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(Revised 12/07)

PURDUE UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE SCHOOL

Thesis/Dissertation Acceptance

This is to certify that the thesis/dissertation prepared

By Tannaz Harirchian

Entitled Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in Microchannels

Professor Suresh V. Garimella

Chair

To the best of my knowledge and as understood by the student in the Research Integrity and

Copyright Disclaimer (Graduate School Form 20), this thesis/dissertation adheres to the provisions of

Purdue Universitys Policy on Integrity in Research and the use of copyrighted material.

Approved by Major Professor(s): ____________________________________

____________________________________

Approved by: Professor E. Daniel Hirleman / Professor Anil K. Bajaj

Head of the Graduate Program

04/27/2010

Date

(Revised 1/10)

PURDUE UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE SCHOOL

Research Integrity and Copyright Disclaimer

Title of Thesis/Dissertation:

Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in Microchannels

Doctor of Philosophy

For the degree of ________________________________________________________________

I certify that in the preparation of this thesis, I have observed the provisions of Purdue University

Teaching, Research, and Outreach Policy on Research Misconduct (VIII.3.1), October 1, 2008.*

Further, I certify that this work is free of plagiarism and all materials appearing in this

thesis/dissertation have been properly quoted and attributed.

I certify that all copyrighted material incorporated into this thesis/dissertation is in compliance with

the United States copyright law and that I have received written permission from the copyright

owners for my use of their work, which is beyond the scope of the law. I agree to indemnify and save

harmless Purdue University from any and all claims that may be asserted or that may arise from any

copyright violation.

Tannaz Harirchian

______________________________________

Printed Name and Signature of Candidate

04/20/2010

______________________________________

Date (month/day/year)

*Located at http://www.purdue.edu/policies/pages/teach_res_outreach/viii_3_1.html

A Dissertation

Submitted to the Faculty

of

Purdue University

by

Tannaz Harirchian

Requirements for the Degree

of

Doctor of Philosophy

May 2010

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana

INFORMATION TO ALL USERS

The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.

In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript

and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,

a note will indicate the deletion.

UMI 3418058

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ii

dreams.

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

invaluable guidance and support through the past four years. He has been a

great mentor and a caring friend, and has influenced my academic and personal

life deeply. He has set forth an exceptional example of a teacher for me, and I

am honored to have had the opportunity to work with such a passionate and

outstanding person. I am grateful for his faith and confidence in me, and truly

appreciate his continuous inspiration and encouragement.

I am grateful to my thesis review committee, Professor Jayathi Murthy,

Professor Mamoru Ishii, Professor Cagri Savran, and Professor Chelsey

Baertsch, for agreeing to be on my advisory committee and for their helpful

guidance that has led to success of my work.

I received a great deal of help and support during my graduate studies

from my colleagues in the Cooling Technologies Research Center. I would like

to especially thank Dr. Tailian Chen, Dr. Dong Liu, Dr. Poh-Seng Lee, Mr. Ben

Jones, and Mr. John McHale for their help with my research. The great help of

Mr. Bert Gramelspacher with the experimental setup is also appreciated. Special

thanks are due to Mr. Bruce Myers of Delphi Electronics and Safety, Kokomo,

Indiana, for providing the experimental test pieces. Financial support from the

State of Indiana 21st Century Research and Technology Fund and from the

Cooling Technologies Research Center at Purdue University is gratefully

acknowledged.

I most certainly should express my gratitude to my parents, Shayesteh

and Parviz, for their everlasting love, endless sacrifices, and invaluable support

through my entire educational career.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................vii

LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................. viii

NOMENCLATURE ............................................................................................. xiii

ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... xviii

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................ 1

1.1. Background ................................................................................................ 1

1.2. Objectives................................................................................................... 2

1.3. Unique Features of the Present Study........................................................ 4

1.4. Organization of the Document .................................................................... 5

CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURES ............................ 8

2.1. Flow Loop ................................................................................................... 8

2.2. Test Section................................................................................................ 9

2.3. Test Chip Calibration ................................................................................ 10

2.4. Experimental Procedures ......................................................................... 11

2.5. Flow Visualization Procedures.................................................................. 12

2.6. Data Reduction......................................................................................... 13

2.6.1. Measurement Uncertainties................................................................ 16

CHAPTER 3. VISUALIZATION OF FLOW BOILING PATTERNS IN

MICROCHANNELS ............................................................................................ 24

3.1. Literature Review...................................................................................... 25

3.2. Results and Discussion ............................................................................ 29

3.2.1. Boiling Flow Patterns .......................................................................... 29

3.2.2. Effect of Channel Dimensions on Flow Patterns................................. 31

3.2.3. Effect of Mass Flux on Flow Patterns ................................................. 35

3.2.4. Effect of Flow Pattern on Heat Transfer Coefficient............................ 37

3.2.5. Microscale Phenomena ...................................................................... 37

3.3. Conclusions .............................................................................................. 40

CHAPTER 4. EFFECT OF CHANNEL SIZE ON BOILING IN

MICROCHANNELS ............................................................................................ 56

4.1. Literature Review...................................................................................... 56

v

Page

4.2. Experimental Setup and Procedures ........................................................ 58

4.3. Results and Discussion ............................................................................ 59

4.3.1. Critical Role of Channel Cross-Sectional Area on Heat Transfer

Coefficient..................................................................................................... 59

4.3.2. Effect of Vapor Confinement on the Heat Transfer Coefficient ........... 62

4.3.3. Boiling Curve ...................................................................................... 63

4.3.4. Pressure Drop and Pumping Power ................................................... 65

4.4. Conclusions .............................................................................................. 66

CHAPTER 5. EFFECT OF FLOW RATE ON BOILING IN MICROCHANNELS . 77

5.1. Literature Review...................................................................................... 77

5.2. Experimental Setup and Procedures ........................................................ 78

5.3. Results and Discussion ............................................................................ 78

5.3.1. Heat Transfer Coefficient.................................................................... 79

5.3.2. Boiling Curve ...................................................................................... 79

5.3.3. Pressure Drop .................................................................................... 80

5.4. Conclusions .............................................................................................. 81

CHAPTER 6. FLOW REGIME MAPS FOR BOILING IN MICROCHANNELS .... 86

6.1. Literature Review...................................................................................... 86

6.2. Results and Discussion ............................................................................ 88

6.2.1. Flow Regime Maps Based on Conventional Approaches................... 88

6.2.2. Effect of Channel Width on Flow Regime Transitions......................... 90

6.2.3. Comprehensive Flow Regime Map..................................................... 91

6.3. Conclusions .............................................................................................. 93

CHAPTER 7. PREDICTION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND

PRESSURE DROP WITH EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS............................... 105

7.1. Literature Review.................................................................................... 105

7.2. Heat Transfer Coefficient........................................................................ 106

7.3. Pressure Drop ........................................................................................ 108

7.4. Conclusions ............................................................................................ 111

CHAPTER 8. REGIME-BASED MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER AND

PRESSURE DROP .......................................................................................... 125

8.1. Literature Review.................................................................................... 125

8.2. Model Development................................................................................ 128

8.2.1. Bubbly Flow ...................................................................................... 128

8.2.2. Confined Annular Flow ..................................................................... 128

8.2.3. Annular/Wispy-Annular Flow ............................................................ 135

8.2.4. Slug Flow.......................................................................................... 136

8.3. Pressure Drop ........................................................................................ 140

8.3.1. Confined Flow................................................................................... 141

8.3.2. Unconfined Flow............................................................................... 141

vi

Page

8.3.3. Model Assessment ........................................................................... 142

8.4. Conclusions ............................................................................................ 142

CHAPTER 9. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................... 157

9.1. Conclusions ............................................................................................ 157

9.2. Suggestions for Future Work .................................................................. 160

LIST OF REFERENCES .................................................................................. 164

APPENDICES

Appendix A. Test Chip Calibration................................................................. 175

Appendix B. Degassing Procedures .............................................................. 180

Appendix C. Heat Loss Measurements ......................................................... 182

