffith(1928)

Transformation results in the genetic alteration of the recipient cell

Streptococcus pneumonia

Griffith concluded that the R-strain had been "transformed" into the lethal S strain by

a "transforming principle" that was somehow part of the dead S strain bacteria.

3.CHROMATIN + NHC(NON HISTONE CHROMOSOMAL) PROTEIN Nucleosomes fold up to form a 30-nanometer chromatin fiber (SOLENOID

2. Avery, MacLeod and McCarty-They used biochemical purification of cellular

fractions to determine that DNA and not RNA or protein was the transforming principle

2. Avery, MacLeod and McCarty - They used biochemical purification of cellular fractions to determine that

3. Hershey and Chase The "Blender Experiment"

PROVED DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL

DNA C+H+O+N+P Protein - C+H+O+N+S

2. Avery, MacLeod and McCarty - They used biochemical purification of cellular fractions to determine that

DNA REPLICATION-

*process of producing two complementary replicas from one original DNA molecule. * Semi-conservative (one parental + one new daughter strand) * Each strand serves as a template STEPS

1. INITIATION-

ORI- trigger unwinding

UNWINDING-Helicase(unwinding)+topoisomerase(relax the twisting)+SSBP(prevent the two strands from reattaching to each other)

Y FORK

2.ELONGATION-

RNA PRIMER ANNEALING-PRIMASE,FREE 3’OH END

leading strand is made continuously, while the lagging strand is made in pieces called Okazaki fragments. DNA POLYMERASE (adds complementary nucleotides) 3. TERMINATION & PROOF READING

Primers are removed and replaced with new DNA nucleotides and the backbone is sealed by

DNA ligase DNA polymerase proofreads to make sure correct nucleotide is added

2.ELONGATION-  RNA PRIMER ANNEALING -PRIMASE,F REE 3’OH END leading strand is made continuously, while the
2.ELONGATION-  RNA PRIMER ANNEALING -PRIMASE,F REE 3’OH END leading strand is made continuously, while the

TRANSCRIPTION- DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA)

2.ELONGATION-  RNA PRIMER ANNEALING -PRIMASE,F REE 3’OH END leading strand is made continuously, while the
  • 1. Initiation- RNA polymerase and cofactors(sigma factor) bind to DNA and unwind it, creating an initiation bubble, binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter in DNA

  • 2. Elongation- RNA transcript is synthesized by ribonucleotide triphosphate additions by RNA Polymerase , Base pairing rule is followed, Synthesis stops at a terminator sequence

Sure Shot Questions
Sure Shot Questions

Sure Shot Questions

Sure Shot Questions

2 marks Questions

2 marks Questions
2 marks Questions

5 marks questions

5 marks questions Chapter 7: Evolution Important points to remember:  Miller & Urey performed an
Chapter 7: Evolution
Chapter 7:
Evolution

Important points to remember:

  • Miller & Urey performed an experiment to prove Oparin and Haldane's hypothesis i.e. first life developed from the simple inorganic molecules which existed on primordial earth.

  • Homologous organs have same structure but different function, show common ancestor & divergent evolution eg: forelimbs of vertebrates, heart and brains of vertebrates, thorns of Bougainvillea and tendrils of cucurbits.

  • Analogous organs have different structure but same function, show convergent evolution and adaptation to similar habitat eg: wings of birds/bat and insects, eyes of octopus and mammals, sweet potato and potato.

  • Darwin’s finches on Galapagos islands & marsupials of Australia exhibiting adaptive radiation and branching descent.

  • Darwin’s natural selection theory egs: Industrial melanism, Chemical resistance (DDT resistance in mosquitoes & antibiotic resistance in bacteria)

  • Types of natural selection : stabilising, directional and disruptive and examples.

  • Difference between Darwin’s theory and Hugo deVries theory(Natural selection Vs Mutation)

  • Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium : equation and factors affecting this equilibrium(gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, gene recombination and natural selection)

  • Common ancestor of ape and man : Dryopithecus

Sure shot questions and hints:

  • 1 mark questions :

    • i) State the significance of coelacanth?(amphibians evolved from fishes)

ii) What causes speciation according to de Vries? (mutation theory)

  • 2 mark questions :

    • i) Explain how mutations are different from Darwinian variations? (mutations are random and

directionless but Darwinian variations are small and directional) ii) How does industrial melanism support Darwin’s theory? (White moth number decreased and black moth number increased after industrialisation)

  • 3 mark questions ::

    • i) How Hardy Weinberg equilibrium explains the genetic equilibrium for a population? Mention any two factors that can disturb the genetic equilibrium.

ii)Branching descent and natural selection are two key concepts of Darwin’s theory. Explain

them.

i) How does the process of natural selection affect Hardy Weinberg equilibrium? ii) Explain the salient features of Hugo de Vries theory and compare it with Darwin’s theory.

