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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

PROGRAM: BBA
SECTION: B

FINAL PROJECT
ORYZA RICE

Submitted to:
Mr. Haris Aslam
Submitted by:
Bilal Shaheen

094005027

Usman Shah

094005010

Zain ul Abidin

094005135

Uzair Nawaz

094005031

DATE: 12-01-2013

REMARKS
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Acknowledgment
Without the support, help and guidance of certain individuals the successful completion of this
project would not have been possible. We take this opportunity to express our special gratitude to
them.
First of all we would like to pay special thanks to our resource person Mr. HarisAslam for
providing us the opportunity to go through such a detailed process and also for providing us the
required support and guidance. His supervision, dedication and prompt feedback really helped us
a lot in preparing a good final report. Then we would like to express our sincere gratitude to Mr.
Ahfaz Khan, GM of Oryza. Without his cooperation, commitment, support and counseling
surely the completion of this project was uncertain.
Last but not the least we would also like to pay special thanks to all staff of the Oryza, for their
kind support and cooperation.

Table of Contents
1

Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................... 7

Introduction of the Project: ................................................................................................................... 8


2.1

Purpose:......................................................................................................................................... 8

2.2

Objectives: .................................................................................................................................... 8

Literature Review: ................................................................................................................................ 9

Methodology: ...................................................................................................................................... 11
4.1

Interview ................................................................................................................................... 11

4.2

Observation............................................................................................................................... 11

4.3

Sampling Data .......................................................................................................................... 11

Introduction of the Company: ............................................................................................................. 12

Rice Processing: .................................................................................................................................. 13


6.1

RICE PROCESSING FLOW DIAGRAM .................................................................................. 13

Processing Summary: .......................................................................................................................... 13


7.1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 14

7.2

Paddy Selection:.......................................................................................................................... 14

7.3

Husking: ...................................................................................................................................... 14

7.4

Cleaning: ..................................................................................................................................... 15

7.5

Whitening & Polishing: .............................................................................................................. 15

7.6

Grading: ...................................................................................................................................... 15

7.7

Color Sorting:.............................................................................................................................. 15

Quality Practices: ................................................................................................................................ 16


8.1

Leadership:.................................................................................................................................. 16

8.1.1

Quality Manuals:- ............................................................................................................... 17

8.1.2

Quality Goals:- .................................................................................................................... 18

8.1.3

Plans to meet Goals:- .......................................................................................................... 18

8.1.4

Resource Allocation ............................................................................................................ 18

8.1.5

Role of Top Management:- ................................................................................................. 19

8.2

Customer Focus: ......................................................................................................................... 19

8.2.1

Who is our customer:- ........................................................................................................ 20

8.2.2

Customer Relationship Management:- ............................................................................... 20

8.2.3

Customer Feedback:- .......................................................................................................... 20


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8.2.4
8.3

Customer Satisfaction:- ....................................................................................................... 21

Employee Involvement: .............................................................................................................. 21

8.3.1

Employees Training:-........................................................................................................... 21

8.3.2

Suggestions of employees:- ................................................................................................ 22

8.3.3

Employee participation:-..................................................................................................... 22

8.3.4

Benefits provided to employees:- ....................................................................................... 22

8.3.5

Employees as factor of sustainable competitive advantage:- ............................................ 22

8.4

Process Approach: ...................................................................................................................... 23

8.4.1

Automation:- ....................................................................................................................... 23

8.4.2

Critical Processes................................................................................................................. 24

8.4.3

CRM process:- ..................................................................................................................... 24

8.4.4

Management Review Process:-........................................................................................... 24

8.4.5

Value Creation:- .................................................................................................................. 25

8.5

System Approach to Management: ............................................................................................. 25

8.5.1

Communication:- ................................................................................................................ 26

8.5.2

Cooperation:- ...................................................................................................................... 26

8.5.3

Coordination:- ..................................................................................................................... 26

8.5.4

Integration:- ........................................................................................................................ 27

8.6

Continual Improvement: ............................................................................................................. 27

8.6.1

Quality Control Machine:-................................................................................................... 27

8.6.2

Laboratory Tests and Reports:- ........................................................................................... 28

8.6.3

Reduce errors:-.................................................................................................................... 28

8.6.4

Meet or exceed customer expectation:- ............................................................................ 28

8.6.5

Make the process safer:-..................................................................................................... 29

8.6.6

Make the process satisfying for the people doing it:- ........................................................ 29

8.7

Factual Approach to Decision Making: ...................................................................................... 29

8.7.1

Research and Development:-.............................................................................................. 29

8.7.2

Quality cost analysis:- ......................................................................................................... 29

8.7.3

Performance measurement:-.............................................................................................. 31

8.8

Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationship: ................................................................................ 31

8.8.1

Reduce Number of Suppliers .............................................................................................. 32

8.8.2

Build Long Term Relationship ............................................................................................. 32


4

8.8.3

Consider them as partners and help them grow ................................................................ 32

Quality Tools: ..................................................................................................................................... 33

9.1

5S Model: .................................................................................................................................... 33

9.1.1

Sieri Sorting Out .............................................................................................................. 33

9.1.2

Sieton - Systematic Arrangement........................................................................................ 33

9.1.3

Sieso - Spic and Span .......................................................................................................... 33

9.1.4

Sieketsu Standardization .................................................................................................. 34

9.1.5

Shitsuke - Self-Discipline ................................................................................................... 34

9.2 ........................................................................................................................................................... 34
10

Findings ........................................................................................................................................... 34

10.1

Rice Quality Problems & Suggestions ......................................................................................... 34

10.1.1

Water problems .................................................................................................................. 35

10.1.2

A. Water efficiency .............................................................................................................. 35

10.1.3

B. Water availability ............................................................................................................ 35

10.1.4

C. Water quality .................................................................................................................. 35

10.2

Land constraints .......................................................................................................................... 36

10.2.1

A. Marginal lands ................................................................................................................ 36

10.2.2

B. Change in soil characteristics .......................................................................................... 36

10.2.3

C. Mining effects and fertility change ................................................................................. 36

10.3

Environmental problems ............................................................................................................ 36

10.3.1

Biotic stresses...................................................................................................................... 37

10.3.2

Improvement of rice yield................................................................................................... 37

10.3.3

Decline in investments for increased rice production ........................................................ 38

10.3.4

Rice information.................................................................................................................. 38

10.4

Emergent new technologies for increasing rice productivity ..................................................... 38

10.4.1

Hybrid rice ........................................................................................................................... 38

10.4.2

Biotechnology ..................................................................................................................... 39

11

Cause and Effect Diagram for Rice Quality: Problems & Solutions ................................................ 39

12

Prioritization Matrices For Quality of Rice: Problems & Solutions ................................................. 40

13

Improvement Strategies ................................................................................................................. 42

13.1

Repair: ......................................................................................................................................... 42

13.2

Refine: ......................................................................................................................................... 43
5

13.3

Renovate: .................................................................................................................................... 43

13.4

Reinvent: ..................................................................................................................................... 43

14

Recommendations & Suggestions .................................................................................................. 44

14.1

Rice Mills Processing: .................................................................................................................. 44

14.2

Losses on Polishing: .................................................................................................................... 44

15

Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 46

16

References ...................................................................................................................................... 47

1 Executive Summary
The purpose of this project is basically to select an organization and identify how Quality
Management Systems are being implemented in the real world scenario. Secondly the main
objective is to provide us an opportunity to have hands on experience regarding quality issues,
tools and implementation. The organization that we have chosen for this purpose is the Oryza
Rice. Oryza is not an ISO certified company but we saw that it is a very quality conscious
company which follows a lot of quality practices. We can get information from this report
regarding all the quality practices that Oryza has in its company and also all the result of
different quality practices and improvement strategies that Oryza might implement for better
quality.
The main implication of the findings is that with TQM implementation, manufacturing
organizations are more likely to achieve better performance in customer satisfaction, employee
relations, quality and business performance than without TQM. The study also provides an
insight for the managers to understand that medium level companies are more likely to adopt
TQM than smaller ones; hence TQM implementation level varies according to the size of the
firm and amount of resources available. This may infer that due to shortsightedness, the small
companies foresee rewards of TQM implementation earlier than large companies and hence soon
get disappointed and consequently TQM benefits as they take some time to mature; are reaped
by the established firms that never get disappointed soon. We have also discussed a few
recommendations in our report that instead of selecting from different suppliers every time
Oryza gets an order Oryza should try to select one best supplier and then they should try and
build a long-term partnership with their suppliers. This would be very beneficial for Oryza and
its products quality.
The main conclusion of this study is that TQM definitely offers a strong base for dynamic
organizations to manage the total quality culture that can promote their competency and abilities
as well as other strategic priorities to gain competitive advantage.