Appendix D. Measurement Uncertainties and Experiment Repeatability....... 184

Appendix E. Effect of Channel Size on Boiling Heat Transfer and

Pressure Drop ............................................................................................... 191

Appendix F. Effect of Mass Flux on Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure

Drop............................................................................................................... 204

Appendix G. MATLAB Script for Heat Transfer Calculations in Annular

Flow............................................................................................................... 225

Appendix H. MATLAB Script for Heat Transfer Calculations in Slug Flow..... 229

VITA ................................................................................................................. 232

PUBLICATIONS ............................................................................................... 233

vii

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

2.1. Microchannel dimensions used in the current study (channel

dimensions are referred to in the rest of the paper by their nominal

values for convenience)................................................................................ 17

2.2. Mass fluxes tested for different microchannel dimensions and the

corresponding maximum vapor quality achieved at the channel exit (the

four mass fluxes are referred to in the rest of the paper by the nominal

values of 225, 630, 1050 and 1420 kg/m2s). ................................................ 18

3.1 Summary of the experimental data from the literature used in the

comparisons of the confinement transition criterion...................................... 41

7.1. Summary of boiling heat transfer correlations. ......................................... 112

7.2. Deviation of heat transfer coefficient obtained from the experiments

and predicted by Coopers correlation (1984b). (The channel

dimensions are referred to by their nominal values. The deviation is

presented in terms of Mean Absolute Percentage Error.)........................... 116

7.3. Deviation of heat transfer coefficient obtained from the experiments

and predicted by existing correlations. (The deviation is presented in

terms of Mean Absolute Percentage Error.) ............................................... 117

7.4. Studies in the literature from which heat transfer correlations are

selected for comparison against the current experimental data. Mean

absolute error (MAE) and percentage of predictions which fall within

30% of the measurements are listed for each correlation......................... 118

8.1. Proposed values for the empirical parameters in the three-zone model

for slug flow. ............................................................................................... 145

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Page

2.1. (a) Photograph and (b) schematic diagram of the experimental setup. ...... 19

2.2. Microchannel test section. .......................................................................... 20

2.3. Integrated heaters and temperature sensors in the microchannel test

piece............................................................................................................. 21

2.4. Silicon test chips with a constant channel depth of 400 m and channel

widths of (a) 100 m, (b) 250 m, (c) 400 m, (d) 700 m, (e) 1000 m,

(f) 2200 m, and (g) 5850 m....................................................................... 22

2.5. Schematic illustration of microchannel heat sink. ....................................... 23

3.1. Description of boiling flow regimes, d = 400 m, (a) w = 400 m, G =

225 kg/m2s, q = 33 kW/m2, (b) w = 400 m, G = 225 kg/m2s, q = 40

kW/m2, (c) w = 400 m, G = 225 kg/m2s, q = 95 kW/m2, (d) w = 400

m, G = 630 kg/m2s, q = 131 kW/m2, (e) w = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s,

q = 157 kW/m2, (f) w = 250 m, G = 225 kg/m2s, q = 157 kW/m2. ............. 43

3.2. Flow patterns in the 400 m 400 m microchannels, G = 630 kg/m2s..... 44

3.3. Flow patterns in the 5850 m 400 m microchannels, G = 630

kg/m2s........................................................................................................... 45

3.4. Flow patterns in the 2200 m 400 m microchannels, G = 630

kg/m2s........................................................................................................... 46

3.5. Flow patterns in the 100 m 400 m microchannels, G = 630 kg/m2s..... 47

3.6. Flow patterns in the 400 m 220 m microchannels, G = 630 kg/m2s..... 48

3.7. Summary of boiling flow patterns in the microchannel heat sinks for G

= 630 kg/m2s; the microchannel dimensions are presented as nominal

width (m) nominal depth (m) with the actual single-channel crosssectional area (mm2) in parentheses. ........................................................... 49

3.8. Flow patterns at the onset of boiling in the 400 m 400 m

microchannels for four mass fluxes. ............................................................. 50

3.9. Effect of mass flux on boiling flow patterns in the 400 m 400 m

microchannels, qw 145 kW/m2................................................................... 51

3.10. Variation of heat transfer coefficient and wall temperature with wall

heat flux in the 400 m 400 m microchannels, G = 630 kg/m2s. ............. 52

3.11. Summary of boiling flow patterns in the microchannel test pieces for

four mass fluxes; the microchannel dimensions are presented as

nominal width (m) nominal depth (m) with the actual single-channel

cross-sectional area (mm2) in parentheses. ................................................. 53

3.12. Transition from confined flow to unconfined flow. ..................................... 54

ix

Figure

Page

3.13. Comparison of the confinement criterion with experimental data from

a variety of sources in the literature; solid symbols and open symbols

represent confined and unconfined cases, respectively. .............................. 55

4.1. Effect of microchannel dimensions (m m) on local heat transfer

coefficient as a function of wall heat flux, G = 630 kg/m2s............................ 68

4.2. Variation of exit vapor quality with wall heat flux for different

microchannel widths, d = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s. ..................................... 69

4.3. Effect of microchannel cross-sectional area on heat transfer

coefficient, with trend lines added................................................................. 70

4.4. Effect of microchannel width on local heat transfer coefficient as a

function of base heat flux, d = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s. ............................. 71

4.5. Effects of physical confinement on heat transfer coefficients for four

mass fluxes; the microchannel dimensions are presented as width (m)

depth (m). ................................................................................................ 72

4.6. Effect of microchannel dimensions (m m) on boiling curves, G =

630 kg/m2s.................................................................................................... 73

4.7. Variation of base heat flux with wall excess temperature for different

microchannel widths, d = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s. ..................................... 74

4.8. Effect of microchannel dimensions on pressure drop, G = 630 kg/m2s. ..... 75

4.9. Effect of microchannel width on pumping power, d = 400 m, G = 630

kg/m2s........................................................................................................... 76

5.1. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient for 400 m 400

m microchannels. ....................................................................................... 82

5.2. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves for 400 m 400 m

microchannels. ............................................................................................. 83

5.3. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves for 2200 m 400 m

microchannels. ............................................................................................. 84

5.4. Effect of mass flux on pressure drop for 400 m 400 m

microchannels. ............................................................................................. 85

6.1. Flow regime maps on mass flux-vapor quality coordinates with

transition lines for six microchannels widths, d = 400 m............................. 96

6.2. Flow regime maps on superficial velocity coordinates with transition

lines for six microchannels widths, d = 400 m. ........................................... 97

6.3. Effect of channel size on transition from bubbly or slug flow to

intermittent churn/wispy-annular or churn/annular flow on the mass fluxvapor quality coordinate, d = 400 m. Some relevant transition lines

from the literature are also included. ............................................................ 98

6.4. Effect of channel size on transition from bubbly or slug flow to

intermittent churn/wispy-annular or churn/annular flow on the superficial

velocity coordinates, d = 400 m. Some relevant transition lines from

the literature are also included...................................................................... 99

6.5. Effect of channel size on transition from bubbly flow to intermittent

bubbly/slug flow on the mass flux-vapor quality coordinate, d = 400 m.

Some relevant transition lines from the literature are also included............ 100

x

Figure

Page

6.6. Effect of channel size on transition from bubbly flow to intermittent

bubbly/slug flow on the superficial velocity coordinates, d = 400 m.

