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Scilab Textbook Companion for Mechanical Vibration by G. K. Grover 1

Created by Vishwas Anand B.E Mechanical Engineering B.M.S.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING College Teacher None Cross-Checked by Reshma

May 26, 2016

1 Funded by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Textbook Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downloaded from the ”Textbook Companion Project” section at the website http://scilab.in

Book Description

Title: Mechanical Vibration Author: G. K. Grover Publisher: Nem Chand And Bross, Roorkee . Edition: 8 Year: 2009 ISBN: 9788185240565

Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book.

Exa Example (Solved example)

Eqn Equation (Particular equation of the above book)

AP Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book)

For example, Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

2

Contents

List of Scilab Codes

4

1 Fundamental of vibration

5

2 Undamped free vibrations of single degree of freedom sys- tem

13

3 Damped free vibrations of single degree of freedom system

17

4 Forced vibrations of single degree of freedom system

24

5 Two degrees of freedom systems

39

6 Multi degree of freedom systems exact analysis

45

7 Multi degree of freedom systems numerical methods

47

8 Critical speeds of shafts

52

3

List of Scilab Codes

Exa 1.4.2

sum of two harmonic motion

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5

Exa 1.5.1

max and min amplitude of combined motion

.

.

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.

6

Exa 1.6.1

Exa 1.6.2

Exa 1.7.1

complex number in exponential form

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7

complex number in rectangular form

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8

work done by a force on displacement

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9

Exa 1.8.2

fourier components of periodic motion

.

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9

Exa 2.3.4

moment of inertia of flywheel

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13

Exa 2.4.1

natural frequency of torsional pendulum

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14

Exa 2.5.1

Exa 2.5.2

. natural frequency of torsional oscillation

mass in a spring mass system

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15

15

Exa 3.3.2

Exa 3.3.3

undamped and damped natural frequencies of system .

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gun barrel recoilling

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17

18

Exa 3.4.1

. disc of torsional pendulum

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19

Exa 3.6.1

Exa 3.6.2

Exa 3.7.1

spring mass system with coulomb damping

. time taken for complete damping

vertical spring mass system

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20

21

22

Exa 4.2.1

. periodic torque on suspended flywheel

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24

Exa 4.2.2

damping factor and natural frequency of system

 

25

Exa 4.3.1

system of beams supporting a motor

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26

Exa 4.3.2

Exa 4.4.1

single cylinder vertical petrol engine

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27

mass hung from end of vertical spring

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27

Exa 4.4.2

support of spring mass system

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28

Exa 4.4.3

spring of automobile trailer

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29

Exa 4.5.1

Exa 4.6.1

power required to vibrate spring mass dashpot

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30

horizontal spring mass system in dry friction

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.

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31

Exa 4.10.1 machine mounted on 4 identical springs

 

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31

Exa 4.10.2 machine mounted on springs

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33

Exa 4.10.3 radio set isolated from machine

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34

4

Exa 4.11.1 vibrotometer

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35

Exa 4.11.2 commercial type vibration pick up

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35

Exa 4.11.3

device used to measure torsional accerelartion

 

37

Exa 4.11.4 Frahm tachometer

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37

Exa 5.3.2

uniform rods pivoted at their upper ends

 

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39

Exa 5.3.3

shaft with 2 circular discs at the end

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40

Exa 5.7.1

torque applied to a torsional system

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41

Exa 5.7.2

section of pipe in a machine

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42

Exa 6.8.2

system with rolling masses

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45

Exa 7.2.1

fundamental frequency by rayleigh method

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47

Exa 7.3.1

Dunkerly method

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48

Exa 7.4.1

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49

Exa 7.7.2

Exa 8.2.1

Stodola method four rotor system

. rotor mounted midway on shaft

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50

52

Exa 8.3.1

disc mounted midway between bearings

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53

Exa 8.4.1

Exa 8.6.1

. right cantilever steel shaft with rotor at the end

two critical speeds

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54

55

5

Chapter 1 Fundamental of vibration

Scilab code Exa 1.4.2 sum of two harmonic motion

1

clc

 