Introduction of the Project:

2.1

Purpose:

This is the class project of Total Quality Management course. The purpose of this project is
basically to select an organization and identify how Quality Management Systems are being
implemented in the real world scenario. Secondly the main objective is to provide us an
opportunity to have hands on experience regarding quality issues, tools and implementation. It is
to identify the implementation of the knowledge, philosophies and theories that we discussed in
the class room and to figure out the basic difference between the study and the real world
scenario. How quality management systems are working in the Pakistani organizations.
We also have to identify the quality principles and relate them with the practical work of the
organization. How well the organization is following all or some of those principals and which
areas require significant improvements. After identifying the principles we have to figure out the
quality tools that the organization is using. What tools are being used by the organization, how
well

they

are

utilizing

them

and

what

benefits

are

they

getting

from

them.

The major part of the project is to identify the quality problems organization is mainly facing.
Identify the root cause and the major causes which are mainly responsible for poor quality.
Provide them the appropriate solution with the help of simple statistical and non statistical
quality tools.

2.2

Objectives:

To conduct a thorough audit of an organization with respect to quality practices

To evaluate implementation of QMS in an organization

To identify the orientation of the organization towards quality

To analyze the implementation of quality principles

To figure out the quality tools being utilized by the organization

To identify the major quality problems/issues organization is facing

To recommend long and short term solution with the help of statistical and non
statistical quality tools

Literature Review:

Rice contains more calories per half-cup portion of white rice than brown rice. (USA Rice
Federation, 2004). The rice millers prefer varieties with high milling where as consumers
consider physicochemical characteristics (Merca and Juliano, 1981). The consumers judge the
quality of rice on the basis of size and shape of rice grain. The preference for grain size and
shape can vary from one group of consumer to another group of consumers (Khush et al., 1979).
The classification of rice quality is based on the length of grain i.e. short, medium and long
grain. Arborio rice grains are high in width and Basmati rice grains are high in length (AduKwarteng et al., 2003). The ratio of length to width is an important aspect to determine the shape
of the variety (Normita and Cruz 2002) and grain weight gives the information about the size
and density of the grain. The density of different rice grains effect the cooking quality. So grain
weight should be uniform because it determines the quality of grain (Rice CRC, 2003). The
appearance always appeal to consumers so the size, shape and width should be the top criteria to
determine the quality of rice and breeders are also consistent to develop new varieties for
commercial point of view (Adair et al.,1966). The length to breadth ratio ranging from 2.5 to 3.0
is widely acceptable and the grain length > 6mm is preferred (Kaul, 1970). But the long grain
rice has also acquired the leading position in International market (Normita and Cruz,
2002).Hur et al. (1989) studied about the grain appearance and eating quality of some developed
rice varieties. The grain length of milled rice ranged from 4.53mm to 5.07mm and width from
2.43 to 2.62mm. The length to width ratio ranged from 1.84 to 2.09. The varietal characteristics
such as shape, size and density affect the quality of rice grain as reported by Juliano (1990).
Sagar et al. (1988) described the physical characteristics of aromatic and non-aromatic
commercial rice varieties grown in Pakistan and found the highest values for length (7.3mm)
recorded for Basmati-6129, where as in lowest value of 5.8mm for the same quality traits was
observed in JP-5 rice variety. The moisture content during storage showed changes with the
length of storage and the temperature of storage (Gooding and Davies, 1997). Rice protein is
more nutritious because of its higher lysine content than any other cereal proteins. Chemical
compositions of cereals are characterized by protein content (Lasztity, 1999).The fiber content in
different Pakistani rice varieties varied from 0.20 to 0.35% (Awan, 1996; Tufail, 1997). The
fiber content in brown rice after milling was found to be 1.90.6% (Sotelo et al., 1990). The
dominant factors which describes the consumer liking in many countries of the world are grain
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whiteness, shape, amylose content, alkali spreading value (gelatinization temperature), aroma
and other cooking properties (Rice Quality Workshop, 2003). There are so many environmental
factors like temperature which may affect the grain during their development (Cruz et al., 1989).
Higher volume expansion of cooked rice is mostly believed as good quality rice by the medium
or lower class peoples who do not think about that the expansion is breadth wise or lengthwise.
In another view, Urban people have preference of those rice varieties which expand lengthwise
as compared to breadth wise (Choudhury, 1979). Tufail (1997) conducted studies on cooking
and eating quality of some varieties of rice. Among cooking quality, the volume expansion ratio
of Basmati-385, Basmati-370, IRRI-6 and KS-282 were found to be 3.20, 3.64, 3.08 and 2.35
respectively. The water absorption ranged from 2.29 to 2.96% among the tested rice varieties.
Several insects pests attack rice crop in Pakistan (inayatullah et al. 1986 Salim et al 2001.)
Rice is a cereal consumed by great part of the human population throughout the word in many
kinds of products, such as white rice, parboiled rice, meal rice and rice bran (FOOD 2009).
Rough rice (paddy) is composed of a white starchy rice kernel tightly covered by a coating of
bran, enclosed in a tough siliceous hull (Lakkakula et al., 2004. PARBOILING is a process
developed for improving rice quality. It consists of soaking, steaming and drying of the rough
rice. (F. E. Cherati, R. Babatabar and F. Nikzad 2012).The increase of nutrients and functional
compounds detected in parboiled rice justifies the expansion of this products market along the
past years. In spite of these beneficial effects, some changes due to the processing are
undesirable, such as the development of unpleasant taste, texture, and color in the opinion of
traditional white rice consumers (HORIGANE et al., 2006; LAMBERTS et al., 2008). Nearly
3000 years ago, parboiling method was settled in Indian subcontinent, in a very simple form for
the first time, and has improved gradually until now that; it is used in most of Southeast Asia
countries. (F. E. Cherati, R. Babatabar and F. Nikzad 2012).When husk is removed; bran layer
comes in direct contact with air, resulting in the development of off-flavor in brown rice due to
its endogenous lipase. Moreover, the appearance of brown rice is not appealing due to its color
(Saunders, 1990).Hence further processing of rice is required to remove the bran from brown
rice to produce white rice (Hu et al., 1996). It is consumed after appropriate polishing to give a
desired degree of whiteness (Juliano, 1985). Rice bran constitutes about 10% of the weight of
rough rice (Hu et al., 1996). It is comprised of pericarp, aleurone, sub-aleurone, seed coat,
nucellus 9along with the germ and a small portion of endosperm (Salunkhe et al., 1992;
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Hargrove, 1994). The percentage and composition of rice bran vary according to the rice variety,
pretreatment before milling, type of milling system and the degree of milling (Saunders,
1990).Rice bran is light in color, sweet in taste, moderately oily and has a slightly toasted nutty
flavor (Hu et al., 1996).Texture varies from a fine, powder-like consistency to a flake, depending
on the stabilization process (Barber and Benedito de Barber, 1980). Rice bran proteins are of
high nutritional value (Kennedy and Burlingame, 2003) and hypoallergenic (Tsuji et al.,
2001).Rice bran can be used as a stool bulking agent (Tomlin and Read, 1988) and for the
enrichment of some foods (Burton, 2000).Rice bran contains 15-22% oil by weight (Orthoefer,
1996; Patel and Walker, 2004).

Methodology:

4.1

Interview

For the purpose of our project, we conducted a thorough in depth interview of GM of Oryza, Mr.
Ahfaz Khan. Complete findings of the interview are provided in the relevant sections of this report.

4.2

Observation

Other than in depth interview we used our own observation, we visited the factory twice and
observed the entire refining process our self.

4.3

Sampling Data
For the purpose of our project we also conducted informal interviews of six employees of Oryza

world.

11

Introduction of the Company:

Oryza is a leader in the industry when it comes to rice production initiatives; it is an established
global & multidimensional company which solely focuses on its clients success and their key
business requirements. Oryza is a company that is known for its export quality rice. Oryza
exports rice to a lot of different countries around the globe including mainly Saudi Arabia and
Iran. The companys presence is strategically located in multiple hemispheres of the globe
making it truly accessible to our global audience. Oryza focuses a lot on quality and for that they
have bought a lot of expensive technology to provide its clients with the best quality rice .Oryza
is not doing any business locally instead they just export rice to other countries. They export
different classification of rice which are Super Kernel Basmati Rice,1121 ( Steamed & Parboiled
),PK - 386 long grain Basmati Rice, Basmati 385 Rice, Irri - 9 long grain rice and Irri - 6 ( KS 282 ) long grain rice. Oryza uses a complete range of rice processing machines right from
cleaning to hulling & polishing, optical sorters, control systems and accessories to meet the
needs of the rice milling industry. Oryza Rice Mills are equipped with the latest technologies and
has very hard working and committed employees. The company has partnered up with Buhler
Group which is one of the best industry standards for over 150 years. This partnership insures
Oryza to attain maximum These factors help Oryza Rice Mills to maximize yield of head rice,
minimize product breakage and deliver consistent product quality. Oryzas global leadership in
rice milling stems from intensive research and development; vast world-wide experience in the
setting up of rice mills as well as synergy with many other technologies in grain processing. The
founders of the company are extremely committed to their business and they have done an
extensive research on rice to bring their company to this position that it is in at the current time.
At the current time Pakistan is facing energy crisis and Oryza mills are characterized by efficient
power consumption hence making it a Green industry standard so this shows that they are also
playing a part in making this world a better place to live in. Oryza is not yet an ISO registered
company but it follows all the quality practices that are required for it to meet all the ISO
standards. Oryza Rice Mills export rice so its competitors are the local rice producers of the
importing country or other exporters to that country. Quality of Oryza Rice can be judged from
the fact that countries that have bought rice from Oryza once have bought it from them on
regular basis.

