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8.

0 The Endocrine System (Higher Level) STUDENT WORKBOOK


8.1

8.2

Label the location of the major endocrine organs in the


human body

Describe the role of circulating (blood) and local hormones

Question
What are hormones?
What do they do? (action of hormones)
What are circulating hormones?
Two examples of circulating hormones
What are local hormones?
Two examples of local hormones

Answer

8.3

Explain how circulating hormone levels are regulated

They are regulated by complex feedback loops that may be influenced by:
signals from the nervous system, such as adrenaline. Chemical changes in the
blood, such as insulin. Other hormones, such as growth hormone.
Explain the role of insulin in the formation of glycogen

Place these words correctly in the diagram: Insulin, glucagon, blood glucose
levels rises, blood glucose levels declines

8.4 Explain the relationship between the hypothalamus and the


pituitary gland
http://info.visiblebody.com/endocrine-system-hypothalamus-and-pituitary
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/biology/control_regulation/homeostatic_control/revision/1/

The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are together responsible for
homeostasis. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that controls the
pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland located in the brain
below the hypothalamus. Neurohormones, such as GHRH and somatostatin from
the hypothalamus, directly influence the pituitary gland. Nerve impulses from
the hypothalamus also stimulate the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland secretes
hormones, such as Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and growth hormone (GH) that
help regulate a wide range of bodily functions including growth, and water and
temperature regulation.

Place the following boxes back into the feedback cycle

Q: Explain the role of insulin in the formation of glycogen?

Q: An athlete training in high temperatures becomes dehydrated. How


does this affect the amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and water
absorbed by the kidney?

The endocrine system (HL) (7 hours)

8.1 Label the location of the major endocrine organs in the human body

8.2 Describe the role of circulating (blood) and local hormones

Question
What are hormones?

Answer
Hormones are special chemical
messengers in the body that are created
in the endocrine glands. These
messengers control most major bodily
functions, from simple basic needs like
hunger to complex systems like
reproduction, and even the emotions
and mood.

What do they do? (action of hormones)

Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is


responsible for body temperature, hunger, moods
and the release of hormones from other glands;
and also controls thirst, sleep and sex drive.
Parathyroid: This gland controls the
amount of calcium in the body.
Thymus: This gland plays a role in the
function of the adaptive immune system and the
maturity of the thymus, and produces T-cells.
Pancreas: This gland produces the insulin
that helps control blood sugar levels.
Thyroid: The thyroid produces hormones
associated with calorie burning and heart rate.
Adrenal: Adrenal glands produce the
hormones that control sex drive and cortisol, the

stress hormone.
Pituitary: Considered the "master control
gland," the pituitary gland controls other glands
and makes the hormones that trigger growth.
Pineal: Also called the thalamus, this
gland produces serotonin derivatives of
melatonin, which affects sleep.
Ovaries: Only in women, the ovaries
secrete estrogen, testosterone and progesterone,
the female sex hormones.
Testes: Only in men, the testes produce
the male sex hormone, testosterone, and produce
sperm.

What are circulating hormones?

Two examples of circulating hormones

Circulating hormones affect cells distant


to where they are. Most endocrine
hormones are circulating hormones
they pass from the secretory cells that
make them into interstitial fluid and
then into the blood.
Insulin
Glucagon

What are local hormones?

Local hormones act locally on


neighbouring cells or on the same cell
that secreted them without first entering
the bloodstream. Local hormones affect
cells in the area of release.

Two examples of local hormones

Autocrine affect the cell that produces


it e.g. Interleukin II
Paracrine Affects a cell close by

8.3 Explain how circulating hormone levels are regulated


1. Coordinates functions of the body by releasing hormones into the blood. The hormones alter
cellular structure and function.
2. The endocrine system acts slower than the nervous system to affect change,
but the effects are longer lasting

8.4 Explain the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland