Sie sind auf Seite 1von 2

Important Terminologies In Sociolinguistics

Some definitions and related business: Sociolinguistics


1. Speech community
Any human aggregate characterized by regular and frequent
interaction by means of a shared body of verbal signs and set of
from similar aggregates by significant diferences in language
usage.
2. Repertoires
Sets of styles, codes and linguistic information possessed by
members of the community, selected according to social needs
3. Speech act
Routine ways of speaking; utterances that involve both language
and social information; e.g., promise, argue, joke utter, dare, curse,
disdain (?)
4. Speech event
Social interactional event involving communication; how speech
resources of the community are largely put to use
5. Hymes' components of a speech event (mnemonic
version):
Setting
- scene situation
Participants
- speaker, receiver, other
Ends
- outcomes and goals
Act sequences
- form and content
Key
- manner
Instrumentalities - channel, code
Norms
- of behavior and interpretation
Genre
- style, e.g. lecture, chat
6. Jakobson's functions of speech:
Function Focus (or aspect)
referential, cognitive context
poetic message
metalinguistic code
directive, conative adressee (R)
emotive, expressive S
contact phatic, interaction management
Codes
Dialect
Register

/ Language

- e.g. English
- e.g., Singapore English
- e.g., Baby talk

Style
Genre
Idiolect
speech
Accent

- e.g., intimate
- e.g., Joke
- Idiosyncrasies (particular feature) of individual
- diference of pronunciation (often associated
with regional dialect).

7. Dialect
diference between kinds of language in terms of vocabulary and
grammar as well as pronunciation (sometimes really separate language,
or "languages" are really just dialects); regional and ethnic association.
9. Standard
-the dialect or variety of the dominant socioeconomic group
-often the written variety, or that taught in class
- sometimes a 'high' variety (cf. "Diglossia" article)
10. Lingua Franca
second language spoken by common agreement by people from
diferent language communities for social, economic or political
purposes.
11. Pidgin
lingua franca with no native speakers (so-called "broken"); results from
merger of two or more languages, involving simplification so that a
new, but rudimentary language emerges in a special contact situation;
there are fewer lexical items, simpler grammar, and reduction of
stylistic range.
12. Creolization
occurs when children learn a pidgin as a first language, which then
becomes the creole, reacquiring the characteristics of a full language.
13. Slang
Cant
Argot
Jargon

- special informal vocabulary


- underworld slang
- specialized terminology in general (so includes cant)
- specialized terminology that may spread from a narrow group
(e.g., professional jargon) until used or understood by
population at large. Sometimes slang, cant, argot, and
jargon are used interchangeably, especially the latter three.