2

clear

 

3

mprintf ( ’ Mechanical v i b r a t i o n s by G.K. Grover \n

 

Example

1 . 4 . 2 \ n ’ )

 

4

// given

 

data

5

// case

1

6

//

x1 = (1/2 ) c

o s

( ( %pi / 2 )

t

)

x1=a c o s ( W1t )

7

// x2= s i n

( %pi t

)

x2=b s i n ( W2t )

8

// c a l c u l a t i o n s

 

9

W1 =( %pi /2)

 

10

W2 = %pi

 

11

t1 =2* %pi /( W1 )

 

12

t2 =2* %pi /( W2 )

13

p1 =[ t1

t2 ]

 

14

T1 = lcm ( p1 )

15

//

c a s e

2

16

//

x1

=2

c o s ( ( %pi

t )

x1=a c o s ( W3t )

17

//

x2

=2 c

o s

(2 t )

x2=a c o s ( W4t )

18

W3 = %pi

 

19

W4 =2

 

20

t3 =2* %pi /( W3 )

 

6

21

t4 =2* %pi /( W4 )

 

22

p2 =[ t3

t4 ]

23

T2 = lcm ( p2 )

24

//

o u t p u t

 

25

mprintf ( ’ Case ( i ) \ nTime

s e c \nTime

time

p e r i o d of

p e r i o d

of

p e r i o d f i r s t

of

wave

i s

combined

wave

f i r s t

wave

i s

%f

i s

%f

%f s e c

s e c \nThe \ nCase ( i i ) \

 

nTime

p e r i o d

of

f i r s t

wave

i s

%f

s e c \nTime

p e r i o d of

of

f

i r s t

wave

i s

i s

%f %f

s e c \nThe

time

p e r i o d

combined

wave

s e

c ’ ,t1 ,t2 , T1 , t3 , t4 , T2 )

 

26

mprintf ( \nNOTE: The tim e p e r i o d of combined mo tion

 

in

case

(

i i

)

cannot

be

c a l c u l a t e d \n

s i n c e

pi

i s

a

nonterminating

t h e

SCILAB

t a k e s

non v a l u e

and

of

r e c u r r i n g

be

p i

to

number . \ n

But

3 . 1 4 1 5 9 3

and

t h e r e f o r e \n

c a l c u l a t e s

LCM

of

p i

and

t h e

tim e

period

of

f i r s t

wave

t h e in

case

(

i i

.

)

 

Scilab code Exa 1.5.1 max and min amplitude of combined motion

 

1

clc

2

clear

 

3

mprintf ( ’ Mechanical

v i b r a t i o n s

by G.K. Grover \n

 
 

Example

1 . 5 . 1 \ n

)

 

4

// given

data

5

// x1=a s i n ( W1t )

 

6

// x2=b s i n ( W2t )

7

// c a l c u l a t i o n s

 

8

a =1.90

//

am pli t u d e

of

f i r s t

wave

i n

cm

 

9

b =2.00

//

am pli t u d e

of

s e c o n d

wave

i n

cm

 

10

W1 =9.5 //

f r e q u e n c y

of

wave

i n

ra d / s e c

 

11

W2 =10.0 // f r e q u e n c y

of

f i r s t s e c o n d

wave

i n

ra d

/ s e c cms

12

xmax = b +a //maximum

am pli t u d e

of

mo tion

i n

13

xmin = abs (a - b ) // minimum

am pli t u d e

of

mo tion

i n

cms

 

14

f = abs ( W1 - W2 ) /(2* %pi ) //

t =1/ f // tim e p e r i o d

of

f r e q u e n c y

 

i n

Hz

15

b e a t b e a t

i n

s e

c

7

16

// o u t p u t

 