Some relevant transition lines from the literature are also included............ 101

6.7. Comprehensive flow regime map for FC-77. ............................................ 102

6.8. Comparison of the comprehensive flow regime map with the

experimental data from the literature. ......................................................... 103

6.9. Comprehensive flow regime map for FC-77; modified with the phase

change number........................................................................................... 104

7.1. Comparison of correlations in the literature for heat transfer

coefficients, 250 m 400 m microchannels, G = 225 kg/m2s................. 120

7.2. Comparison of correlations in the literature for heat transfer

coefficients, 250 m 400 m microchannels, G = 1420 kg/m2s............... 121

7.3. Comparison of correlations in the literature for heat transfer

coefficients, 1000 m 400 m microchannels, G = 225 kg/m2s............... 122

7.4. Comparison of correlations in the literature for heat transfer

coefficients, 1000 m 400 m microchannels, G = 1420 kg/m2s............. 123

7.5. Comparison of the experimentally measured pressure drop across

microchannels with predictions from empirical correlations in the

literature. .................................................................................................... 124

8.1. Comparison of bubbly flow experimental heat transfer coefficients with

predictions from the Cooper correlation (1984b). ....................................... 146

8.2. (a) Schematic representation of annular flow in microchannels, and (b)

simplified flow diagram with vapor core and liquid film control volumes. .... 147

8.3. Comparison of confined annular flow experimental heat transfer

coefficients with predictions from the proposed model. .............................. 148

8.4. Variation of heat transfer coefficient with wall heat flux for confined

annular flow. Experimental results and predictions from the proposed

model are included. .................................................................................... 149

8.5. Comparison of the annular/wispy annular flow experimental heat

transfer coefficients with predictions from the proposed model. ................. 150

8.6. Variation of heat transfer coefficient with wall heat flux for

annular/wispy annular flow. Experimental results and predictions from

the proposed model are included. .............................................................. 151

8.7. Comparison of slug flow experimental heat transfer coefficients with

predictions from (a) original three-zone model (Thome et al., 2004),and

(b) modified three-zone model; both predictions use values proposed in

(Dupont et al., 2004) for the five empirical parameters............................... 152

8.8. Comparison of slug flow experimental heat transfer coefficients with

predictions from the modified three-zone model, using empirical

parameters optimized for the current data.................................................. 153

8.9. Variation of heat transfer coefficient with wall heat flux for slug flow:

comparison of experiments with predictions from the modified threezone model, using empirical parameters optimized for the current data..... 154

xi

Figure

Page

8.10. Schematic representation of flow in microchannels for (a) confined

flow, and (b) unconfined flow. ..................................................................... 155

8.11. Comparison of experimental pressure drops with predictions from the

proposed model: (a) including all the experimental data, and (b)

excluding data for which Bo 0.5 Re < 72 .. .................................................... 156

Appendix Figure

A.1. Test piece assembly for the calibration process....................................... 176

A.2. Convection oven (Lindberg Blue). ............................................................ 177

A.3. Calibration of the resistance values of the 25 heating elements

fabricated on the back side of the 400 m 400 m microchannel heat

sink. ............................................................................................................ 178

A.4. Calibration of the voltage drop across the 25 diode temperature

sensors fabricated on the back side of the 400 m 400 m

microchannel heat sink............................................................................... 179

B.1. (a) Photograph and (b) schematic of the expandable reservoir used to

degas the fluid (Chen and Garimella, 2006b). ............................................ 181

C.1. Heat loss measurements of the 25 heating elements fabricated on the

back side of the 400 m 400 m microchannel heat sink........................ 183

D.1. Measurement uncertainties in the heat transfer coefficient for five

microchannel sizes, G = 630 kg/m2s. ......................................................... 185

D.2. Measurement uncertainties in the heat transfer coefficient for four

mass fluxes in the 1000 m 400 m microchannels................................ 186

D.3. Boiling curves from two separate tests, G = 225 kg/m2s, 250 m 400

m microchannels. ..................................................................................... 187

D.4. Boiling curves from two separate tests, G = 630 kg/m2s, 250 m 400

m microchannels. ..................................................................................... 188

D.5. Boiling curves from two separate tests, G = 1050 kg/m2s, 250 m

400 m microchannels. .............................................................................. 189

D.6. Boiling curves from two separate tests, G = 1420 kg/m2s, 250 m

400 m microchannels. .............................................................................. 190

E.1. Effect of microchannel width on boiling curves, d = 400 m, G = 225

kg/m2s......................................................................................................... 192

E.2. Effect of microchannel width on boiling curves, d = 400 m, G = 630

kg/m2s......................................................................................................... 193

E.3. Effect of microchannel width on boiling curves, d = 400 m, G = 1050

kg/m2s......................................................................................................... 194

E.4. Effect of microchannel width on boiling curves, d = 400 m, G = 1420

kg/m2s......................................................................................................... 195

E.5. Effect of microchannel width on local heat transfer coefficient, d = 400

m, G = 225 kg/m2s.................................................................................... 196

E.6. Effect of microchannel width on local heat transfer coefficient, d = 400

m, G = 630 kg/m2s.................................................................................... 197

E.7. Effect of microchannel width on local heat transfer coefficient, d = 400

m, G = 1050 kg/m2s.................................................................................. 198

xii

Appendix Figure

Page

E.8. Effect of microchannel width on local heat transfer coefficient, d = 400

m, G = 1420 kg/m2s.................................................................................. 199

E.9. Effect of microchannel width on pressure drop, d = 400 m, G = 225

kg/m2s......................................................................................................... 200

E.10. Effect of microchannel width on pressure drop, d = 400 m, G = 630

kg/m2s......................................................................................................... 201

E.11. Effect of microchannel width on pressure drop, d = 400 m, G = 1050

kg/m2s......................................................................................................... 202

E.12. Effect of microchannel width on pressure drop, d = 400 m, G = 1420

kg/m2s......................................................................................................... 203

F.1. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves, 100 m 400 m. ......................... 205

F.2. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves, 250 m 400 m. ......................... 206

F.3. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves, 400 m 400 m. ......................... 207

F.4. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves, 700 m 400 m. ......................... 208

F.5. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves, 1000 m 400 m. ....................... 209

F.6. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves, 2200 m 400 m. ....................... 210

F.7. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves, 5850 m 400 m. ....................... 211

F.8. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 100 m 400 m... 212

F.9. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 250 m 400 m... 213

F.10. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 400 m 400

m. ............................................................................................................. 214

F.11. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 700 m 400

m. ............................................................................................................. 215

F.12. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 1000 m 400

m. ............................................................................................................. 216

F.13. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 2200 m 400

m. ............................................................................................................. 217

F.14. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 5850 m 400

m. ............................................................................................................. 218

F.15. Effect of mass flux on pressure drop, 100 m 400 m. ....................... 219

F.16. Effect of mass flux on pressure drop, 250 m 400 m. ....................... 220

F.17. Effect of mass flux on pressure drop, 400 m 400 m. ....................... 221

F.18. Effect of mass flux on pressure drop, 700 m 400 m. ....................... 222

F.19. Effect of mass flux on pressure drop, 1000 m 400 m. ..................... 223

F.20. Effect of mass flux on pressure drop, 5850 m 400 m. ..................... 224

xiii

NOMENCLATURE

Ab

Ac

Acs

Af

Aw

Bl

boiling number, Bl = q / ( Gh fg )

Bo

Bond number, Bo = g ( f g ) D 2 /

C 0

Ca

Capillary number, Ca = f u /

Co

convective number, Co = 1 1

x

0.8

0.5

c fi

cp

cq

microchannel depth, m

length scale,

Dh

hydraulic diameter, m

Acs , m; diameter, m

xiv

f

friction constant

Fr

Froude number, Fr = G 2 / ( 2 gD )

F fl

FPF

h fg

jf

jg

kd

nf

nq

N pch

Nu

Nusselt number

pressure, Pa

pr

pumping power, W

Pc

xv

Pch

PH

Pr

Prandtl number

qnet

q loss

heat loss, W

qb

q w

Ra

Re

Reynolds number

Rp

suppression factor

temperature, C

Tref

region, C

velocity, m s-1

microchannel width, m

wf

fin width, m

We

Weber number, We = G 2 Dh / ( f )

vapor quality

Martinelli parameter

xvi

GREEK SYMBOLS

pressure drop, Pa

psat

psat (Tw ) p f , Pa

Tsat

Tw Tsat , K

two-phase multiplier

deposition mass transfer rate per unit channel length, kg m-1 s-1

fg

evaporation mass transfer rate per unit channel length, kg m-1 s-1

density, kg m-3

htp hsp

SUBSCRIPTS

0

annular

cb

convective boiling

ch

channel

cr

critical

cs

channel cross-section

xvii

dev

developing

dry

dryout zone

expansion

end

end

exit

exit

exp

experimental

entrained droplet

fd

fully developed

film

vapor

in

channel inlet

man

manifold

meas measured

min

minimum

nb

nucleate boiling

pl

plenum

pred predicted

slug

sat

saturated liquid

si

silicon

sp

single phase

turbulent

tp

two-phase

tt

laminar

xviii

ABSTRACT

Harirchian, Tannaz. Ph.D., Purdue University, May, 2010. Two-Phase Flow and

Heat Transfer in Microchannels. Major Professor: Dr. Suresh V. Garimella.