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Rice Processing:

6.1 RICE PROCESSING FLOW DIAGRAM

Paddy
Cleaning

Raw Paddy

Cleaned
Paddy

Yes

Paddy Husker
Filtering

Brown Rice

Yes

Whitening

No
No
Reject
ion/
Waste

No

No

White Rice

No
Rice
Without
Paddy

Paddy
Separating

Cleaned
White Rice

Yes

Stone
Filtering/ De
stoning

Yes

Cleaned
White Rice

Pre Cleaning

No

Yes

No

Rice
Without
Immature
Grains

Thickness
Grading

Reject
ion/
Waste

No

Yes
Water
Polishing

Yes

No

No
Polished
Rice

Yes

Rice Sifting

Sifted Rice

Yes

Length
Grading

Graded
Rice
Yes

Reject
ion/
Waste

Packed Rice

Packing
Machine

No

Final
Processed
Rice

Color Sorting

Yes

Processing Summary:

Oryza has a firm believe in the latest technology & new agricultural methods in order to ensure
the finest & uniform quality of the end product. The company owns a modern basmati rice
processing plant. The plant possesses several new technological advancements made in the field

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of rice milling and processing the plant comprises state-of the art equipment. The plant has the
latest and technologically developed machines for the processing of rice from whitening to color
sorting.. The plant has a milling capacity of 50,000kg / hour. This capacity varies subject to the
variety of rice to process. The rice is fumigated before putting it in these milling processes which
can be divided in to following sections:

7.1
7.2 Paddy Selection:
Oryza ensures the production of the finest quality of Basmati paddy to guarantee the best quality
of end product. For the purchase of best quality paddy, the company pays premium price to the
suppliers. Each & every employee at Oryza tries his best to achieve the objectives of high
quality. Experienced selectors assess the quality of Basmati Paddy through sampling, analyzing
and assessing. Before the final purchase, once again the paddy grains are tested through reliable
equipments. Analytical tests are also conducted to determine moisture content, rice yield, broken
percentage, field admixture etc.

7.3 Husking:
The selected Basmati paddy is allowed to slowly reduce its moisture by natural-sun-dryingmethod, to achieve optimum moisture content for husking. Paddy is spread over large fields
during the day and left for drying in the sun. This gradual drying helps to avoid thermal cracks in
the rice Grain, which would result in broken grains at later stages, Paddy is brought in to Sheller
where brown Rice is produced after cleaning, de-husking and grading. In Brown rice, only the
outer husk is removed, leaving the germ and bran layer, and retaining most of the nutritional
value.
Bran is rich in minerals and vitamins. This minimal processing therefore produces rice that is
healthier to eat. This brown rice is then used to produce white rice.

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7.4 Cleaning:
First stage consists of several steps for cleaning of rice to ensure hygienic end-product absolutely
free from all impurities like straw, mud balls, threads, stones, paddy etc.
It is further ensured that once cleaned rice is not contaminated during processing. The perfect &
high performance pre cleaners, paddy separators are used to obtain great accuracy in feeding
purified rice to the later processes. This process is applicable to both the white rice and brown
rice. Apart from the cleaning process itself, it is ensured that none of such impurities are added
into rice during subsequent processes.

7.5 Whitening & Polishing:


In second stage the bran layers are removed through whitening and polishing machines to give
rice a pearl white look.
This process is carried out gradually in several passes to save kernels from breaking. Number of
passes depends upon the degree of whiteness required. The mist polishers installed at Oryza
impart an extremely clean and glossy appearance to the kernels of rice; a distinct advantage over
traditional milling methods.

7.6 Grading:
Rice is graded at different stages on the basis of thickness and length to remove malnourished,
shriveled and broken grains from healthy pure and full grains.
Advanced technology from Buhler in Drum Grader, Plan sifter and Indented Cylinders employed
at three different stages achieves optimum and uniform grain length.

7.7 Color Sorting:


Before packing, rice is passed through the color sorter to remove tarnished, faded grains hence
producing a final product with each grain having uniformity in all respects.

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In Color sorting, complicated computer controlled process technology is used for high resolution
optical inspection of each and every kernel. It removes the high concentration of predominantly
chalky and discolored kernels from healthy ones.

Oryza has new Z-series color sorter, which feature state of the art cameras that detect subtlest
colors and defects even smaller than 0.3mm; it has novel sorting algorithms that identify spot or
color defects with high efficiency and increased yield. Accuracy of this can be judged from the
fact that after this process there can be maximum only 4 discolored kernels in every 45000 good
kernels. The equipment has a product tracking and automatic calibration mechanism that ensures
consistent sorting efficiency and performance. Basmati rice sold as brown rice or cargo rice is
also properly fumigated, cleaned and graded before packing.

8
8.1

Quality Practices:
Leadership:

General Manager of Oryza emphasized a lot on Leadership and role of a Leader in implementing
rules and regulations. He said he is strongly committed to his work and his company and he
motivates others by his own example. He performs all the critical tasks himself and whenever
any new initiative is implemented, he is the first one to apply on himself then he asks others to
do accordingly. He himself goes to various cities during procurement then himself goes to
laboratories for conducting lab tests. He and the other top management shows serious concerns
about employees and provide them some incentives for implementing quality practices and doing
work up to the mark. One of the example he coded is that they provide salaries to their
employees even in the off season including all the relevant facilities such as; food, shelter and
bonuses. Quality is their main concern, top is mainly held responsible regarding all the quality
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issues so he and his top management makes sure that no compromise is made on quality. As they
are involved in export of rice so they are allowed leverage up to certain mark, beyond this level
their rice would not be accepted in the Middle East so they have to make sure that rice meets the
specified standards. In this regard they have invested some huge funds to completely automate
their refining process, reducing human work to eliminate or at least reduce the chance of mistake
significantly. They follow certain standards during their hiring process, only those candidates are
hired who completely fulfill those standards, so they make sure right from the beginning that
negligible hiring is avoided to improve quality performance. Top management is open to new
ideas all the time, regardless of which areas and departments they come from. He said we always
encourage employees working on the floor to come up with their ideas and suggestions in order
to improve our performance. This way it gives employees a sort of freedom and sense of
ownership,

which

ultimately

enhance

their

level

of

trust

on

top

management.

Though the company does not contain any specific quality manuals but pay a significant
importance and apply some major quality practices.
8.1.1 Quality Manuals:As its mentioned earlier that Oryza is mainly concerned with the exporting of their product so
they have a deep concern with their quality maintenance and they are doing so as per the global
standards regarding rice production and size of rice by getting the best raw form of rice. They get
their cross breed rice for the ideal quality and to get the desirable traits of different varieties.
Oryza is not certified with the ISO but their quality standards are up to mark and has deep
concern in it. The objective of this rice to contribute to improve the capacity to produce quality
rice which meets the global standards. The manual is a quick reference material for the rice
refining companies in this sector who are already involved in refining processes or are planning
to produce certified quality of rice. Seed quality is one of the major concern of getting the final
product of good quality .Normally, cultural operations for conventional crop production are
similar to those for seed production but additional operations, such as isolation, rouging to ensure
the quality of seeds make a great difference. Such seed quality control operations are conducted
to make the seed true to type and to sustain the genetic potential of the intended variety.

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8.1.2 Quality Goals:Meeting the quality goals is every companys main aim and to achieve that aim company uses
various resources to achieve that goal because considering quality is the major concern of final
consumers especially in eatable industries in the same way Oryza is also using most of their
resources in assurement of quality as their business requirement. All product variables are preset
at fixed benchmark levels in oryza. They offer the customers info on complete product
specifications which they guarantee to met to their spirit in each of their processed batch. For
more than a decade, their superior and consistent quality performance has been winning the
confidence of business partners across international markets.