17

mprintf ( ’ The

maximum

am pli t u d e

of

mo tion

i s

%4. 4 f

 

cms \ nThe \n The p e r i o d

minimum

am pli t u d e

i s

of %4. 4 f

mo tion

Hz\n

b e a t i s

f r e q u e n c y

4 f

%4.

s e c ’ , xmax , xmin ,f , t )

i s t h e

%4. 4

tim e

f

cms

Scilab code Exa 1.6.1 complex number in exponential form

 

1

clc

2

clear

 

3

mprintf ( ’ Mechanical v i b r a t i o n s by G.K. Grover \n

 

Example

1 . 6 . 1 \ n

)

4

// given

 

data

5

// case

1

6

//a complex number i s r e p r e s e n t e d

as

Z=X+j Y

where

j

 

i s

imaginary

 

7

//V=3 +j 7

8

x1 =3

9

y1 =7

10

// c a l c u l a t i o n s

 

11

r1 = sqrt ( x1 ^2+ y1 ^2)

12

if

( y1 / x1 ) >0

then

theta1 = atan ( y1 / x1 )

 

13

else

theta1 = %pi - atan ( abs ( y1 / x1 ) )

14

end

15

theta1 = atan ( y1 / x1 )

 

16

// c a s e

2

17

//V=5 +j 4

 

18

x2 = -5

 

19

y2 =4

20

// c a l c u l a t i o n s

 

21

r2 = sqrt ( x2 ^2+ y2 ^2)

22

if

( y2 / x2 ) >0

then

theta1 = atan ( y2 / x2 )

 

23

else

theta2 = %pi - atan ( abs ( y2 / x2 ) )

24

end

25

// o u t p u t

 

8

26

mprintf (

’ c a s e (

i

)

V=3+j 7

 

i s

r e p r e s e n t e d

a s

V=%3. 3 f e

 

ˆ ( j (%3. 3 f

) ) \ n c a s e (

i

i

)

V=5+j 4

i

r e p r e s e n t e d , r2 , theta2 )

s

a s

V=%3. 3 f e ˆ ( j (%3. 3 f

) ) ’ ,r1 , theta1

 

Scilab code Exa 1.6.2 complex number in rectangular form

 

1

clc

 

2

clear

3

mprintf ( ’ Mechanical v i b r a t i o n s by G.K. Grover \n

 
 

Example

1 . 6 . 2 \ n ’ )

 

4

// given

 

data

5

//Z=r e ˆ( i theta ) i i r s i n ( theta )=

s

x

r e p r e s e n t e d +i y

 

as

Z=r cos (

theta )

+

6

// where

 

r cos ( theta )=x

 

and

r s i n ( theta )=y

 

7

// case

1

8

//V=5e

ˆ( j

0 . 1 0 )

 

9

r1 =5

 

10

theta1 =0.1

 

11

x1 = r1 * cos ( theta1 )

 

12

y1 = r1 * sin ( theta1 )

13

v1 = complex ( x1 , y1 )

14

//

c a s e

2

15

//V=17e ˆ(j 3 . 7 4 )

 

16

r2 =17

 

17

theta2 = -3.74

 

18

x2 = r2 * cos ( theta2 )

 

19

y2 = r2 * sin ( theta2 )

20

v2 = complex ( x2 , y2 )

21

//

o u t p u t

 

22

mprintf ( ’ c a s e

( i

) :V=5e ˆ ( j 0 . 1 0 )

i

s

r e p r e s e n t e d

a s ’ )

23

disp ( v1 )

 

24

mprintf ( \

n c a s e

(

i i ) :V=17e ˆ(j 3 . 7 4 )

 

i

s

r e p r e s e n t e d

 

as ’ )

25

disp ( v2 )

 

26

mprintf ( \nNOTE: complex number i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s x+y

9

i

i n

SCILAB ’ )

Scilab code Exa 1.7.1 work done by a force on displacement

1

clc

2

clear

 

3

mprintf ( ’ Mechanical v i b r a t i o n s by G.K. Grover \n

 
 

Example

1 . 7 . 1 \ n

)

 

4

// given data

 

5

Po =25 //

amplitude

of

f o r c e

in

N

6

Xo =0.05 // ampliyude of

 

displacement

in

m

7

W =20* %pi

 

8

// c a l c u l a t i o n s

 

9

// case 1

 

10

t0 =0

 

11

t1 =1

12

v1 = integrate (

s

i

n (W

t

)

c o s (Wt %pi

/ 6 ) ’

,

t ’ ,t0 , t1 )

 

13

WD1 = Po * Xo * W * v1

 

14

//

c a s e

2

15

t0 =0

16

t1 =1/40

17

v2 = integrate (

s

i

n (W

t

) c o s (Wt %pi

/ 6 ) ’ , ’ t ’ ,t0 , t1 )

 

18

WD2 = Po * Xo * W * v2

 

19

// o u t p u t

 

20

mprintf ( ’ ( i ) work done

d u ri n g during

t h e the

f i

r s t

 

s e c o n d 1/40 th

i s

%f

 

Nm\n

( i i ) work

done

f i r s t

of

second

i s

%f Nm’ ,WD1 , WD2 )

 
 

Scilab code Exa 1.8.2 fourier components of periodic motion

 

1

clc

2

clear

 

10

3

mprintf ( ’ Mechanical

v i b r a t i o n s

by G.K. Grover \n

 

Example

1 . 8 . 2 \ n ’ )

 

4

// given

data

 

5

T =0.1 // time

period

of

p e r i o d i c

motion

in

sec

6

7

8

W =2* %pi / T

k =12/2 //number of elements

mprintf ( \tNo degrees \n ’ )

of

elements

in

in

h a l f one

c y c l e c y c l e

2k=12, t (

j )

in

9

mprintf ( ’ t ( j )

 

f

( j

)

cos ( t ( j ) )

f

(

j )

cos ( t ( j ) )

s i n

( t (

j

) )

f ( j ) s i n

j )

 

( j

) )

f ( j ) cos (2t ( j ) )

 

s i n (2

( t ( t ( j

) )

cos (2t f ( j ) s i n

f ( j ) cos (3t ( j )

(2t ( j ) )

s i n (3

t ( j

) )

cos (3t ( j ) ) f ( j ) s i n (3t ( j ) \n ’ )

10

f (1) =10/6

 

11

for

j =1:6

12

t ( j ) =j *(

%pi / k )

 

13

m ( j ) = cos

( t ( j ) )

14

n ( j ) =f ( j ) * m ( j )

15

o ( j ) = sin

( t ( j ) )

16

p ( j ) =f ( j ) * o ( j )

17

q ( j ) = cos

(2*

t ( j ) )

 

18

r ( j ) =f ( j ) * q ( j )

 

19

s ( j ) = sin

(2*

t ( j ) )

 

20

u ( j ) =f ( j ) * s ( j )

 

21

v ( j ) = cos

(3*

t ( j ) )

 

22

x ( j ) =f ( j ) * v ( j )

 

23

y ( j ) = sin

(3*

t ( j ) )

 

24

z ( j ) =f ( j ) * y ( j )

 

25

f ( j +1) = f ( j ) + f

(1)

 

26

mprintf ( ’%3. 0

f \ t ’ ,t ( j) *(180/ %pi ))

 

27

mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,f ( j) )

 

28

mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,m ( j) )

29

mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,n ( j) )

30

mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,o ( j) )

31

mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,p ( j) )

32

mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,q ( j) )

33

mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,r ( j) )

34

mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,s ( j) )

11

35 mprintf

( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,u ( j) )

36 mprintf

( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,v ( j) )

37 mprintf

( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,x ( j) )

38 mprintf

( ’%3. 4

f

\

t

\

t ’ ,y ( j) )

39 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\n ’

,z ( j) )

40 end

41 =f ( j ) -f

f (7)

(1)

42 j =7:12

for

43 t ( j ) = j *(

%pi / k )

44 m ( j ) =

cos

( t ( j ) )

45 n ( j ) = f( j ) * m ( j )

o ( j ) = sin ( t ( j ) )

46

47 p ( j ) = f( j ) * o ( j )

q ( j ) = cos (2* t ( j ) )

49 r ( j ) = f( j ) * q ( j )

s ( j ) = sin (2* t ( j ) )

51 u ( j ) = f( j ) * s ( j )

v ( j ) = cos (3* t ( j ) )

53 x ( j ) = f( j ) * v ( j )

y ( j ) = sin (3* t ( j ) )

55 z ( j ) = f( j ) * y ( j )

(1)

57 mprintf ( ’%3. 0 f \ t

56 f ( j +1) = f ( j ) -f

54

52

50

48

,t ( j ) *(180/ %pi ))

58 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,f ( j) )

59 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,m ( j) )

60 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,n ( j) )

61 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,o ( j) )

62 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,p ( j) )

63 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,q ( j) )

64 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,r ( j) )

65 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,s ( j) )

66 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,u ( j) )

67 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,v ( j) )

68 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,x ( j) )

69 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\ t

\

t ’ ,y ( j) )

70 mprintf ( ’%3. 4

f

\n ’

,z ( j) )

71 end

72 sumf ( j )= f (1) + f (2) + f (3) + f (4) +f (5) + f (6) + f (7) + f (8) + f (9)

12

+ f (10) + f (11) + f (12)

73 sumcos ( t( j ) ) = m (1) + m (2) + m (3) + m (4) + m (5) + m (6) + m (7) + m (8)

+ m (9) +m (10) + m (11) + m (12)

74 sumfjcos ( t ( j ) ) = n (1) + n (2) + n (3) (8) + n (9) +n (10) + n (11) + n (12)

+ n (4)

+ n (5) + n (6) + n (7) + n

75 sumsin ( t( j ) ) = o (1) + o (2) + o (3) + o

(4) + o

(5) + o

(6) + o (7) + o (8)

+

o (9) +o (10) + o (11) + o (12)

76 sumfjsin ( t ( j ) ) = p (1) + p (2) + p (3) (8) + p (9) +p (10) + p (11) + p (12)

+ p (4)

+ p (5)

+ p (6)

+ p (7) + p

77 sumcos2 ( t (j ) ) = q (1) + q (2) + q (3) + q (8) + q (9) +q (10) + q (11) + q (12)

78 sumfjcos2 ( t ( j )) = r (1) + r (2) + r (3) + r (4) + r (5) + r (6) +r (7) + r (8) + r (9) +r (10) + r (11) + r (12)

79 sumsin2 ( t (j ) ) = s (1) + s (2) + s (3) + s (8) + s (9) +s (10) + s (11) + s (12)

80 sumfjsin2 ( t ( j )) = u (1) + u (2) + u (3) + u (4) + u (5) + u (6) +u (7) + u (8) + u (9) +u (10) + u (11) + u (12)

81 sumcos3 ( t (j ) ) = v (1) + v (2) + v (3) + v (8) + v (9) +v (10) + v (11) + v (12)

82 sumfjcos3 ( t ( j )) = x (1) + x (2) + x (3) + x (4) + x (5) + x (6) +x (7) + x (8) + x (9) +x (10) + x (11) + x (12)

83 sumsin3 ( t (j ) ) = y (1) + y (2) + y (3) + y

(4) + q (5) + q (6) + q (7) + q

(4) + s (5) + s (6) + s (7) + s

(4) + v (5) + v (6) + v (7) + v

(4) + y (5) + y (6) + y (7) + y

(8) + y (9) +y (10) + y (11) + y (12)

84 sumfjsin3 ( t ( j )) = z (1) + z (2) + z (3) + z (4) + z (5) + z (6) +z (7) + z (8) + z (9) +z (10) + z (11) + z (12)

85 a0 = sumf ( j ) /(2* k )