School of Mechanical Engineering.

Flow boiling in microchannels has been investigated broadly over the last

decade for electronics cooling applications; however, the implementation of

microchannel heat sinks operating in the two-phase regime in practical

applications has lagged due to the complexity of boiling phenomena at the

microscale. In the current study, extensive experimental work has been

conducted to systematically determine the effects of important geometric and

flow parameters on flow regimes and heat transfer in microscale flow boiling.

Local heat transfer measurements obtained with simultaneous, detailed flow

visualizations lead to a better understanding of boiling phenomena and the

governing heat transfer mechanisms in microchannels.

Based on the experimental results obtained with microchannel test pieces

encompassing a wide range of channel dimensions and operating conditions, a

new transition criterion is developed which predicts the conditions under which

microscale confinement effects are exhibited in flow boiling. This criterion

depends on the value of a parameter termed the convective confinement number

in this study, Bo 0.5 Re , which depends not only on the channel dimensions and

fluid properties, but also on the mass flux. It is shown that physical confinement

exists in the microchannels for Bo 0.5 Re < 160 . In this case, thin-film evaporation

contributes to heat transfer in addition to nucleate boiling and results in larger

values of heat transfer coefficient compared to those cases in which no

xix

confinement is observed. For the larger convective confinement numbers where

physical confinement does not occur and nucleate boiling is dominant, the heat

transfer coefficient is independent of channel dimensions.

A comprehensive flow regime map for flow boiling of a perfluorinated

dielectric liquid (FC-77) is developed based on the experimental data. Using the

convective confinement number and a nondimensional form of heat flux as

coordinates, the flow regime map reveals four distinct regions of confined slug,

bubbly, churn/confined annular, and churn/annular/wispy-annular flow regimes

separated by two quantitative transition lines.

Models are proposed for prediction of the heat transfer coefficient in each

of the four regions in the flow regime map. Also, regime-based prediction of

pressure drop in microchannels is discussed by evaluating pressure drop of each

flow regime along the microchannels separately.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background

The increase in the functionality and processing speed of microelectronics

has largely followed Moores law, which predicts that the number of transistors on

an integrated circuit is increasing exponentially, doubling approximately every

two years (Moore, 1965). This trend has continued for half a century and is

expected to continue into the coming decades. This continued increase in the

functionality and compactness of microelectronics is associated with increasing

levels of heat dissipation from these devices. The small size of these devices and

the limits on operating temperature necessitates novel methods for effective

removal of the high heat fluxes.

One of the promising cooling approaches for achieving the high heat

removal rates required is the employment of microchannel heat sinks. In addition

to high heat transfer rates, microchannel heat sinks can be integrated directly

into the heat-dissipating substrates, decreasing the volume of the package.

Boiling in microchannel heat sinks is attractive for high-performance electronics

cooling due to the high heat transfer rates that can be achieved with boiling,

while at the same time, maintaining relatively uniform chip temperatures.

Microchannel flow boiling can also serve for interlayer cooling, enabling chips to

be stacked one on top of the other, resulting in an enhancement of performance

with a reduction in volume.

Use of dielectric liquids in microchannel heat sinks has drawn recent

attention since the working fluid in the microchannel heat sinks can then be in

direct contact with the electronics. Perfluorocarbons are particularly suitable for

direct contact cooling due to their high electrical resistivity.

2

Despite the many practical applications of microscale boiling, the physics

of flow boiling in microchannels, the flow patterns present, and the effect of

microchannel size on the boiling heat transfer and pressure drop are not fully

understood, particularly with dielectric fluids such as perfluorocarbon liquids. In

recent years, progress has been made in understanding the pressure drop and

heat transfer characteristics of flow boiling in microchannels; however, a

fundamental knowledge of boiling mechanisms, the effect of microchannel size

on the boiling regimes, and comprehensive flow regime maps for such flows are

as yet unavailable (Garimella et al., 2006).

A review of the literature by Bertsch et al. (2008a) showed that none of the

empirical correlations developed specifically for flow boiling in microchannels can

predict experimental heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop to within a

reasonable error. They pointed to a clear need for the development of physicsbased models based on the prevalent flow regimes to predict microchannel flow

boiling.

1.2. Objectives

Several aspects of boiling in microchannels have been investigated in the

Cooling Technologies Research Center in the past few years. Dong Liu studied

the onset of nucleate boiling and developed an analytical model to predict the

incipience heat flux (Liu et al., 2005). He also investigated boiling of water in

copper microchannels and modified Chens correlation (Chen, 1966) to take into

account the features specific to flow in microchannels (Liu and Garimella, 2007).

Poh-Seng Lee performed experiments with boiling of water in silicon

microchannels and proposed empirical correlations for prediction of heat transfer

coefficient and pressure drop, following a similar approach to that pursued by

Dong Liu (Lee and Garimella, 2008). Tailian Chen conducted experiments to

explore the physics of flow boiling in copper and silicon microchannels using a

dielectric liquid, FC-77 (Chen and Garimella, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c). Stefan

Bertsch studied boiling of refrigerants in copper microchannels (Bertsch et al.,

3

2008b, 2008d). He performed a review of the existing correlations in the literature

for prediction of boiling in small channels and proposed a correlation to predict

boiling heat transfer (Bertsch et al., 2008a, 2008c). Ben Jones and John McHale

are investigating the effects of surfaces enhancement on pool boiling and flow

boiling in microchannels using water and dielectric liquids as the working fluids

(Jones and Garimella, 2007; McHale and Garimella, 2008).

The aim of the current study is to perform a systematic investigation of

convective boiling in microchannels and to address some of the shortcomings of

the previous studies in this group and elsewhere. Hence, experiments are

performed for a wide range of experimental parameters such as heat flux, mass

flux, and channel dimensions to study the effects of these parameters on boiling

heat transfer and pressure drop as well as on the flow regimes.

Effects of several parameters such as heat flux, mass flux, and channel

size on boiling heat transfer and pressure drop in microchannels are studied with

a perfluorinated dielectric liquid, FC-77. Despite the large number of studies in

the literature on convective boiling, the conditions at which the transition from

macroscale boiling to microscale boiling occurs remain unknown. In the current

study, a new transition criterion is developed for the delineation of a regime

where microscale effects become important to the boiling process and a

conventional, macroscale treatment becomes inadequate.

To develop models for the prediction of heat transfer coefficients based on

the actual flow regimes occurring during convective boiling in microchannels, a

thorough understanding of the flow patterns existing under different conditions,

as well as their transitions, is necessary. Hence, flow visualizations are

performed, simultaneously with local measurements of the temperature and

pressure drop, to determine the flow regimes and to study the effects of channel

size and mass flux on boiling flow patterns. The flow patterns also help to

explaining the heat transfer data.

Two types of flow regime maps commonly used in the literature are

developed for boiling of FC77 in microchannels of different sizes, and the effect

4

of microchannel size on transition between different flow regimes is discussed.

Also, a new comprehensive flow regime map is developed for a wide range of

experimental parameters and channel dimensions, along with quantitative

transition criteria based on nondimensional boiling parameters. These flow

regime maps assist in the practical design of microchannel heat sinks that rely on

two-phase heat transport.

The present experimental results are compared to a number of existing

correlations in the literature for prediction of boiling heat transfer coefficients and

pressure drop. It is shown that empirical correlations are not successful in

prediction of microchannel flow boiling; hence, physics-based models are

developed for the prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop in flow boiling in

microchannels.

A state-of-the-art thermal test chip is used in the experiments which is

capable of dissipating heat uniformly to the microchannels via twenty-five

microheaters fabricated on the chip, simulating the heat dissipation from a real

electronics chip to the heat sink. Also, twenty-five diode microsensors are

fabricated on the chip, enabling local measurements of wall temperature. Hence

a local study of heat transfer coefficients over the microchannel heat sink is

facilitated. The test chips are provided by Delphi Electronics and Safety and the

channels sawn to specifications.

A wide range of microchannel dimensions with widths ranging from 100

m to 5.85 mm and depths ranging and from 100 m to 400 m are tested to

explore the effects of microchannel size on boiling heat transfer and pressure

drop in otherwise identical test pieces. The effect of flow rate is also investigated

by testing four different mass fluxes ranging from 225 to 1420 kg/m2s. As a

result, a large database consisting of approximately 390 data points, covering a

wide range of experimental parameters, is obtained for boiling of fluorocarbon

5

liquids in microchannels in a manner that facilitates direct comparison across the

parameters varied.

To obtain flow boiling patterns, high-speed imaging is performed using a

high-speed camera which is capable of capturing images with frame rates of up

to 120,000 frames per second. High-quality, detailed flow pattern images are

obtained which assist in developing a better understanding of the physics of

microscale boiling.

A review of the literature shows that the effects of channel size and mass

flux on boiling flow patterns, heat transfer, and pressure drop in microchannels

have not been systematically investigated to date. Also, flow regime maps for

boiling in microchannels have been limited to a narrow range of channel sizes,

and were mostly developed for water and refrigerants. Considering the

importance of understanding the boiling of fluorocarbons in microchannels,

boiling heat transfer and flow patterns are studied in detail for boiling of FC-77 as

a function of channel dimension and mass flux in the present work. Also, flow

regime maps are developed for a wide range of channel sizes and flow

parameters. Physics-based predictive models for flow boiling heat transfer and

pressure drop in microchannels are proposed.

Chapter 1 provides a background of convective boiling in microchannels

and its applications, as well as the objectives and the unique features of the

present work.

In Chapter 2, a detailed explanation of the experimental setup and the test

chip is given along with the test procedures and the flow visualization method.

Also, data reduction and measurement uncertainties are explained. Chapters 2

to 8 each start with a literature review on the specific topic under study. The

experimental or analytical results are then discussed and conclusions provided.

Chapter 3 presents the flow visualization results, the boiling flow patterns,

and the effects of channel size and mass flux on flow regimes. Also, new

6

quantitative criteria for the transition between macro- and micro-scale boiling

behavior have been identified. The content of this chapter was presented and

published in the proceedings of the 11th IEEE Intersociety Conference on

Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (Harirchian

and Garimella, 2008b) and the Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal

Measurement and Management Symposium (Harirchian and Garimella, 2008c).

Also, some of the visualization images were presented in the Heat Transfer

Photogallery at the ASME IMECE2007 and published in the Journal of Heat

Transfer (Harirchian and Garimella, 2008d).

In Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, experimental investigations of the effects of

channel size and mass flux, respectively, on convective boiling heat transfer and

pressure drop are discussed in light of a knowledge of the flow patterns. The

material in these two chapters was presented at the ASME International

Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition in 2007 and published in the

proceedings (Harirchian and Garimella, 2007). This material along with a

comparison of the heat transfer results to the predictions of correlations in the

literature (presented in Chapter 7) was later published in the International Journal

of Heat and Mass Transfer (Harirchian and Garimella, 2008a). The effect of

microchannel size on heat transfer and flow patterns and the critical role of

channel cross-sectional area as a geometrical parameter on flow boiling were

published in International Journal of Multiphase Flow (Harirchian and Garimella,

2009b).

In Chapter 6, the absence of adequate flow regime maps for boiling in

microchannels is discussed and two types of flow regime maps using coordinates

common in the literature are developed based on the experimental visualizations

and the effect of channel dimension on flow regime transition is explored. Also, a

new type of comprehensive map is developed encompassing a wide range of

channel dimensions and flow parameters. A paper including the visualization

results of Chapter 3 and the flow regime maps developed on conventional

coordinates is published in the International Journal of Multiphase Flow

7

(Harirchian and Garimella, 2009a). The comprehensive flow regime map and the

quantitative transition criteria for the microscale phenomena discussed in

Chapter 3 were published in the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

(Harirchian and Garimella, 2010).

The experimental results for the heat transfer coefficient and pressure

drop are compared to predictions from a number of existing correlations in the

literature in Chapter 7. A need for physics-based models for prediction of flow

boiling in microscale is discussed. In Chapter 8, analytical models for prediction

of heat transfer and pressure drop in different flow regimes in microchannels are

discussed and compared to the experimental results. Results of these two

chapters are submitted to the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer for

possible publication.

Chapter 9 presents a summary of the present study along with

suggestions for future work.

A keynote lecture in the 15th International Workshop on Thermal

Investigation of ICs and Systems (Garimella and Harirchian, 2009) summarized

the comprehensive understanding of flow boiling in microchannels obtained in

this work; this lecture is accepted for publication in the Journal of Electronic

Packaging.

test chips are used to perform systematic experiments of boiling in

microchannels and to investigate the effects of microchannel dimensions and

flow parameters on boiling characteristics. In this chapter, details of the flow loop

and the test section assembly used for the experiments are explained and the

test chip calibration methods are elucidated. The test procedure and flow

visualization method, along with data reduction are presented as well.

The experimental setup is shown in Figure 2.1. A magnetically coupled

gear pump drives the dielectric liquid, FC-77, through the closed loop. A

preheater installed upstream of the test section heats the coolant to the desired

subcooling temperature at the entrance of the microchannels, and a liquid-to-air

heat exchanger located downstream of the test section cools the fluid before it

enters the reservoir. The liquid is fully degassed before initiating each test using

the two degassing ports and the expandable reservoir. Details of the expandable

reservoir design and the degassing procedure are available in Chen and

Garimella (2006b). A flow meter with a measurement range of 20-200 ml/min

monitors the flow rate through the loop and five T-type thermocouples measure

the fluid temperature before and after the preheater, before and after the test

section, and after the heat exchanger. The pressure in the outlet manifold of the

test section is maintained at atmospheric pressure. The pressure at the inlet

manifold and the pressure drop across the microchannel array are measured

9

using a pressure transducer (Gems Sensors, 2200 series) and a differential

pressure transducer (Omega, PX2300 series), respectively.

The test section shown in Figure 2.2 consists of a 12.7 mm 12.7 mm

silicon microchannel heat sink with thickness of 650 m, mounted on a printed

circuit board (PCB) 1. The PCB is installed on a quick-connect board with an

insulating G10 piece in between. A polycarbonate top cover above the test piece

provides an enclosed passage for the liquid and is sealed with an o-ring. To

avoid melting of the polycarbonate at high chip temperatures, a 12.7 mm 12.7

mm Pyrex sheet of thickness 0.4 mm with a high melting point (820C) is

sandwiched between the silicon die and the top cover and forms the top wall of

the microchannels.

As detailed in Figure 2.3, parallel microchannels are cut on the top surface

of the silicon chip using a dicing saw. The width (w), depth (d), and number of

microchannels (N), along with the hydraulic diameter (Dh), aspect ration (w/d),

single channel cross-sectional area (Acs), and surface roughness of the bottom

walls of microchannels in each heat sink are listed in Table 2.1. The surface

roughness for the side and bottom walls is measured using a probe-type

profilometer and an optical profilometer, respectively. The bottom wall of the 100

m wide microchannels has an average roughness of 0.22 m. Wider

microchannels were made with a number of cuts for each channel; this process

imparts a waviness to the bottom surfaces resulting in an average roughness of

0.82 to 1.40 m for the different test pieces; the average roughness in the region

of a single cut is 0.2 m. The average surface roughness of the side walls is 0.1

m for all test pieces.