8.1.3 Plans to meet Goals:-

Planning is the initial stage of any type of project, without the best plan no proceedings can be
done effectively and the maximum output cannot be achievable. The top management of Oryza
are very much concern with their planning process before any addition to the processes they go
through the planning process, watch out the forecasted outcome through their planning then they
take the final decision so the brainstorming phenomenon is very much considered in their plans.
Things include during research are as follows: Replacement of hexane by a bio renewable solvent.
Extraction of rice bran oil using ethanol.
Effects of the extraction conditions on the yield and extractability of minor compounds.
Oryzanol and tocols behave in different ways during extraction process.

8.1.4 Resource Allocation


Resource allocation is used to assign the available resources in an economic way. It is part of
resource management. Not in Oryza most of the companies one of the major aim is to allocate
their resources in better way to get the maximum. The management of Oryza is very much
concentrating on allocating their available resources to save as much as they can, as this
company is so concerned with the quality of the product or we can say that their business relies
18

on the quality principles and for maintaining quality, resources are required. These resources
have to be allocated to get maximum results at the end. Oryza's management also uses systematic
processes and different formulae to allocate the funds, so this company's financial area is also
quite appreciable.
8.1.5 Role of Top Management:The top management team of a company controls decision making that affects everyone from
the president down to entry-level employees. Those decisions, along with the way the
management members treat the staff, affect the success of the company. Understanding those
effects helps the management team make changes as necessary to improve the achievement of
the company. Oryza's top management keeps on looking all the processes with deep concern
efficiently at the same time effective as well. They regularly communicate with their staff
members and involve them to some extinct in decision process and try to take their opinions,
hear their problems while performing the processes then brainstorm the problems and try to
make countermeasures in short period of time.
8.2

Customer Focus:

At the center of Oryzas business lies the Customer Satisfaction. GM of Oryza said all the
purpose of our business is to satisfy our internal and external customers. We cannot compete in
the intense industry without the consent of our customers. So we pay great attention to customer
needs and try our level best to fulfill those needs better than our competitors. They have
developed strong mechanisms to make sure that customer receives the right thing. What they do
is before delivering the final output to their client they conduct laboratory tests in their internal
laboratories even after that customer can conduct external tests as well to fully satisfy
themselves. There are certain standards in the industry which every exporter has to fulfill like,
standard length of the rice is 7mm and an error of only 4% is accepted. So he said all the
companies have to follow these terms but we are using some heavy machinery to make sure we
perform better than other players in the industry. They have constant checks on the broken
percentage that out of the total material how much is wasted as broken rice using their inspection
machines then take appropriate measures to reduce that percentage. He said they always
welcome the customer feedback and also open to criticism because customer has the right to
criticize when the product does not meet the standards. So, he said they receive feedback through
19

emails and letters from the customers and immediately respond to their queries. Simultaneously
they make their employees aware that such mistakes should not happen in the future. Regarding
the competitive edge he said we have a sort of natural competitive advantage against our
competitors because high quality Basmati rice is only available in subcontinent so it gives them
an extra edge in the world market, which ultimately improves their name and prestige in the eyes
of the customer. Through constant feedback and marketing channels they come to know the
changing demands of the customers, they immediately take appropriate actions and train their
employees accordingly to make sure that quality is not compromised and customers needs are
accurately fulfilled.
8.2.1

Who is our customer:-

As its discussed earlier Oryza is exporting the rice mainly in Middle East region like Saudia
Arabia, Syria etc so their customers are mostly of abroad not from this region. Its pretty difficult
to understand the psychic of customers of different regions because every region's people have
different mindset, their perceptions are different so the top management of Oryza is carrying out
various researches to understand the mindset of customers and then try to improve the product
according to them.
8.2.2

Customer Relationship Management:-

Customers are most important for every business because the businesses very much rely on
them. Profitability and the declining of businesses are very much dependent on the customers.
This phenomenon plays a central role in maintaining the relation with the customers, like other
departments this company's CRM department

co-create the CRM process with customers

because according to them customers can guide in best way in order to reform their processes,
this department is also very much efficient as they keep on taking the feedback of their
customers and after that do a deep research to solve the queries but as quality practices are
strongly followed by this company, their queries ratio is not that much.
8.2.3

Customer Feedback:-

Customer's feedback helps a lot in product development process and fixing the problems which
keep on occurring. Oryza is using Post-Transaction Surveys method for collecting the feedback.
Post-transaction surveys are conducted immediately after a customer service interaction, and
usually provide feedback directly on that interaction. They are particularly useful for establishing
customer service performance goals or benchmarks, and setting standards around service
20

delivery.
8.2.4

Customer Satisfaction:-

Customer satisfaction, a term frequently used in businesses, its a measure of how products and
services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. The number of customers
or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its
services exceeds specified satisfaction goals also come in this phenomenon. After interviewing
the owner of Oryza regarding various areas we also discussed this thing with him in return he
replied that as our processes are mostly systematic and we have far and on check on the product
which we are producing so customers are mostly satisfied with their product and at present they
are pretty strong refined rice producer in market. The popularity of the company in market is
very much related to Customer satisfaction.
8.3

Employee Involvement:

As discussed earlier, Oryza is fully committed to satisfy its internal as well as external
customers. For this they make sure that they retain their employees, by building strong trusting
relationship with them. He said we pay a lot more attention to our employees because ultimately
its employees who have to perform the final task. So right from the beginning we make sure that
right candidate is selected which meets all the specified criteria. Then gradually we train our
employees according to the needs and situation. Importance of quality is told to employees and
the same message is reinforced over a period of time. Whenever a company applies a new
initiative they make sure that their employees are ready to accept it and then train them
accordingly. Company is open to new ideas from employees of all level; however their culture is
quite centralized where all the major decisions are made by the top management and then
cascade them to the lower level employees. Employees are not autonomous in this regard where
they can take their own decisions they have to first ask the top management.
8.3.1

Employees Training:-

Oryza's concern in every field is very much appreciable, their training of employees takes place
after orientation takes place. Its necessary to enhance their skills, capabilities and knowledge of
employees for doing their respective job. According to them it moulds the thinking of employees
and leads to quality performance. It is continuous and they perform this task after regular
intervals to make employees stick to the main agenda, it also increases job satisfaction and
21

morale among employees it has many benefits it

Increases employee motivation

Increases efficiency in processes, resulting in financial gain

Increases capacity to adopt new technologies and methods

Increases innovation in strategies and products

Reduces employee turnover

8.3.2

Suggestions of employees:-

They take the suggestions from employees but dont take it very much serious because their
processes dont need so much suggestions as most of the work done by machines not
manually, on manual work people usually have more suggestions. The owner of Oryza take
suggestions then think about it if the suggestion has really a strength then he does work on
that suggestion.
8.3.3

Employee participation:-

Employee involvement involves a one-on-one approach between the employee and


management. This is a more direct method of handling a work project, as the individual
employee is included in all aspects of the decision-making process. The employees of Oryza
are very much participative in their work according to owner, most of them do the work as
every single is concerned about the profitability of the company and they think the
company's success is their success.
8.3.4

Benefits provided to employees:-

Oryza provides bonuses to their employees when they achieve the desired goals, other
benefits includes facilitating the employees in health issues, education of their children give
shelter to their employees, they also have small colony.
8.3.5

Employees as factor of sustainable competitive advantage:-

When a firm is implementing a value creating strategy not simultaneously being


implemented by any current or potential competitors, then we can say the firm has a
competitive advantage. Competitive strategies and the main human resource practices that
have a significant impact on the employees performance.Oryza's owner keep on watching
22

the performance of their competitors and also communicate this thing with his employees in
order to make them more and more effective, to increase the spirit of competitiveness in
order to get maximum results. According to him if we keep on telling them about the
competitors performance they try to work more better and better.

8.4

Process Approach:

Oryza has deployed some huge machinery to automate its refining process in order to minimize
human work and make the process error free/fail safe. Yet at times the machine neglects some
major errors but due to continuous inspection those errors are identified and eliminated. So he
said we have to make continuous tuning of our machines in order to eliminate the chance of
incurring poor quality. The standards of the product are quite clear, which customer
communicates to them then they communicate these standards to their employees. Finally using
their machines they fulfill those standards. They follow some statistical tools in their laboratories
during inspection and try to reduce the wastage up to maximum level.

For continuous

improvement of their product and processes they conduct annually and at times semi annually
external audits from MGI, which helps them, a lot to improve their processes and eliminate
waste. The long term objectives of the company clearly demonstrate that they are too much
involved in Rand D and promote culture of innovation and continuous improvement.
8.4.1

Automation:-

Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to optimize
productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. The correct incentive for
applying automation is to increase productivity. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a
step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provides human operators with machinery
to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for
human sensory and mental requirement. According to the processes of Oryza they are related to
mechanization not automation because in automation human requirement is almost negligible but
here human labor is there and they are very much committed in handling the process although
most of the refining work is done by containers by putting the raw rice from one end and refined
rice from other end after passing through several containers.