86 a1 = sumfjcos ( t (j ) ) / k

87 b1 = sumfjsin ( t (j ) ) / k

88 a2 = sumfjcos2 ( t( j ) ) / k

89 b2 = sumfjsin2 ( t (j ) ) / k

90 a3 = sumfjcos3 ( t (j ) ) / k

91 b3 = sumfjsin3 ( t (j ) ) / k

92 disp ( ’ The shown

93 mprintf ( \ nao=%f \ na1=%f \ nb1=%f\ na2=%f \ nb2=%f \ na3=%f \ nb3=%f\n ’ ,a0 ,a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 , a3 , b3 )

f o u r i e r

componen t s

1

.

8 .

1

are

of

as

p e r i o d i c

mo tion

in

example

f o l l o w s ’ )

13

Chapter 2

Undamped free vibrations of single degree of freedom system

Scilab code Exa 2.3.4 moment of inertia of flywheel

1

clc

2

clear

 

3

mprintf ( ’ Mechanical

v i b r a t i o n s

by G.K. Grover \n

 
 

Example

2 . 3 . 4 \ n ’ )

 

4

// given

data

 

5

M =35 // mass of

f l y w h e e l

 

in

Kgs

6

r =0.3/2

// d i s t a n c e

 

of

c e n t r e

of

mass

from

pivot

in

m

7

T =1.22 // time period

of

o s c i l l a t i o n

in

sec

8

g =9.81 //

a c c e l a r a t i o n

due

to

g r a v i t y

in

m/( sec ˆ2)

9

//

concept

i s

as

f o l l o w s

 

10

// Jo = mass

moment

of

i

n

e

r t i a

abou t

pi v o t ,

Wn= n a t u r a l

 

freqency

11

//

t h e t a d d=t h e t a

d o u bl e

 

do t ( d o u bl e

d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n )

 

12

//

Jo t h e t a d d=Mg zero

r

t h e t a

 

sum

of

moments

i s

=

to

13

//

Jo t h e t a d d

+(Mg

r t h e t a ) =0

 

14

//Wn= s q r t

( ( Mg r

)

/

Jo )

=2 p i / T

15

// c a l c u l a t i o n s

 

16

Jo = M *g * r /((2* %pi / T ) ^2)

 

14

17

Jg = Jo

- M * r ^2

// mass

moment

of

i n e r t i a

abou t

g e o m e t r i c

 

a x i s

18

// o u t p u t

 

19

mprintf ( ’ Mass Kgmˆ2\ n

moment

 

of

i n e r t i a

abou t

i

s

%4. 4 f

Mass

moment

of

i n e r t i a

p i v o t abou t

g e o m e t r i c

 

a

x i s

i s

%4. 4 f

Kgmˆ2 ’ ,Jo , Jg )

 
 

Scilab code Exa 2.4.1 natural frequency of torsional pendulum

 

1

clc

2

clear

 

3

mprintf ( ’ Mechanical

v i b r a t i o n s

by G.K.

Grover \n

 
 

Example

2 . 4 . 1 \ n ’ )

 

4

// given data

 

5

l =1 // lenght

in

m

6

d =0.005 // dia

of

rod

im

m

7

D =0.2 // dia

of

dotor

 

in

m

8

M =2 //

mass

of

motor

i n

Kg

 

9

G =0.83

*10^11

// modulus

of

r i g i d i t y

in

N/mˆ2

 

10

// c a l c u l a t i o n s

 

11

J = M *(( D /2) ^2) /2

// mass

moment

of

i n e r t i a

i n

Kgmˆ2

 

12

Ip =( %pi /32) * d ^4

// s e c t i o n

i n

mˆ4

 

13

Kt = G * Ip / l // s t i f f n e s s

i n

modulus Nm/ ra d

14

Wn = sqrt ( Kt / J )

//

n a t u r a l

f r e q e n c y

i n

ra d / s e c

15

fn = Wn /(2* %pi )

//

n a t u r a l