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GEAR BOX

EXAMPLE 1
A three stage gear box with twelve speeds is to be designed based on R10 s1eries with a
minimum spindle speed of 125 rpm. The electric motor is connected to the gear box through
a belt drive and runs at 1440 rpm and transmit power of 5 KW. Using standard spindle
speed,
a.)
b.)
c.)
d.)
e.)
f.)

Draw structure and speed diagram for the arrangement.


Determine the ratio of the belt pulley diameter.
Draw the gear box layout.
Determine number of teeth on each gear.
Draw the percentage deviation diagram.
Find maximum torque on each shaft
GIVEN DATA
Number of stage(n)=3
Number of speed(z)=12

Possible arrangement is

2n 2n 3n
1

z=

= 2 3

The design would be for a 3 stage, 12 speed gear box


=

10

10

=1.26

N1= Nmin =125 rpm


NM=1440 rpm
P= 5 Kw
The twelve speed is given by following
N1=125 rpm
N2=125*1.26=160 rpm
N3=160*1.26=200 rpm
N4=200*1.26=250 rpm
N5=250*1.26=315 rpm
N6=315*1.26=400 rpm
N7=400*1.26=500rpm
N8=500*1.26=630 rpm
N9=630*1.26=800 rpm

N10=800*1.26=1000 rpm
N11=1000*1.26=1250 rpm
N11=1260*1.26=1600 rpm
So begin with considering the preferred structure diagram as shown in figure

For this structure diagram the maximum value of I g occurs in stage 3


Ig=

=4<8

This value is less than 8 and hence the structure diagram is suitable.
The speed diagram for the same has been shown in figure

From the above speed diagram, it can be seen that in stage 2 and 3 the speed reduction of the gear pair
would be maximum
The gear ratio would be
315/125=2.52

which is less than 6

It is seen that the gear drive is used to connect the motor with the input shaft of the gear pair.
The motor speed was 1440 rpm whereas the input shaft from the speed diagram is 1600 rpm.

Thus, if the pulley connected to the motor has a diameter D M and that connected to the input shaft.
The gear box has diameter D1, then the pulley diameter would be in the ratio
D1/DM=NM/N1=1440/1600=0.9
The gear layout should be as shown in the figure

The teeth on the gear for stage 1 can be calculated as under


Za/Za=Na/Na=1600/800=2
Zb/Zb=Nb/Nb=1600/1000=1.6
Za=2Za

Zb=1.6Zb
Za+Za=Zb=Zb
3Za = 2.6Zb
Za = 1.154 Zb

To determine the integer value of no of teeth on gear the table is shown below
Za
18
19
20

Za=2Za
36
38
40

Za+Za
54
57
70

Zb=1.154Za
21
22
23

Zb=1.6Zb
33(R 1.57)
35(R 1.59)
37(R 1.61)

Zb+Zb
54
57(suitable)
60

In the present case selecting gear with Za=19


It is seen that there is deviation in the gear ratio
Nb/Nb=1.59
Nb= 1600/1.59=1006.3 rpm
To determine the number of teeth on second stage the input speeds are 800 rpm and 1006.3 rpm
Zc/Zc=Nc/Nc=800/800=1
Zd/Zd=Nd/Nd=800/500=1.6
Ze/Ze=Ne/Ne=800/315=2.54

The largest value in this case would be for gear e and e


Ze=2.54 Ze
Zd=1.6 Zd
Zc=Zc
Zc+Zc=Zd+Zd=Ze+Ze
Zc=1.77 Ze
Zd=1.362 Ze
To determine the integer value of number of teeth below table is given

Z
e
18

Ze=2.54Ze
46(R 2.55)

Ze+Ze

64

Zd=1.362Z
e
25

19

48(R 2.526)

67

26

20

51(R 2.550)

71

27

21

53(R 2.524)

74

29

22

56(R 2.545)

78

30

Zd=1.6Zd
39(R
1.560)
40(R
1.577)
44(R
1.630)
46(R
1.586)
48(R 1.60)

Zd+Zd

64

Zc=1.77Z
e
32

Zc=Z
c
32

Zc+Zc

67

34

34

68

71

35

35

70

74

37

37

74

78

39

39

78

64

In present case selecting gear with Ze=22


Speed variation due to variation in gear ratio is given below
GEAR

GEAR RATIO
CORRECTED
1

C
C
d
d

1.6

e
e

2.545

ACTUAL SPEED

SHAFT

800,1006.3
800.1006.3
800,1006.3
800/1.6=500
1006.3/1.6=628.9
800,1006.3
800/2.545=314.3
1006.3/2.545=395.4

2
3
2
3
3
2
3
3

To determine the number of teeth in the third stage, the input speeds are 314.3, 395.4, 500, 628.9, 800
and 1006.3 rpm.
Now for the third stage
Zf/Zf=Nf/Nf=314.3/500=0.629
Zg/Zg=Ng/Ng=314.3/125=2.51
The largest ratio for this stage would be for gears g and g

Zf=0.629 Zf

Zg=2.51 Zg

Zf+Zf=Zg+Zg
1.629 Zf=3.51 Zg
Zf=2.155 Zg
To find the number of teeth on gear following table is given
Zg
Zg=2.51Zg
Zg+Zg
18
45(R 2.50)
63
19
48(R 2.53)
67
20
50(R 2.50)
70
In the present case we selecting gear with Zg=20

Zf=2.155Zg
39
41
43

Zg=0.629Zg
24(R 0.615)
26(R 0.634)
27(R 0.628)

Zg+Zg
63
67
70

It is seen that there is a deviation in the gear ratio


GEAR
f
f

GEAR RATIO
0.628

g
g

2.5

ACTUAL SPEED
314.3,395.4,500,628.9,800,1006.
3
314.3/0.628=500.5
395.4/0.628=629.6
500/0.628=796.2
628.9/0.628=1001.4
800/0.628=1273.9
1006.3/0.629=1602.4
314.3,395.4,500,628.9,800,1006.
3
314.3/2.5=125.7
395.4/2.5=158.2
500/2.5=200
628.9/2.5=251.6
800/2.5=320
1006.3/2.5=402.5

SHAFT
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

The percentage speed deviation at all this should be less then


+- 10(-1)=+-10(1.26-1)=+-2.6
To plot deviation diagram
Nact
125.7
158.2
200
251.6
320
402.5
500.5
623.6
796.2
1001.4
1273.9

Nth
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
1000
1250

N=(Nact-Nth/Nth)*100
0.56
-0.13
0.64
1.59
0.63
0.10
0.10
-0.06
-0.47
0.14
1.91

1602.4

1600

0.15

To calculate the torque on each shaft


P=2(pi)NkT/60000
T=P*60000/2(pi)N k
=47746.483/Nk
the torque developed at any shaft will be maximum at minimum speed of that shaft
SHAFT
MOTOR
1
2
3
4

MINIMUM SPEED
1440
1600
800
31403
125.7

TORQUE
33.157
29.842
59.683
151.914
379.845

(Nm)

A multi speed gear box is to be designed for a small m/c tool having speeds varying from 63
rpm to 630 rpm. The recommended series of speeds is R5 using the standard spindle speeds.
The gear box is connected to a motor by a pair of pulleys. Assuming the motor speed to be
1440 rpm, determine ratio of the pulleys diameter required. Draw a suitable structure diagram
and speed diagram and determine number of teeth on each gear.
GIVEN DATA
Nmax=630 rpm
Nmin=63 rpm
NM=1440 rpm
Preferred series =R5
=

5 10

=1.585

number of speeds=6
so the different speed of the m/c tool are given below
N1=63 rpm
N2=63*1.585=100 rpm
N4=158*1.585=250 rpm
N5=250*1.585=395 rpm
N6=395*1.585=630 rpm
Number of stages=2
The structure diagram is shown in the figure

For this structure diagram the maximum value of Ig occurs at stage 2


Ig=

=2.51<8

This value is less than 8, so this diagram of structure diagram is suitable.


The speed diagram for the same has been shown in the figure.

From the above speed diagram, it can be seen that in stage 1 and 2 the speed reduction of gear
pair would be maximum

The gear ratio would be


100/63=1.587 which is less than 6
It is seen that the gear drive is used to connect the motor with the input shaft of the gear.
The motor speed was 1440 rpm whereas the input shaft from the speed diagram 630 rpm.
Di/D M=1440/630=2.285
The gear layout would be as shown in the figure

The number of teeth on the gear can be calculated AS BELOW


Za/Za=Na/Na=630/158=3.98

Zb/Zb=Nb/Nb=630/250=2.52
Za+Za=Zb+Zb
Zb=1.417 Za
Za
Za=3.98Za
Za+Za
Zb=1.417Zb
Zb=2.52Zb
18
72(R 4.0)
90
25(R 1.39)
63
19
76(R 4.0)
95
27 (R 1.42
68
So from the above table the number of teeth on gear a is taken as 19 teeth.
For the number of teeth on second stage following procedure is given
Zc/Zc=Nc/Nc=250/100=2.5
Zd/Zd=Nd/Nd=250/158=1.585
Ze/Ze=Ne/Ne=250/395=0.632
Zc+Zc=Zd+Zd=Ze+Ze
Zd=1.35 Zc

Zb+Zb
98
95

Ze=2.13 Zc
For the calculation of the teeth interpolation is required which is given in below table
There for the number of teeth to be taken for the gear c is 20.
Zc Zc=2.5Z Zc+Zc Zd=1.35Z Zd=1.585Z Zd+Zd Ze=2.13Z Ze=0.632Z
c

c
d

c
e
1 45
63
24(R
38(R 1.583) 62
38(R
24
8
1.33)
2.111)
1 48(R2.526 67
26(R
41(R 1.576) 67
41(R
26(R 0.634)
9 )
1.44)
2.157)
2 50
70
27
43
70
44
26
0

T
6
2
6
7
7
0