23

8.4.2

Critical Processes

There are three basic processes, which create ultimately all the value and which are mainly
responsible for all the value creation and success of the Oryzas business. First process is the
process of recruitment, which starts with the search of the appropriate supplier after they receive
customer order. The GM told us that he himself travel to different regions in search of a good
reliable supplier. He collects different samples and bring them to their laboratory, where they test
each sample and on the basis of the results they prepare certain reports. After comparing several
reports they ultimately select one supplier which is most reliable in terms of quality and material
such as which causes them minimal waste.
The next process is the process of refining, as refining is their main business they take raw
material such as paddy and convert it into its most purified form which can be exported to
different countries. All the refining process is automated and finally there is a checking with the
help of sovter machine which is their quality inspection machine. The refining process is
described in detail in the appropriate section congaing process mapping.
The final process is the delivery process; they do packing according to the customer demand and
send it to their agencies which are responsible for exporting. Client if feel necessary he conducts
laboratory tests and once he is satisfied he finally takes the material.
The important thing in this industry is that there is no wastage; everything they produce or refine
can be sold in different markets at different rates.

8.4.3

CRM process:-

Already discuss above in customer focus


8.4.4

Management Review Process:-

Management review is often misunderstood and underutilized, but it is the process that
supports continuous improvement and emphasizes its importance in the drive for success. A
management review produces output that ultimately positively impacts the customer. Oryza's
management uses this process by organizing weekly production planning meetings, schedule
review meetings. The inputs of this process are as follows:

Results of internal and AISC audits.


24

Customer feedback.

Process performance and product conformity.

Output from previous management reviews.

After analyzing the inputs they start to work for the betterment in the output review
process, the outputs are as follows:

Improvement of the effectiveness of the quality management system and its


processes,

Improvement of product quality,

Resource needs.

Company's management also communicate with the employees after the amendments
which they want to apply on the processes for getting the maximum results.
8.4.5

Value Creation:-

The most successful organizations understand that the purpose of any business is to create value
for customers, employees, and investors, and that the interests of these three groups are
inextricably linked. Therefore, sustainable value cannot be created for one group unless it is
created for all of them. The first focus should be on creating value for the customer, but this
cannot be achieved unless the right employees are selected, developed, and rewarded, and unless
investors receive consistently attractive returns. In today's economy, such value creation is based
typically on product and process innovation and on understanding unique customer needs with
ever-increasing speed and precision Oryza focuses a lot in these areas and they are so much
stick, understand how to make their business successful. Owner keeps an eye on the modern
techniques. He and his management works a lot in order to maintain their value in eyes of the
people related to their business whether they are customers, suppliers, stakeholders etc.
8.5

System Approach to Management:

Oryza uses system approach to align all their processes, tasks, activities performed in all
departments. They consistently get feedback from their clients regarding their changing
demands; also they emphasize a lot on Rand D internal and external. They get information from
external companies based on their research work so they work accordingly on these parameters
to improve rice engineering and introduce new verities in rice. They area where they are lacking
is their complete supply chain, they have many number of suppliers and none of them is their
25

permanent supplier. This increases the cost and increases the verity of raw material. However
they need to emphasize on less number of suppliers and make their internal partners, help them
grow and provide them the required raw material within time. So it will significantly improve
their time cost as well as it will further reduce the wastage which was solely because of the poor
raw material.
8.5.1

Communication:-

The success depends on how clear and powerful the vision is and how well you communicate it.
Businesses need to create the systems and products to back up the promise you make to your
customers. The principal areas where communication is essential include:

Pitching potential clients.

Client meetings.

Customer service.

Face-to-face networking.

Marketing your business.

The communication process of Oryza with respect to people who are related with their business
is quite appreciable, one thing which we pickled out the interview is that they dont very much
communicate with the employees in order to make decisions but their communication regarding
the ease of employees is really good, they keep on listen the queries of their employees and try to
fix as early as possible. As their clients are mainly from Middle East so they take help from the
internet and telephone in order to communicate with them, as procedure applied by them for
vendors as well.
8.5.2

Cooperation:-

Cooperation factor plays an important role in businesses and today its increasing very much, it
has positive impact on achieving the goals more effectively, business activities enable
cooperation include international trade fairs, matchmaking and networking, doing things at right
time can only be done with good cooperation of management and the labor.
8.5.3

Coordination:-

Coordination is the process of synchronizing activities of various persons in the organization in


order to achieve goals. It is undertaken at every level of management. It deals with the task of
26

blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective. It is accomplished by


means of planning, organizing and controlling. It is a part of all phases of administration and that
is not a separate and distinct activity. Oryza coordinates with the people related to their business
in very efficient way especially with suppliers. Their coordination with suppliers is very much
appraisable, as their business totally relies on suppliers of raw rice so for that coordination is
very much important without that they cannot perform the tasks smoothly, while within company
the management's coordination with labor and owner's coordination with all of the people within
organization is really in good and effective way. They are using instant messaging technique for
the coordination within the organization.
8.5.4

Integration:-

Businesses that connect the design of information and business process with technology.
Business process integration is the platform that will quickly and reliably integrate your data and
technologies, automating and optimizing business processes both within the organization and
across customers, partners etc. Oryza is integrated with the technology their whole refining
process is mechanical consists of several refining containers to get the purest form of rice in ideal
size and shape.
8.6

Continual Improvement:

Oryza is an emerging company in the industry; they emphasize a lot on growth and learning.
They perform the following major tasks to ensure continual improvement;

Customers feedback for continuous change and improvement

Conducts internal and external audits to identify and overcome errors

They use benchmarking to evaluate themselves against their sister companies working in
KSA

Continual adjustment and tuning of machines

Conducts laboratory tests to increase customer satisfaction as well as to reduce wastage.

8.6.1

Quality Control Machine:-

As Oryza exports the rice, they have to maintain the quality standards to maintain their position
in eyes of their clients, after visiting the company and interviewing the CEO of company we can
27

say that they are performing their jobs up to the mark by assuring the quality of rice. Their
refining process is completely rely on the machines consist of several containers from starting
point to ending point and every container has link with other one to refine the rice continuously
to ensure the quality of rice so we can say that their machines are strictly following the quality
control phenomenon. The continual improvement in refining the product is carried by these
machines. According to Oryzas management they keep on clean the cylinders after 8 to 10 times
processing by using different cleaning chemicals and leave them to 5 to 6 hours for dryness.

8.6.2

Laboratory Tests and Reports:-

Oryza also perform the laboratory tests by taking the sample from the refined rice to check
whether the rice meets the quality standards or not, in this process the main things which they
consider are size, shape, color, preserved nutrients and many other components. Sometimes these
tests also perform before the refining process if they change one of their suppliers. After tests
they make reports and if they pickle out some problems then they stop the delivery process of the
respective baggages of rice.

8.6.3

Reduce errors:-

After the laboratory tests and reports formulation they try to reduce the errors occur during the
process. Research and development department brainstorm the reasons of the errors i-e how they
occur and what remedy measures they can apply to remove those errors.
8.6.4

Meet or exceed customer expectation:-

Oryza is meeting the customers perception about their product but to exceed their
expectation they are considering the continual improvement phenomenon, Owner said they try
their best to provide highest quality level to their customers. 'Value Creation through Innovation'
strategy is very much considered by their management. According to them their customers have
come to expect reliability in everything we do for them, from product performance through the
order process to our final delivery. They also said that we are committed to continuous
improvement in our performance and we seek smart and simple solutions to fulfill our
customers needs.

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8.6.5

Make the process safer:-

None of their job is done manually like cutting or using sharp edges instruments, steel pots with
sharp ends for removal of waste etc so their whole process is safe for their employees.
8.6.6

Make the process satisfying for the people doing it:-

After so much discussion on processes this heading is self explanatory, Oryzas people are pretty
satisfied while performing their duties.

