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Background section:

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines:

A Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is a device that converts the kinetic energy in the wind into electricity (Abhishiktha Tummala), that has an axis that is vertical rather than horizontal, unlike most wind turbines. These types of wind turbines are mainly classified into two types:

Darrieus: These are considered the most efficient type of VAWT, and work based on lift forces. This means that the rotation of the wind turbine is caused by lift forces acting upon the blades. (Figure 1) This type of VAWT has advantage of having simple construction and a relatively low cost. The disadvantage of this type of wind turbine however is that it has low starting torque. This means that it is not self-starting. Typically, a Darrieus type wind turbine will require an external power source, for example a small motor, to start the rotation. The application of this type of wind turbine is usually kept at a small scale, as the advantages tend to outweigh the disadvantages in this scenario.

Savonius: These wind turbines rely heavily on drag forces to spin. (Figure 2) This type of VAWT has very low efficiency, but its main advantage is that it performs well in highly turbulent wind conditions. This is due to the great structural resistance inherent in its design. Therefore, these wind turbines are typically used in areas where there are turbulent weather conditions. Savonius wind turbines also have the advantage of being self-starting.

Background section: Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: A Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is a device that

Figure 1 Examples of various types of Darrieus wind turbines

Background section: Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: A Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is a device that

Figure 2 Illustration of a Savonius wind turbine

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines have decreased efficiency when compared to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), however many times VAWTs have advantages in their specific applications, which ultimately overcome some of their disadvantages. The main advantages that these wind turbines have when compared to the HAWT is that they can use wind coming in from any direction, an advantage which causes them to excel in areas where the HAWT cannot adequately perform.

References

Tjiu, Willy et al. “Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Power Generation II:

Challenges in HAWT and the Opportunity of Multi-Megawatt Darrieus VAWT Development.” Renewable Energy, vol. 75, 2015, pp. 560–571.

doi:10.1016/j.renene.2014.10.039.

Tummala, Abhishiktha et al. “A Review on Small Scale Wind Turbines.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 56, 2016, pp. 1351–1371.

doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.027.

Riegler, Hannes. “HAWT versus VAWT.” Refocus, vol. 4, no. 4, 2003, pp. 44–46.

doi:10.1016/s1471-0846(03)00433-5.

Figure 1 & 2:

“Wind Energy Overview.” Belarusian Web Portal on Renewable Energy, European Commission's Energy Policy Project in Belarus, Jan. 2012, re.energybel.by/en/renewable-energy-technologies/wind/