Chapter 8:

Human health and disease

Important points to remember:

  • Bacterial diseases: typhoid (typhoid Mary, Salmonella typhi, Widal test), Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Plague, Tetanus, Syphilis etc.

  • Viral diseases: common cold, flu, herpes, measles, chicken pox, small pox, AIDS, Chikungunya & Dengue (transmitted by Aedes mosquito) etc.

  • Fungal diseases: ringworm, athlete’s foot, candidiasis etc.

  • Protozoa diseases: Malaria ( cause=Plasmodium, transfer by= Anopheles mosquito), Leishmaniasis/kala azar, trypanosomiasis/sleeping sickness.

  • Helminthic diseases: Ascariasis, Filariasis/elephantiasis (filarial worm/Wuchereria is cause & transmitted by Culex mosquito)

  • Secondary immune response is more intense due to memory.

  • Structure & types of antibody/Ig molecule.

  • Vaccines provide active immunity but tetanus injection & colostrum provide passive immunity.

  • Replication of retrovirus (HIV)

  • Cancer: detection ( biopsy, CT scan, MRI), treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy).

  • Opioids: heroin/smack, morphine(sedative/pain killer) from Poppy plant.

  • Cannabinoids from Cannabis : marijuana, hashish, charas, ganja etc

  • Cocaine from Erythroxylum coca : coke/crack: cause euphoria and hallucinations.

  • LSD(lysergic acid diethylamide) from fungus Claviceps purpurea is hallucinogen.

  • Addiction and abuse.

  • prevention and control of drug and alcohol abuse.

Sure shot questions and hints:

1 mark questions ::

i) How do interferons protect us?(prevents viral infection in neighbouring cells) ii) Why do we say that HIV is a retrovirus? (genetic material is RNA)

2

mark questions ::

2 mark questions ::
2 mark questions ::
2 mark questions ::

i) How do B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes differ in their immune response? (B cells provide antibody mediated immunity but T cell provide cell mediated immunity) ii) What are carcinogens? Name an ionising and a non ionising radiation as carcinogen. (cancer causing agents, X rays are ionising and UV rays are non ionising)

  • 3 mark questions ::

i) What are primary and secondary lymphoid organs? Discuss their role in acquired immunity. ii)A boy of 11 years had chicken pox. He is not expected to have the same disease for the rest of his life. Mention how?

Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Master cards

  • 1. Objectives of animal breeding

(i)

To improve growth rate.

(ii)

To increase production.

(iii)

To improve desirable qualities.

(iv)

To increase diseases resistance.

(v)

To improve resistance to adverse climatic conditions.

  • 2. Farm management for livestock/Dairy/Poultry

(i)

Selection of good breeds having high yield and resistance to diseases.

(ii)

Good farm house.

(iii)

Proper food and water.

(iv)

Hygiene and health care.

(v)

Proper health check up.

  • 3. Bee keeping/ Apiculture Successful bee keeping requires.

i)

Knowledge of the nature and habits of bees.

ii)

Selection of suitable location for keeping the bee hives.

iii)

Catching and hiving of swarms (group of bees).

iv)

Management of bee-hives during different seasons.

v)

Handling and collection of honey and beewax.

Importance Bees pollinators of many crops Honey high nutritive and medicinal value. Wax used in industry to make cosmetics and polishes.

  • 4. Animal breeding
    Breeding:--

Inbreeding (between animals of same breeds)

a)

Advantage increase homozygosity, develops pure line, remove less desirable genes.

b)

Disadvantage reduce fertility and productivity, known as inbreeding depression.

A single outcross helps to overcome inbreeding depression.

Outbreeding (between animals of different breeds)

a)

Out crossing :- mating within the same breed but not have common ancestors.

b)

Cross breeding :- mating between superior males of one breed with superior female of another breeds.

c)

Interspecific hybridization :- mating between two different species.

  • 5. Technique for the herd improvement ( cattle, sheep, rabbits etc.

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET)-

STEPS:-

i)

A cow is administrated by FSH hormone to induce follicular maturation and super

ii)

ovulation. Cow produces 6-8 eggs instead of one egg.

iii)

It is now either mated with elite bullor artificially inseminated.

iv)

Fertilized eggs at 8-32 cell stage are removed non-surgically and transferred to surrogate mother.