8.7

Factual Approach to Decision Making:

The company intensively relies on facts and figures regarding decision making. Right from the
beginning they conduct laboratory tests during procurement process; they take samples from
different vendors and assess them in their internal labs. Then they formulate certain reports on
the basis of their results. Then analyze which sample they should take to minimize cost and
reduce the wastage. Similarly during the process they use Soveten Machine for inspection
purpose. They analyze the percentage of broken and other parts which cannot be uses. On the
basis of which they further take preventive actions. Finally during their delivery process again
they use the laboratory test, they take several samples and tests them in the labs, send the reports
to client and fully satisfy their customers.
8.7.1

Research and Development:-

The research and development refers to a specific group of activities within a business. The
activities that are classified as R&D differ from company to company, but there are two primary
models. In one model, the primary function of an R&D group is to develop new products in the
other model, the primary function of an R&D group is to discover and create new knowledge.
Oryza is currently working on second type of model they keep on studying the new trends and
behavior of market, processes they are performing and try their best to solve the queries of
customers or the deficiency in quality measures of the refined rice.
8.7.2

Quality cost analysis:-

Oryza is very much focused in quality terms, that is why they have spent huge amount of money
in quality of conformance, which is to prevent and avoid quality problems.
Quality costs are the costs associated with preventing, finding, and correcting defective work.
Many of these costs can be significantly reduced or completely avoided. Oryza has 2 Quality
29

Engineers who work on the reduction of the total cost of quality associated with a product. They
considers following type of costs:Prevention Costs: - Costs of activities that are specifically designed to prevent poor quality.

Product or service requirements setting specifications for incoming materials,


processes, finished
products/services
Quality planning creation of plans for quality, reliability, operational, production,
inspection
Quality assurance creation and maintenance of the quality system
Training development, preparation and maintenance of programs
Appraisal Cost: - Costs of activities designed to find quality problems, such as code inspections

and any type of testing.


Verification checking of incoming material, process set-up, products against agreed
specifications
Quality audits check that the quality system is functioning correctly
Vendor rating assessment and approval of suppliers, for products and services
Failure Costs: - Costs that result from poor quality, such as cost of dealing with customer

complaints.
Internal Failure Costs: Failure costs that arise before your company supplies its product to the

customer
Waste doing unnecessary work or holding stocks as a result of errors, poor organization
or
communication
Scrap defective product or material that cannot be repaired, used or sold
Rework or rectification the correction of defective material or errors
Failure analysis activity required to establish the causes of internal product or service
failure

30

8.7.3

Performance measurement:-

Performance measurement is a fundamental building block of total quality organization.


Historically, organizations have always measured performance in some way through the
financial performance, be this success by profit or failure through liquidation. In a successful
total quality organization, performance will be measured by the improvements seen by the
customer as well as by the results delivered to other stakeholders, such as the shareholders or in
simple words working by considering or give preference to customers as more as possible
Oryza is taking following performance measures to do their business in effective and efficient
way:

Provide a way to see if strategy is working

Focus on employees' attention on what matters most to success

Allow measurement of accomplishments, not just of the work that is performed

Provide a common language for communication

Are explicitly defined in terms of owner, unit of measure, collection frequency, data
quality, expected and thresholds

8.8

Are verifiable, to ensure data collection accuracy

Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationship:

A mutually beneficial relationship with supplier enhances the ability and competitiveness of both
the organizations. It allows both of the companies to cooperate, learn from each other and enjoy
each other success. This is probably the main area where company is lacking and incurring lot of
cost in terms of inventory, time, money, and at times quality too. What Oryza needs to do they
need to identify some of the key suppliers and establish long term successful relationship with
them. They need to communicate the benefits of collaboration and help them grow and meet the
appropriate standards. Both the supplier and the company should have open and frequent
communication with each other to enhance each other effectiveness. They should jointly
establish and understand what do customers really need and develop future plans accordingly.
Finally company needs to involve them in their success, reward them, praise them and recognize
31

their achievements. Show them that they are part of their success story and build long term
successful relationship with their suppliers.

8.8.1

Reduce Number of Suppliers

Oryza does not have a fixed supplier for their business. Before every order they consider a lot of
suppliers and then perform sample test. After the tests they select the best supplier on the basis of
the test result. What Oryza needs to do is that they should keep one fix supplier for each type of
rice they refine. Reducing number of suppliers will help Oryza to be more efficient and effective.
They should select one supplier which they think would always provide them with paddy rice of
their requirement. This would help them lessen inconsistency in the supplying process and a
supplier will always be available to Oryza when they need it. This would also help Oryza
smoothen its business process if they have an organized supply chain with no variability in the
supplying company.
8.8.2

Build Long Term Relationship

Just reducing the number of suppliers would not help oryza. Oryza should reduce the number of
suppliers and then they should try to build long term relations with them. A good relationship
among supplier and ordering company always helps both the company to prosper. Oryza should
order from their consistent supplier again and again and the suppliers should always try to
provide their consistent customers with the best quality products. This would be beneficial for
both the companies. Building long term relationship with their suppliers would help oryza get the
best quality product out of their suppliers and this would help increase oryzas image amongst its
own customers (importers).Oryza should always try to build good relationship with its suppliers
as it does with its customers.
8.8.3

Consider them as partners and help them grow

Suppliers should not be just considered as a normal company providing you with required
materials instead they should be considered as a partner. The focus should always be on mutual
benefits. Oryza should consider its suppliers as partners and it should help them grow. If the
supplier provides Oryza with the best quality product oryza should try to give benefits to supplier
in return. Oryza should give its word to its suppliers that as long as the suppliers provide it with
quality products its position as a long term supplier would be secured. Suppliers on the other
32

hand should always try to reduce cost and improve quality for their Partnering manufacturer.

Quality Tools:

9.1

5S Model:

9.1.1 Sieri Sorting Out


The work place of Oryza is kept clean all the time. There are special workers who work on the
cleanliness of the workplace. They check for water spills and leakages which they try to fix.
Machines are placed in a very appropriate way. Oryza workers clean the machines and work
place before and after the production process. Oryza work place may not be ISO certified yet but
it surely applies total quality principles to its work place. Its workplace is really clean and does
not have anything that is not needed by the workers for production. Oryzas entire process is
automated so only those things are present at the work places which are needed for the machines
or by workers. Oryza discards all those things that are not needed by any one or anything at the
workplace. As Oryza;s business relates to rice so they clean their workplace to keep the rice safe
from dust particles. Oryza stores its inventory for future demand in its warehouses .Their
warehouses are also cleaned on a specific internal. The ware houses are very professionally
organized , the inventory is not scattered rather the rice bags are placed very formally one over
the other.
9.1.2

Sieton - Systematic Arrangement

Oryzas workplace is very organized. Oryza process is automated so all the things required for
the machinery like lubricants and other such things that are required for machinery are kept
closer to the machines. Oryza;s workplace is cleaned at least twice a day as they are very
conscious about their cleanliness. Anything that is not needed is regarded as waste and is
discarded by Oryza workers. Oryza is a very organized company with all its material and
machinery organized very well. They have special arrangements of ventilation and fire
extinguishers are also places at appropriate places.
9.1.3 Sieso - Spic and Span
Oryza has special worker who is just hired for cleaning purposes who cleans the workplace at
least twice a day. The machinery is cleaned twice a day first before the process and then at the
33

end of the day when the operations end. Oryza has bought some very expensive machinery for
inspection and quality purposes. Oryza has bought a quality inspection machine for about Rs. 2
Crore just for ,making inspection process easier. Every worker who works at Oryza helps to keep
the place clean and helps to inspect the processes.
9.1.4 Sieketsu Standardization
Oryza may not be ISO Certified but it follows a lot of total quality management principles as it
keeps its workplace clean all the time. It has expensive technology for the inspection of quality.
It exports its rice to abroad countries where companies want quality products so even if Oryza is
not ISO certified their export quality shows that they follow standard processes. Oryza produces
and refines rice up to standard size and color.
9.1.5 Shitsuke - Self-Discipline
At Oryza workers are trained on how to perform different tasks and what to do in case of any
emergency. Oryza has a fully trained and skillful workforce. Oryzas operations start and end at
a fixed time unless there is an increased demand. The daily operations are carried out in a
disciplined time. Oryza employees are very keen in performing their tasks on time. After the task
is performed it is cross checked and inspected.,
9.2

10 Findings
10.1 Rice Quality Problems & Suggestions
Challenges for rice research and production
The extensive adoption of modern and improved production technology was accelerated through
favorable government policy, expansion of irrigated areas, accessibility to agricultural credit,
intensive extension services and the availability of agro-chemicals, especially fertilizers and
herbicides. The Green Revolution in the 70s and 80s has maintained rice production well ahead
of the population growth in many developing countries. Concern has increased about mining
the soil for plant nutrients, changes in the status of rice pests from minor to major economic

34

importance, a negative impact on the environment and losses of natural resources and
biodiversity (Shastry et al., 1996).
10.1.1 Water problems

Water is the primary factor determining the success of the rice crop. As mentioned earlier, the
Green Revolution has bypassed Sub-Saharan Africa, due to, among other factors, inadequate
irrigation and drainage development. Wetlands have been widely exploited for rice production in
many parts of the world. Many problems relating to this matter are well known: water efficiency,
water availability and water quality.
10.1.2 A. Water efficiency

Water is a critical and the most important factor in rice production. About 55 percent of the areas
cultivated to rice are under irrigation. It is known that in irrigated systems, more than 4-5,000
liters of water are used to produce 1 kg of rice in many areas. Field level assessment suggests a
water efficiency of 50 percent and it may reach 80 percent if drained water could be recycled and
used (CGIAR, 1996a).
10.1.3 B. Water availability

Although water in South-east Asia is usually considered abundant, particularly in the monsoon
rainy season, it is predicted that many Asian countries will suffer from water shortage by 2025,
as the rate of population and urbanization growth is rapidly increasing. According to Feder and
Keck (in Pingali, 1996), the per capita availability of water declined of 40-60 percent over the
period 1955-1990.
10.1.4 C. Water quality

Poor drainage is the major factor connected to water problems including waterlogging, salinity,
toxicity and water pollution. This poor drainage situation is mainly due to inappropriate
development of irrigation schemes and passive reaction of farmers to the schemes operating
organization and their economic conditions. Salinity is caused by saline water intrusion from the
sea in the coastal regions and by the upward movement of salt-water through capillary action in
soils, and salt accumulation on the soil surface due to fast evaporation. About 24 percent of the
irrigated lands have been affected by salinity problems (Postel, 1989).