The author thanks Bruce Myers and Darrel Peugh of Delphi Electronics and

10

A 5 5 array of resistance heat sources and a like array of temperature

sensing diodes are fabricated on the other side of the chip, as shown in Figure

2.3, providing uniform heat flux to the back side of the microchannels and local

measurements of the base temperature. Since the resistances of all the heat

sources are almost identical, they are connected in parallel and are supplied with

a single DC voltage in order to provide a uniform heat flux to the back of the

microchannels. The amount of heat generated by each source is obtained from

the calibrated resistance of the corresponding element and the applied voltage.

The calibration procedure for the fabricated resistors and diodes is explained in

section 2.3.

For a given current passing through a diode temperature sensor, the

voltage drop across the diode depends on the temperature. To obtain the

voltage-temperature relationship for each diode fabricated on the silicon chip, the

test piece is calibrated in a convection oven as will be discussed in the next

section.

The calculated local heat transfer coefficients presented in this document

are based on measurements from the temperature sensor at location 3 in Figure

2.3, which is along the centerline of the test piece near the exit.

The test chip calibration procedure is discussed in detail in Appendix A

and key points are included here. To calibrate the resistors and diodes

fabricated on the back side of the silicon chip, the PCB with the mounted silicon

chip is installed on the quick connect board (Figure A.1) and is placed in a

convection oven (Figure A.2). The temperature of the oven is then increased

from room temperature (25C) up to 130C.

The resistors are connected to the data acquisition system and the

resistance of each heating element is measured at seven temperatures ranging

from 25C to 130C, using a two-wire resistance mea surement method. To

correct for the resistance of the leads and connections, the PCB is then replaced

11

with a copper plate and the total resistance of the leads and connections are

measured. These values are then subtracted from the total resistance of the

corresponding resistor to obtain an accurate value for the resistance of each

element. As explained in Appendix A and shown in Figure A.3, the resistance of

each heating element increases quadratically with temperature.

To calibrate the diode temperature sensors, twenty-five individual current

sources are used to apply 100 A to each diode and the voltage drop across

each diode is measured at seven temperatures ranging from 25C to 115C. A

linear relation between the temperature and voltage drop across each diode is

obtained as shown in Figure A.4.

More details of the individual heaters, diode temperature sensors,

calibration procedures, test section assembly, and test loop are available in Chen

and Garimella (2006a), Lee (2007), and Lee and Garimella (2008).

Experiments are conducted for 12 test pieces with channel depths of 100

m, 220 m, and 400 m and different channel widths ranging from 100 m to

5850 m to explore the effects of geometrical parameters, such as channel

width, height, aspect ratio, and cross-sectional area over a wide range of microto macroscale dimensions on the boiling heat transfer coefficients and pressure

drops as a function of mass flux. Four mass flux values ranging from 225 to

1420 kg/m2s are investigated for each test piece to map the effect of flow velocity

on boiling, as will be discussed in Chapter 5. The mass fluxes used for each of

the test pieces are summarized in Table 2.2. While the actual values are used

for all the calculations in this study, nominal values are used for easier

reference of the dimensions and the flow rates in the text. As listed in this table,

there are ten test pieces with widths ranging from 100 m to 1000 m and two

test pieces with much larger channel widths of 2200 m and 5850 m.

Photographs of the test chips with a depth of 400 m are provided in Figure 2.4.

12

Before initiating each test, the liquid in the test loop is fully degassed,

following a procedure explained in Appendix B, to help reduce flow instabilities

(Chen and Garimella, 2006b). It is then driven into the loop at a constant flow

rate and preheated to approximately 92C, providing 5C of subcooling at the

inlet of the channels. For each test, the flow rate is kept constant throughout the

test and the heat flux to the chip is increased from zero to the point at which the

maximum wall temperature reaches 150C, which is a safe upper-limit operating

temperature for the integrated heaters and temperature sensors. Heat flux

values approaching critical heat flux are avoided since the corresponding

temperatures could cause the solder bumps in the test chip to melt. A throttling

valve positioned upstream of the test section serves to suppress instabilities in

the microchannel heat sink. Nevertheless, mild flow reversals at the inlet of the

microchannels were observed at the highest heat fluxes studied, for

microchannels with small cross-sectional area and for low mass fluxes.

However, these instabilities did not affect the inlet fluid temperature which is held

constant throughout each test.

A high-speed digital video camera (Photron Fastcam-Ultima APX) is

employed for flow visualizations. The high-speed camera provides full-pixel

resolution of 10241024 for up to 2,000 frames per second (fps) and is capable

of recording at frame rates as high as 120,000 fps with reduced resolution.

Different microscope lenses, depending on the microchannel size, are used for

magnification. An illumination source (Henke-Sass, Wolf) is used to illuminate

the microchannels for visualization. Using the same experimental setup, Chen

and Garimella (2006a) showed that this illumination source does not result in

noticeable additional heat input to the fluid.

At each heat flux, after the system reaches a steady state, high-speed

visualizations are performed simultaneously with the heat transfer and pressure

drop measurements. Movies of the flow patterns are captured with various frame

13

rates ranging from 2000 frames per second (fps) to 24,000 fps, with the higher

frame rates used for the smaller microchannels at the larger mass fluxes. Also,

as the heat flux is increased, the vapor velocity increases and higher frame rates

are required to capture the details of the flow. The images obtained from the

camera are then post-processed using a MATLAB code developed in-house by

Ben Jones and John McHale to enhance the quality of the images, especially for

those captured at higher frame rates.

Flow visualizations have been performed for 11 of the 12 test pieces at

different flow rates. The nominal dimensions of the test pieces and the flow rates

are summarized in Table 2.2.

It is noted that all the values of heat transfer coefficient and wall

temperature reported in this study are based on the local measurement at a

location near the exit and along the centerline of the microchannel array. The

flow visualizations are performed at this location as well.

The heat transfer rate to the fluid, qnet , in the microchannels is obtained

from an energy balance conducted for each heating element:

qnet = q qloss

(2.1)

in which q is the total heat dissipated from each of the 25 heat sources and is

calculated as q = V 2 / R . The heat loss, qloss , consists of losses through natural

convection from the test setup surfaces to the surrounding air, radiation from

these surfaces, and conduction through the PCB and the top cover, and is

determined as follows. Before the test section is charged with liquid, a constant

voltage is applied to the heaters. When the readings of the diode temperature

sensors reach a steady state, the temperature of each sensor is recorded and

correlated to the heat dissipated from the corresponding heater at that location.

This procedure is repeated for several levels of input power and a linear relation

in the form of qloss = c1Td + c2 is obtained, where c1 and c 2 are constants and are

14

slightly different at each location and for different test pieces. The heat loss

measurements for the 400 m 400 m microchannel test chip are presented in

Appendix C. The linearity of the heat loss-temperature relationship indicates that

the losses are primarily due to conduction of heat from the test section to the

ambient.

The local heat transfer coefficient corresponding to each heated element

area is then calculated from

h=

qw

o (Tw Tsat )

(2.2)

This temperature is corrected for the microchannel base thickness using

Tw = Td

qb ( t d )

ksi

(2.3)

surface efficiency of the microchannel heat sink and is defined as

o = 1

NA f

Aw

(1 )

f

(2.4)

area of the microchannels, and f =

tanh md

is the efficiency of a fin with an

md

adiabatic tip, with m 2 = 2h ksi w f . In these calculations, the wall between each

microchannel is considered as a fin and the tips of the fins are assumed to be

adiabatic since the heat transfer from the fin tips to the top cover is much lower

than the heat transfer from the fin walls to the liquid inside the channels. As a

first approximation, h is calculated assuming an overall surface efficiency of

100%; this value of h is used to calculate the fin efficiency and overall efficiency,

which then lead to an updated value for h. This iteration is continued till a

converged value is obtained. The overall efficiencies of the heat sinks tested

ranged from 96.5% to 99.9%.