  • 6. Plant breeding programme

STEPS:-

i)

Collection of variability/ Germplasm collection

ii) Evaluation and selection of parents to identify plants with desirable traits.

iii)

Cross hybridization among the selected parents.

iv)

Selection and testing of superior recombinants

v)

Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivators.

  • 7. Tissue culture methods

i)

Callus culture :- cell division in explants to form unorganized mass of cell called callus.

ii) Suspension culture :- small group of cells suspended in a liquid medium.

iii)

Meristem culture :- apical shoot meristem is used as explants (virus free).

iv)

Embryo culture :- excision of young embryos from developing seeds and culture

in nutritional media.

v)

Anther culture :- production of haploid plant species by desired anther cultured in suitable medium

vi) Protoplast culture and somatic hybridization :- pomato obtained by somatic hybridization of protoplast of potato and tomato. vii) Micropropagation :- tissue culture technique used for rapid vegetative

viii)

multiplication of ornamental plants and fruit trees. Somaclonal variation :- genetic variation in plants regenerated from a single

culture.

 

S.no

Plants

Name of breed

Distribution

 

Types

 

of

 

varieties

 
  • 1. Rice

 

IR-8

Philippines

 

Semi-dwarf

 

Taichung Natire-1

Taiwan

Semi-dwarf

Jaya

India

Semi-dwarf

Ratna

India

 

Semi-dwarf

 
  • 2. Wheat

 

Sonalika

India

High yield

 

KalyanSona

India

Disease resistant

9.

Diseases In Plants Caused By Fungi, Bacteria & Virus.

 

S.no

Causative organism

Diseases caused

   
  • 1. Fungi

   

Brown rust

of

wheat,

red

rot

of

sugarcane, late blight of potato

 
  • 2. Bacteria

 

Blight of rice , citrus canker, black rot of crucifers.

  • 3. Virus

 

Tobacco mosaic, turnip mosaic.

 
  • 10. Diseases resistance variety of plants

Crop

Variety

Resistance of Disease

Wheat

Himgiri

Leaf and strip rust, hill bunt

Brassica

Pusa Swasrim

White rust

Cauliflower

Pusa Shubhra

Black roat, curl blight blackroat

Pusa snowball-k-1

Cowpea

Pusa komal

Bacteria blight

Chilli

Pusa Sodabaton

TMV, leaf curl, chilly mosaic virus

  • 11. Plants developed resistance to insect pests

Crop

Variety

Insects pests

Brassica

Pusa Gaurav

Aphids

(rapeseed musterd)

Flat beat

Pusa Sem2

Jassids,aphids and fruit borer

Pusa Sem3

Okra(bhindi)

Pusa Sawani

Shoot and fruit bore 2

Pusa A-4

  • 12. Biofortification List of crops with improved nutrient

content

Crop

Nutrient rich in

Carrot, spinach,pumpin

Vitamin-A

Bittergourd, bathua, musterd, tomato

Vitamin C

Broad bean, lablab, French bean, garden pea

Protein

Spinach, bathua

Iron &

calcium

Wheat (Atlas 66)

Improved protein content

Maize

Increased amount of amino acid, lysine and tryptophan

Rice

Increased iron content

Chapter: 9-Strategies For enhancement in Food Production

(1 Marks Each) Q1. Name two techniques involves in controlled breeding experiment Q2. What is inbreeding depression? How you will over come from inbreeding ? Q3. State the importance of boifortification.

Q4. Name any two diseases the ‘Himgiri’ variety of wheat resistant to.

Q5. Mention the strategy used to increase homozygosity in cattle for desire traits.

Q6. Write the name of the following :

  • (a) The most common spices of bees suitable for apiculture.

  • (b) An improved breed of chicken.

Q7. Name the varieties of rice from which semi dwarf varieties have been developed. Q8. Write the scientific names of microorganisms which produce high quality of proteins. (2 -Marks)

Q1. What is single cell protein? Writes its significance.

Q2. What is “Blue revolution”? Name two fresh water and two marine edible fish.

Q3. Why are plants obtained through micropropagation termed somaclones ? name three food plants produced on commercial scale using this method. Q4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the method is best? Why. Q5. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus free plants and why? Q6. Write the scientific name of sugarcane grown in north and south India respectively. Mention the characteristic of the hybrid produce by crossing these two varieties. Q7. (a) What is the programme called that is involved in improving success rate of production of desired hybrid and herd size of cattle? b) Explain the method used for the carrying this programme for cows.