35

10.2 Land constraints


10.2.1 A. Marginal lands

In Asia, during the Green Revolution, the rapid expansion of modern rice varieties has exhausted
favourable lands. By 2025, 53 percent of the people in Asia will live in urban areas compared to
30 the percent in 1990 (communication with Dr. M. Hossain, IRRI, 1995).
10.2.2 B. Change in soil characteristics

Long-term soil pudding and drying lead to the formation of hard pans 5-15 cm below the surface.
The hard pan, which has a bulk soil density with less medium and large pores, reduces the soil
permeability, and the root ability to extract nutrients from subsoil, and increases the formation of
soil toxicities due to long waterlogging condition, thereby hindering the growth of dry land crops
after rice. The widespread of modern rice also encourages the increased utilization of machinery
in rice farming, particularly in rice producing developed countries, which in turn induces soil
compaction. Permanent waterlogging and rice monoculture have commonly caused
microelement deficiencies, especially zinc and sulphur, and toxicities, notably iron. Zinc
deficiency is the most widespread microelement disorder of wetland rice.
10.2.3 C. Mining effects and fertility change

Modern rice varieties exhaust soil fertility more rapidly than traditional varieties. Modern rice
crops under intensive cropping (about 6 t/ha) remove from soils 100 kgN, 50 kgP2O5, 160
kgK2O, 19 kgCa, 20 kgMg, 10 kgS, 0.6 kgFe, 0.19 kgZn, 0,64kgMn, 0.08 kgCu, 0.06 kgB, and
0.004 kgMo per hectare per growing season. Farmers usually compensate these nutritional
losses, especially macro-elements, with chemical fertilizers while neglecting some essential
micro-elements. In the long run, the micro-elements become deficient and cause an imbalance in
soil nutrition, increase demand for phosphorus and potassium and cause nitrogen inefficiency,
affecting the ultimate grain yield. Therefore, the soil nutritional status requires periodic
monitoring, particularly for intensive cropping systems (Tran and Ton That, 1994).

10.3 Environmental problems


The flooded rice field has a high potential to produce methane while the potential of upland rice
for methane production is not significant since upland rice is never flooded for a long period of
time. The hydromorphic rice produces methane emission when the soils are flooded and no
methane under the dry soil condition. The irrigated rice may cause problems of waterlogging,
36

ground water depletion, salinity and alkalinity. Upland rice may increase deforestation and soil
erosion if the fallow period is short.
10.3.1 Biotic stresses

In the humid tropics, the introduction of semi dwarf-stature varieties and the large use of
nitrogen fertilizers and insecticides have changed the status of pests from low to high related to
the economic importance in rice production. It was reported the serious incidence of some
insects such as brown plant hoppers, stem borers, leaf folders, etc., and diseases such as blast,
bacterial blight, and sheath rot. The short growth duration of modern rice varieties has modified
existing cropping patterns and increased farming intensity from single crop to double or triple
crops, thereby inducing a favorable environment for insect pests and pathogen multiplication.
10.3.2 Improvement of rice yield

Productivity of rice does not only vary between one country and another, but also within the
same country based on the different agro-ecological zones and production systems used. The gap
between the farmers yields and those obtained by research stations is still large, even though
some reduction has been reported recently. This Indicates the various limiting factors affecting
rice productivity and production, ranging from land development, production and marketing.
The Rice check concept consists of seven points relating to yield:
1) Develop a good field layout,
2) Use the recommended sowing dates,
3) Obtain good and economic weed control,
4) Establish a seedling population of 150-300 plants/m2,
5) Achieve 500-1100 tillers/m2 at panicle initiation and NIR tissue nitrogen content of 1.2-2.2
percent.
6) Top-dress nitrogen based on tiller counts and NIR tissue analysis using the PI Nitrogen Test,
and
7) Achieve, at an early pollen microspore, a water depth of 20-25 cm, depending on variety.

37

10.3.3 Decline in investments for increased rice production

Water control was the main factor necessary to increase the rice production and productivity in
Asia during the Green Revolution, but a decline in investment for the development of irrigation
infrastructures in many developing countries has taken place, thereby affecting the growth of rice
production as well as productivity. In Asia, the irrigation investment has declined by about 60
percent since the 1960s (Pingali, 1996). The amount loaned for irrigation development decreased
from $630 million in 1977-79 to $202 million in 1986-87 (Rosegrant and Pingali, 1993).
Likewise, the growth rate in research expenditure in Asia declined from 7.4 percent in 1961 to
about 4.6 percent during the 1980s (Rosegrant and Pingali, 1993).
10.3.4 Rice information

One of the most effective means to promote the flow of agricultural information over the world
is the modern computerized communication facilities, which allow to gather, disseminate, and
facilitate interaction and exchange of such information among a large number of people and
institutions working in the same field. Obviously, but in Pakistan it still needs to have initiatives,
coordination and leadership in this regard.

10.4 Emergent new technologies for increasing rice productivity


10.4.1 Hybrid rice

In Pakistan there is no special interest for new rice varieties, but recently, hybrid rice is the only
emergent technology available for raising the ceiling of rice yield potential by 15-20 percent.
Hybrid rice, which is grown on 17 million ha and accounts for more than 50 percent of the total
rice area in China, has helped this country to produce additional 300 million tonnes of rice since
1976 and has saved more than 2 million ha for agricultural diversification. This was achieved
due to the fact that the yield of hybrid rice is more than 20 per cent (or 1 to 2 tons/ha) higher than
that of conventional varieties (Yuan and Fu, 1995). This technology is very essential for highly
populated areas, where arable lands are limited.
In Pakistan typically, the variety IRRI 6 & IRRI 9 still has the highest yield potential (10-11
T/ha) against the other improved varieties, recently introduced to farmers. Rice researchers have
been working towards raising the present yield level to 15 t/ha or more by making carbohydrate
partitioning more efficient for increasing grain yield (sink size) or harvest index. The work on

38

super rice initiated in 1988 by IRRI, with studies on improvement of physiological aspects of
modern rice for increasing yield potential.
10.4.2 Biotechnology

In Pakistan considerable progress has been made toward this new frontier upstream rice research
programme, particularly on the genetic engineering of rice for resistance to brown plant hoppers,
yellow stem borers, tungro virus, rice ragged stunt virus, bacterial leaf blight, and sheath blight.
IRRI has worked on Bt toxin gene and coat protein gene for ragged stunt virus, gene for
submergence tolerance, gene for controlling CMS lines and nitrogen-fixing genes for rice plants.
However, techniques and approaches to molecular breeding still need to be perfected to make
them more efficient, accurate and less costly practices. Researchers have made great
contributions towards the development of innovative technologies of rice.

11 Cause and Effect Diagram for Rice Quality: Problems & Solutions

Resources
Water Shortage

Processes
Automation

Land
Constraints

Soil Characteristics
Inflation Raising
costs

Fertility Change
Decline Investments

Hybrid Seed

New
Technologies

New Rice
Types

Bio Technology

Super Rice

Nutrition Value

Quality of Rice

Methane
Production

Ground Water
Depletion

Water Logging

Imbalanced
Soil Nutrition

Farmer Skills
Information
Labor
Expertise

Training

Salinity & Alkalinity


Biotic Pressure

Environment

Rice Yield

People

39

12 Prioritization Matrices For Quality of Rice: Problems & Solutions


Prioritization Matrices For Rice Quality
Weighted Score for Each Criteria
Member

Member

Member

Member

Member

Total

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

Actionable/ Feasibility

0.3

0.35

0.25

0.2

0.3

1.4

Acceptance by Users

0.2

0.15

0.3

0.2

0.25

1.1

Cost

0.35

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.35

1.8

Technology

0.15

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.1

0.7

We have developed an implementation criteria consisting of the mentioned dimensions using a


nominal group technique, In this table prioritization has been done and every member weighs the
criteria so the total weight becomes equal to 1.
Using NGT rank order the options in terms of NGT, this ranking has been done on a scale of 110, with 1= least importance and 10= maximum importance.