15

The local wall heat flux used in Eq. (2.2) is the net heat flux added to the

fluid as shown in Figure 2.5 and is calculated using the total wetted area as

qw = qnet / ( Aw / 25)

(2.5)

The heat flux used in finding the heat loss through the base of the microchannel

heat sink and hence, calculating the wall temperature in Eq. (2.3), is the base

heat flux and is calculated using the chip base area, Ab = L L , which is the

same as the combined area of all the heat sources

qb = qnet / ( Ab / 25 )

(2.6)

In Eqs. (2.5) and (2.6), the areas are divided by 25 because qnet is defined as the

net heat dissipated from one of the 25 heat sources.

The exit vapor quality is calculated from an energy balance using

xexit =

1

h fg

qnet

c p , f (Tsat Tin )

m f

(2.7)

Reynolds number, Re, Bond number, Bo, and Boiling number, Bl. The Reynolds

number is calculated using the liquid phase mass flux as:

Re =

GD

(2.8)

tension force and becomes important in microscale boiling:

Bo =

g ( f g ) D2

(2.9)

As will be demonstrated in the following chapters, the channel crosssectional area plays a critical role in determining microchannel boiling

mechanisms and heat transfer; therefore, the length scale used in Eqs. (2.8) and

(2.9) is the square root of the cross-sectional area of one channel rather than its

hydraulic diameter.

Boiling number is the nondimensional form of the heat flux and is

calculated using the liquid mass flux and latent heat as follows:

16

Bl =

qw

Gh fg

(2.10)

The measurement uncertainties for the flow meter and the pressure

transducers are 1% and 0.25% of full scale, respectively. The uncertainties in

the measurements of the channel dimensions, the T-type thermocouples, and the

diode temperature sensors are 15 m, 0.3C and 0.3C, respectively, while

those for the microheater resistance and applied voltage are 0.002% and

0.004%, respectively. Following a standard uncertainty analysis (Taylor, 1997),

the uncertainties associated with the wall heat flux and the heat transfer

coefficient are estimated to be 2.0 to 11.4% and 2.2 to 11.7%, respectively, for

the cases considered. These uncertainties are primarily governed by

uncertainties in the measurement of the area, since the uncertainties in the net

heat transfer rate, wall temperature, and saturation temperature are relatively

small. In Appendix D, measurement uncertainties for the heat transfer coefficient

are presented for several cases. Repeatability of the experiments is also

discussed in this appendix.

17

Table 2.1. Microchannel dimensions used in the current study (channel dimensions are referred to in the rest of the

paper by their nominal values2 for convenience).

w/d

Acs (mm2)

Surface

roughness,

Ra (m)

96

1.05

0.009

0.22

63

134

0.45

0.021

0.22

101.9 (100)

60

159

0.27

0.037

0.22

371.4 (400)

110.8 (100)

35

291

0.64

0.089

0.82

398.2 (400)

64.7 (100)

101.8 (100)

25

111

6.12

0.026

1.28

400 (400)

196.6 (220)

100 (100)

25

264

2.03

0.079

1.33

394.6 (400)

364.9 (400)

105.4 (100)

24

379

1.08

0.144

1.35

686.3 (700)

375.6 (400)

154.1 (150)

14

486

1.83

0.258

1.11

1024 (1000)

225.7 (220)

176 (200)

10

370

4.53

0.231

1.40

978.4 (1000)

373.7 (400)

222.3 (200)

10

541

2.62

0.366

1.03

2202.8 (2200)

370.1 (400)

280 (300)

634

5.95

0.815

1.10

5850.5 (5850)

376.2 (400)

300 (300)

707

15.55

2.201

1.10

Microchannel

width, w (m)

Microchannel

depth, d (m)

Fin width, wf

(m)

# of

channels,

N

Hydraulic

diameter,

Dh (m)

98.5 (100)

93.7 (100)

101.5 (100)

61

96.6 (100)

216.6 (220)

103.4 (100)

101.5 (100)

369.4 (400)

239.1 (250)

The nominal values for channel dimensions are provided inside parentheses in the table.

17

18

Table 2.2. Mass fluxes tested for different microchannel dimensions3 and the corresponding maximum vapor quality

achieved at the channel exit (the four mass fluxes are referred to in the rest of the paper by the nominal values of 225,

630, 1050 and 1420 kg/m2s).

Microchannel

depth, d (m)

quality, xe (%)

98.5 (100)

93.7 (100)

660

superheated

96.6 (100)

216.6 (220)

630

78

101.5 (100)

369.4 (400)

239.1 (250)

371.4 (400)

398.2 (400)

64.7 (100)

615

75

400 (400)

196.6 (220)

637

56

394.6 (400)

364.9 (400)

686.3 (700)

375.6 (400)

1024 (1000)

225.7 (220)

630

20

978.4 (1000)

373.7 (400)

2202.8 (2200)

370.1 (400)

30, 15, 9, 4

5850.5 (5850)

376.2 (400)

29, 15 , 9, 5

The nominal values for channel dimensions are provided inside parentheses in the table.

High-speed

visualization

18

Microchannel

width, w (m)

19

High-speed

camera with

microscope

lens

Expandable

reservoir

Pump

Heat

exchanger

Pre-heater

Test section

Differential

pressure

transducer

(a)

P1

Degassing

port 1

Pump

P5

Filter

Filter

Expandable

reservoir

Flow Meter

P4

T1

T5

Degassing

port 2

Preheater

Heat Exchanger

T2

T3

T4

P2

Test

section

P3

dP

(b)

Figure 2.1. (a) Photograph and (b) schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

20

21

Figure 2.3. Integrated heaters and temperature sensors in the microchannel test

piece.

22

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

Figure 2.4. Silicon test chips with a constant channel depth of 400 m and

channel widths of (a) 100 m, (b) 250 m, (c) 400 m, (d) 700 m, (e) 1000 m,

(f) 2200 m, and (g) 5850 m.

23

L

wf

qw"

d

Tw

Td

qb"

Figure 2.5. Schematic illustration of microchannel heat sink.

24

MICROCHANNELS

Flow boiling regimes in microchannels and the effects of channel size and

mass flux on the flow patterns are explained in this chapter for 11 microchannel

heat sinks with different channel dimensions and four mass fluxes, as listed in

Table 2.2. The detailed investigation of flow regimes in the current study is

aimed at exploring the effects of channel size, mass flux and heat flux on the

boiling flow patterns, and explaining the trends observed in the heat transfer

coefficients which will be discussed in the following chapters. The effects of

channel width and depth as well as the aspect ratio and cross-sectional area on

flow boiling in microchannels are investigated as independent parameters, and

as a result, the important geometrical parameters that influence boiling in

microchannels are identified.

Confinement effects in microchannels are very important as they affect the

heat transfer mechanisms in flow boiling; hence, it is necessary to quantitatively

determine the conditions at which vapor confinement occurs and microscale

effects become present. At the end of this chapter, quantitative criteria for the

transition between macro- and micro-scale boiling behavior are developed and

nondimensional parameters which govern the occurrence and extent of flow

confinement are determined. The results obtained are also employed in the

development of flow regime maps for boiling of FC-77 in microchannels as will be

explained in Chapter 6.

25

3.1. Literature Review

A number of studies in recent years have attempted to better understand

the flow patterns during boiling in microchannels using different working fluids

(Garimella and Sobhan, 2003; Sobhan and Garimella, 2001; and Bertsch et al.,

2008a); however, a systematic investigation into the effects of channel size and

mass flux on the boiling flow patterns in microchannels has not been performed.

High-speed flow visualization has been employed to understand the

physics of boiling in microchannels as well as the differences in the boiling

regimes relative to those in conventional-sized channels. Liu et al. (2005)

studied the onset of nucleate boiling in water flow through microchannels of 275

m 636 m cross-section via high-speed flow visualization and developed an

analytical model to predict the incipience heat flux and bubble size at the onset of

boiling. Peng and Wang (1993) experimentally investigated flow boiling of water

in microchannels of cross-section 600 m 700 m. They showed that unlike

larger tubes, partial nucleate boiling was not observed in the subcooled region,

and fully developed boiling was induced much earlier than at the macroscale.