Q8. (a) Name the Indian scientist, whose efforts brought “ Green revolution” in India.

  • (b) Mention the steps that are essentially carried out in developing a new genetic variety of crop under plant breeding programme.

Q9. Scientist have succeeded in recovering healthy sugarcane plants from a diseased one:

  • (a) Name the part of the plant used as explants by the scientist.

  • (b) Describe the procedure the scientists followed to recover the healthy plants.

  • (c) Name this technology used for crop improvement. Q10. What is interspecific hybridization. Give one example of crop in which it is practiced and mention one advantage.

Chapter-10: Microbes in human welfare Master cards

  • 1. In household products:

(a).Lactobacillius,(LAB)Lactic acid bacteria-form curd from milk

  • - Increase vit. B12.

  • - Check disease causing microbes in stomach.

(b).Dough for idili is formed by fermentation by bacteria(Co2 product)

(c).Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae use in making bread. (d). Toddy made from sap of palm, Fermented by bacteria. (e). Cheese making- Swiss by propioni bacterium sharamanii bacteria.

-Production of large amount of CO2 forms large holes in swiss cheese. -Roquefort cheese is ripined by fungi penicillium.

  • 2. Microbes in indusrial products:

(a). Fermented beverages:- like wine,bear,whisky,brandy,rum,with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. -Wine and bear is made without distillation process.

-Whisky,brandy and rum is made by distillation. (b).Antibiotics:- Penicillin from penicillium notatum Fungi

-Treat disease like plague whooping cough,diphtheria,laprosy etc. (c). Organic acid and alcohol:

Aspergillius niger(Fungi) :- Production of citric acid.

Acetobactor aceti(bacteria):- Production of acetic acid. Clostridium butylicum(bacteria):- Production of butyric acid.

Lactobacillus species(bacteria):-Production of lactic acid. Saccharomyces cerevisiae(fungi/yeast):- Production of ethanol. (d).Enzymes

Lipase:- used in detergents to remove oil strains from laundry. Pectinase and Proteases:- used to clarify bottled juices.

Streptokinase:-Produced by streptococcus is used as “clot buster” for removing clots from blood vessels in myocardial infraction(heart attack)patients.

(e).Bioactive molecules

Cyclosporin A:- Produced from “Trichoderma polysporum”(fungi) is used as an agent in organ transplant.

immune suppressant

Statin:- Monascus purpureus(fungi) used as blood cholesterol lowering agent.

2.Microbes in sewage treatment:

Sewage is treated in sewage treatment plant(STPS) process of sewage in STP.

   
Primary treatment (physical process) Secondary treatment (Biological process) Filtration & Sedimentation Effluent loaded in large aeration
Primary treatment (physical process) Secondary treatment (Biological process) Filtration & Sedimentation Effluent loaded in large aeration

Primary treatment (physical process)

Secondary treatment (Biological process)

Filtration & Sedimentation

Filtration & Sedimentation

Effluent loaded in large aeration Tank.

Effluent loaded in large aeration Tank.

Effluent loaded in large aeration Tank.

Agitation and rapid growth of aerobic microbes (Flocs).

Agitation and rapid growth of aerobic microbes (Flocs).
Primary treatment (physical process) Secondary treatment (Biological process) Filtration & Sedimentation Effluent loaded in large aeration

Consumes organic matter,reduce BOD. Effluent passed to settling tank.

Consumes organic matter,reduce BOD. Effluent passed to settling tank.
Flocs sediments form activated Sludge.

Flocs sediments form activated Sludge.

Anaerobic sludge digestion.

Anaerobic sludge digestion.

4. Microbes in production of biogas:

Biogas:-Methane(60%) + CO2(40%).

Biogas

Cyclosporin A:- Produced from “Trichoderma polysporum”(fungi) is used as an agent in organ transplant. immune suppressant

Water released into Rivers and streams.

Methanogens like Methanobacterium produce large quantitiis of methane along with co2 and hydrogen by acting on cellulosic compounds.

Cattle dung, anaerobic sludge are used for production of biogas as it contains cellulosic compounds as well as methanogens.

5.Microbes as bio-control agents:

Biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. Ladybird and Dragonflies useful to get rid of aphids and mosquitoes.

Bacillus thuringiensis(BT) used to contro butterfly caterpillar because it’s spores are toxic to certain

insects larvae and kill them but not harmful to othere insects. Nucleoplyhedrovirus- good for narrow spectrum insecticide application.

It has no negative impacts on other organisms because it kills specipic insect only.

6. Microbes as bio-fertilizers:

Main sources of bio-fertilizers:- Bacteria,Cyano bacteria and fungi (a). Bacteria:-(1) Rhizobium bacteria(symbiotic bacteria) fix atmospheric

nitrogen into usable form. (2)Azospirillum and Azotobacter(free living bacteria) fix atmospheric nitrogen into usable form.

(b).Cyanobacteria-(1)eg. Anabaena,mostoc,oscillatoria,aulosira etc. (2)They increase fertility of soil and adding organic matter.

(3)They fix atmospheric nitrogen. (c)Fungi/Mycorrhizae:-eg. Glomus They absorbs phosphorus from soil and passes it to

Other benefits:-

plants.

1.Resistance to root-borne pathogens. 2.Tolerance to salinity and drought. 3.Increase in plant growth and development.

Chapter- 10

Microbes in Human Welfare

Sure Shot Questions

Q1.

Milk start to coagulated when Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is added to warm milk as a strates. Mention any two benefits which LAB provides.

Q2.

Which one of the followings is the baker’s yeast need in fermentation?

Q3.

Which of the following is a cyanobacterium that can fix atmospheric nitrogen?

Azospirillum , oscillatoria, spirulina.

Q4.

Write the scientific name of the microbes used for fermenting malted cereals and fruit juices

Q5.

List two advantages that a mycorrhizal association provides to the plants

Q6.

Name the organisms that causes large holes in “semi cheese”. How are these holes caused?

Q7.

Why are some molecules called bio active molecules? Give two examples of such molecules.

Q8.

Why should biological control of pests and pathogens be preferred to the conventional use of chemical pesticides ? Explain how the following microbes act as bio-control agents

  • (a) Bacillus thuringiensis

  • (b) Nucleopolyhedrovirus

Q9.

What is organic farming? Why is it suggested to switch over to organic farming?

Q10.

State the use of the following enzymes/acids produce by the microbes:

i.

Lipase

ii.

Streptokinase

iii.

Pectinase

Q11.

Name the source of the streptokinase, cyclosporin A & statins . How does this bio active molecule function in our body?

Q12.

Explain the different steps involved in sewages treatment before it can be released into natural water bodies.

Q13.

Q14.

What do you mean by flocks and primary sludge?

How do biofertiliser enrich the fertility of the soil.

Q15.

Describe how biogas is generated from activated sludge. List the components of biogas. Name an organism which is known to employed in biogas.

Q16. River Ganga has become very polluted. It is considered to be a scared river, which people believe purifies it self. Just because of this reason , the polluteon in it has increased as people throw many things in it in the name of religion.

Answer the following questions based on the above information:

i)

What has government done to check the pollution here?

ii)

How can you play a role in saving the river?

iii)

How is the pollution of water checked?

Chapter-13 Organism and Population

(1) Give the integral form of equation of Exponential growth and Verhulst-Pearl Logistic growth of population. N 1 =N o e rt and dN/dt = rN(K-N/N) (2) What is the function of the fungus inmycorrhizal association? Solubilization and absorbtion of minerals and water.

(3) In a pond there were 200 frogs 40 more were born in a year. Calculate the birth rate of population. 40/200 = 0.2 individuals per frog per years. (4) What is interaction between cuscuta and shoes flower brush?

  • Parasitism

(5) Explain brood parasitism with the help of example.

  • Koel is a parasitic bird the technique of laying egg in the nest of crow.

(6) How does the floral pattern of Mediterranean ophrys guarantee cross pollination?

  • One petal of ophyrs resembles the female of a bee Male bees are attracted to it, Pseudocopulates same male bee Pseudocopulates with another flower of ophrys and pollination is completed.

CHAPTER- 14 ECOSYSTEM

(1) Give an example of anthropogenic Ecosystem?

  • Aquarium

(2) State what does ‘standing crop’ of a trophic level represent.

  • Biomass at a particular time.

(3) List the three parameter used for constructing echological pyramids. Describe any one instance where

the pyramids may look inverted.

  • Three parameters are- (1) Number of individuals. (2) Amount of Biomass. (3) Amount of energy The bird may be support a still larger population of ectoparasite, thus, the pyramid of number shall be inverted.

(4) Give an account of energy flow in an ecosystem.

=> Energy requirement for maintenance of body rises successively with higher level. As 90% of energy is lost when it moves from one trophic level to the next.

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