40

Processes
Resources
People
Environment

Nutritional Value
Automation
New Technologies
Hybrid seed
New Rice Types
Super Rice
Bio Technology Issues
Water Shortage
Soil Characteristics
Fertility Change
Declined Investments
Land Constraints
Inflation raising Costs
Farmer Skills
Labor Expertise
Rice Yield
Information Lag
Training
Methane Production
Water Logging
Salinity & Alkalinity
Ground Water Depletion
Imbalanced Soil Nutrition
Biotic Pressure

9
7
7
8
8
9
8
8
7
7
8
7
7
9
8
7
9
8
7
7
8
6
8
7

10
8
7
7
8
8
7
10
9
9
8
8
7
8
9
7
8
8
6
7
7
10
9
7

7
6
7
8
7
7
7
7
6
6
8
5
7
7
6
6
7
7
6
6
6
5
6
6

og
y
Te
ch
no
l

by

Co
st

Ac
t io
na
bl
e/

Strategies

Ac
ce
pt
an
ce

Fe
as

ib
ilit

Us
er
s

Prioritization Matrix: Improving Rice Quality Using the Consensus Criteria Method

8
10
9
9
9
8
9
8
8
7
9
8
8
8
9
8
9
9
6
8
8
8
9
8

Now computed the option importance score under each criterion by multiplying the rank by the
criterion weight as shown below. The option with the highest total should be implemented first,
and in our case it is nutritional value.

41

Processes
Resources
People
Environment

Nutritional Value
Automation
New Technologies
Hybrid seed
New Rice Types
Super Rice
Bio Technology Issues
Water Shortage
Soil Characteristics
Fertility Change
Declined Investments
Land Constraints
Inflation raising Costs
Farmer Skills
Labor Expertise
Rice Yield
Information Lag
Training
Methane Production
Water Logging
Salinity & Alkalinity
Ground Water Depletion
Imbalanced Soil Nutrition
Biotic Pressure

12.6
9.8
9.8
11.2
11.2
12.6
11.2
11.2
9.8
9.8
11.2
9.8
9.8
12.6
11.2
9.8
12.6
11.2
9.8
9.8
11.2
8.4
11.2
9.8

11
8.8
7.7
7.7
8.8
8.8
7.7
11
9.9
9.9
8.8
8.8
7.7
8.8
9.9
7.7
8.8
8.8
6.6
7.7
7.7
11
9.9
7.7

12.6
10.8
12.6
14.4
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
10.8
10.8
14.4
9
12.6
12.6
10.8
10.8
12.6
12.6
10.8
10.8
10.8
9
10.8
10.8

5.6
7
6.3
6.3
6.3
5.6
6.3
5.6
5.6
4.9
6.3
5.6
5.6
5.6
6.3
5.6
6.3
6.3
4.2
5.6
5.6
5.6
6.3
5.6

To
ta
l

og
y
Te
ch
no
l

Co
st

Ac
t io
na
ble
/

Strategies

Ac
ce
pt
an
ce
by
Us
er
s

Fe
as
ibi
lit

Prioritization Matrix (Weighted Score): Improving Rice Quality Using the Consensus Criteria Method

41.8
36.4
36.4
39.6
38.9
39.6
37.8
40.4
36.1
35.4
40.7
33.2
35.7
39.6
38.2
33.9
40.3
38.9
31.4
33.9
35.3
34
38.2
33.9

13 Improvement Strategies
13.1 Repair:
Oryza Rice Mills main process is refining of rice which is done by automated means. The
machines in the process are for refining and inspecting quality. If the output is not according to
the standards as required by Oryza then the company looks for technical problems in the
machines if the machines are the cause of the problem then an engineer is called and the machine
is fixed. The General Manager of Oryza told us that they have never faced any complaint about
their products from their customers as they export the product after complete inspection.
42

13.2 Refine:
Oryzas main process is to refine paddy rice. Oryza has about 8 machines in its process but a few
months back it had less machines but with time Oryza added a few inspection machines for
improving their process as they realized that improving was the need of time. This helped them
with yielding good quality output and lesser rework. The quality is inspected through machines
which completely eliminates human error in inspection.

13.3 Renovate:
Oryza added a machine called Sortex Z4+ at the end of their assembly line which is worth Rs. 2
Crores. Oryza bought this machine for quality inspection. Most of the rice mills in Pakistan do
not have this machine but Oryza bought this machine to yield the best export quality output rice.
It was one of the major improvements in the process of refining paddy rice in Oryza.

13.4 Reinvent:
This is the most demanding strategy in the market at the moment. This strategy focuses on the
thing that the current approach never satisfies customer requirements so a new product or service
or activity is needed. Oryzas operations are just about refining rice. Oryza from the beginning
has been exporting six type of rice. They havent implemented reinvention strategy in their
company but we would suggest then that they should try to refine paddy rice of other types as
well and should not just focus on 6 types of rice. Oryza only exports rice so it would also be
good if they expand their business and try to sell out their rice in the local market as well.

43

14 Recommendations & Suggestions


Oryza should try and build strong and long term relations with its suppliers. Instead of choosing
from number of suppliers every time ,Oryza should choose one best supplier and then they
should try to build long term relations with them
The fat content of rice is low and much of fat is lost in the process of milling. Protein content of
mill rice is low in comparison with other cereals, although whole grain contain about same
quantity as is found in wheat. The low content of lysine is the most serious amino acid
deficiency.

14.1 Rice Mills Processing:


The basic role of industrial rice milling is transforming paddy rice into white rice, giving it a
good appearance and selecting the best quality. Cleaning of white rice removes foreign objects
such as hay, stone, tree stump from the paddy. Hulling rubs excessive husk off cleaned paddy.
On removed, brown rice is separated from husk through ventilation process and mechanical
equipment leaving pure brown rice available for milling
Milling is essential but faulty over milling caused frequently by mills in need of repair and
replacement result in high percentage of breakage and consequent loss of vitamins.
Effect of Milling on Nutritive Value of Rice: Losses occur in the fields especially during
harvesting, storage, transport and processing and by improper drying or milling. Proteins, fats,
vitamins and minerals are present in greater quantities in the germ and outer layer than in the
starchy endosperm, the removal of the protecting. The B vitamin and iron are found primarily in
the germ and bran layers and are therefore removed in the milling process.

14.2 Losses on Polishing:


Losses on polishing are 29% of the protein, 79% of the fat, 84% of the time and 67% of the iron.
Losses occur in the fields especially during harvesting, storage, transport and processing and by
improper drying or milling. During milling decrease in minerals take place. The effect of
processing on vitamin and mineral content of rice are shown in Table 1. Comparison of
composition of husked and polished rice showed that the mineral content is decreased in polished
rice.

44

45

15 Conclusion

The costs of developing new areas under irrigation and rehabilitation of large-scale irrigation
schemes are high. It is therefore important to improve water use efficiency in rice production
systems through the use of appropriate water control and crop management techniques, with
emphasis on irrigation technologies combined with genetic improvement. At present, the
improvement of water use efficiency has drawn little attention from rice breeders.
An increase in rice production should meet the demand of the worlds current population growth
rate. A less costly means to achieve this aim is to increase rice productivity, wherever possible.
Many rice-producing countries, even in the developed countries, still show a big gap between the
present and potential yield. Hence, efforts should be focused on identifying the causes of this
gap, especially in the production factors and the various features of crop management. An
adequate understanding of physiological aspects of rice productivity and its components will
facilitate the above efforts and provide relevant measures for the improvement of rice production
at the field level. At present, many national rice research programmes are well organized and
developed. Upstream research deserves more attention from funding donors and researchers in
order to increase the rice productivity and production, with more emphasis being placed on rain
fed and marginal ecologies to support the worlds current population growth. As financial and
human resources are limited in many countries, regional/inter-regional and international
collaboration and cooperation in rice research would offer practical solutions to meet the worlds
increased food demands.

46

16 References
Oryzaworld.com
http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Chapters/128S-2.pdf
http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Thesis/128S.pdf
http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Chapters/129S-2.pdf
http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Thesis/129S.pdf
http://dawn.com/2012/09/30/steep-fall-in-rice-exports/
http://tribune.com.pk/story/445440/rice-exporters-to-target-2-5b-in-exports/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice_production_in_Pakistan
http://www.reap.com.pk/

47