Kandlikar (2004) observed features such as flow reversal and nucleate boilingdominant heat transfer in microchannel flow boiling as well as flow patterns of

slug flow, annular flow, churn flow, and dryout. Also, two nondimensional groups,

representing some of the important flow boiling characteristics, were derived.

Revellin et al. (2006) studied two-phase flow patterns of R134a in a 500 m glass

channel using an optical measurement method as well as high-speed imaging

and delineated four flow patterns of bubbly, slug, semi-annular, and annular

flows. The frequency of bubble generation, coalescence rate and mean bubble

velocity were also determined. Qu and Mudawar (2004) studied convective

boiling heat transfer, two-phase flow patterns, and pressure drop in parallel

microchannels of 231 m width and 712 m depth using water as the working

fluid. They argued that unlike in the case of fluorochemicals, it is difficult to

sustain bubbly flow regimes in boiling of water in microchannels because of the

high surface tension and large contact angle of water; a slug flow regime was

26

found to develop shortly after the incipience of boiling. Also, the flow patterns

were strongly influenced by the applied heat flux. Chen and Garimella (2006a)

observed bubbly and slug flow patterns at lower heat fluxes and wispy-annular

and churn flow regimes at higher heat fluxes with flow reversal near the

microchannel inlet. Bertsch et al. (2008b) observed slug or intermittent flow in

most of their experiments; only at very high vapor qualities was annular flow

observed.

Kew and Cornwell (1997) experimentally studied two-phase flow regimes

and heat transfer with refrigerant R141b in circular tubes of diameters in the

range of 1.39 to 3.69 mm. They observed flow regimes that differed slightly from

those observed in large channels and found that three flow regimes of isolated

bubble flow, confined bubble flow, and annular-slug flow were sufficient to

describe the observed patterns. They also showed that for narrow channels

having a confinement number of 0.5 and larger, conventional correlations were

not suitable for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer and that nucleate

boiling correlations such as that of Cooper (1984a) predict the data better than

the established correlations for flow boiling. Huo et al. (2004) investigated boiling

heat transfer with R134a in small-diameter tubes at mass fluxes ranging from

100 to 500 kg/m2s. Their visualizations revealed six flow patterns: dispersed

bubble, bubbly, slug, churn, annular, and mist flow. It was also shown that

nucleate boiling was dominant for vapor qualities less than 40-50% (20-30%) for

tubes of diameter 4.26 (2.01) mm.

Effects of hydraulic diameter and surface roughness on bubble nucleation

and flow patterns were studied by Zhang et al. (2005b) in single silicon

microchannels of 27-171 m hydraulic diameters and different surface

roughnesses with DI water. They showed that in 171 m-diameter channels, a

typical nucleation process occurs and the bubbles formed contribute to an

annular flow pattern. In channels smaller than 50 m in hydraulic diameter, the

bubble nucleation mechanism was found to be that of eruption boiling and mist

flow developed almost right after single-phase flow ended because of the large

27

amount of wall superheat. Hence, no temperature plateau was observed. The

boiling mechanism was found to be determined by the wall surface conditions

rather than the channel dimensions. Bergles et al. (2003) also performed an

analysis and showed that incipience of boiling in a subcooled flow was most

likely governed by the nucleation sites in the walls and not by the channel size.

Lee et al. (2005) investigated the effect of microchannel height on nucleation-site

activity and bubble dynamics using three fluids: water, methanol and ethanol.

The heat sink consisted of ten parallel microchannels fabricated in a silicon

wafer, with width ranging from 150 to 9000 m and height ranging from 5 to 510

m. They found that the bubble nucleation activity was dependent on channel

height for all fluids tested.

Other studies have utilized flow visualization to record the flow patterns

under different flow conditions and with specific geometries. Jiang et al. (2001)

carried out experiments with water in triangular silicon microchannels of hydraulic

diameter 26 and 53 m and observed local nucleate boiling at low input power

and unstable slug flow at intermediate power levels. However, annular flow

developed at a relatively low heat flux, such that evaporation at the liquid

film/vapor core interface was the dominant heat transfer mode over a wide range

of input powers. Lee et al. (2003) explored the effect of channel shape on twophase flow patterns in DI water. The microchannel heat sink they tested

consisted of ten shallow, nearly rectangular silicon microchannels of 120 m

width and 14 m depth. They studied bubble dynamics and two-phase flow

patterns and compared the results to similar work by Jiang et al. (2001) in

triangular microchannels with hydraulic diameter of 26 m. Wang et al. (2008)

performed experiments to investigate the effect of inlet/outlet configurations on

flow boiling instabilities with water in parallel microchannels of hydraulic diameter

186 m. They observed bubbly/slug flow, bubbly/annular alternating flow, and

annular/mist alternating flow when the flow could freely enter and exit the

microchannels. In the case of flow being restricted at the channel inlet but not at

the outlet, steady flow boiling patterns of isolated bubbles, elongated bubbles,

28

and annular flow were seen. Zhang et al. (2005a) studied the flow patterns in

microchannel at different orientations. They observed boiling to occur in isolated

bubble and slug flow regimes and found that the vertical up-flow orientation had

the best thermal performance, highest flow stability, and lowest pressure drop.

Differences between the flow regimes with air-water and steam-water

experiments were observed in the visualizations of Hetsroni et al. (2003) in

parallel triangular channels etched in a silicon substrate with a base dimension of

200 to 310 m.

Adiabatic two-phase flow patterns were investigated through high-speed

visualizations and flow regime maps developed by Field and Hrnjak (2007) and

Hassan et al. (2005). Field and Hrnjak (2007) performed visualizations of

adiabatic two-phase flow in a glass channel of diameter 500 m for R134a,

propane, ammonia, and a mixture of R134a and oil with different concentrations.

They observed four distinct flow regimes of bubbly-slug, slug, slug-annular, and

annular flow and compared these flow patterns to various flow maps.

In flow boiling through channels, as the channel size decreases to

approach the bubble diameter, physical confinement begins to modify the

influence of the different governing forces, resulting in different behavior of boiling

in microchannels compared to that in conventional-sized channels. Kandlikar

(2002) classified channels with hydraulic diameters between 10 and 200 m as

microchannels for flow boiling, based merely on dimensions and not on physical

behavior. Kew and Cornwell (1997) proposed a criterion for a threshold hydraulic

diameter below which microchannel two-phase flow is characterized by confined

single bubbles; the available models for macroscale boiling were found to be

unsuitable for the prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop at these small

channel sizes. Serizawa et al. (2002) recommended a confinement criterion

similar to that of Kew and Cornwell representing the ratio of surface tension and

gravity forces for the channel size below which the influence of surface tension

becomes important. These confinement criteria include channel hydraulic

29

diameter and fluid properties; however, it will be shown from the results obtained

in the current study that mass flux also governs bubble confinement.

The present work seeks to address the limited understanding in the

literature of the effects of channel size and mass flux on boiling flow patterns in

microchannels. The results are also aimed at explaining the effects of channel

size, mass flux and heat flux on the boiling heat transfer coefficients obtained in

the same facility which will be discussed in the following chapters. A new criterion

for the occurrence of vapor confinement in flow boiling in microchannels is

proposed that incorporates mass flux as well as channel cross-sectional area

and fluid properties based on the flow visualization results.

The flow visualizations are first analyzed and the flow patterns observed in

the microchannels characterized. The effects of heat flux, mass flux, and

channel dimensions on the boiling flow patterns are then discussed and the

important geometrical parameters that influence boiling in microchannels

identified. Finally, quantitative criteria for the transition between macro- and

micro-scale boiling behavior are developed.

In the microchannels studied, flow patterns observed via high-speed

visualizations are categorized into five major flow regimes bubbly, slug, churn,

wispy-annular, and annular flows; a sixth post-dryout regime of inverted-annular

flow is also identified. Although these flow patterns have a slightly different

appearance in different channel sizes and for different mass fluxes and flow

rates, each is characterized by certain common features. These flow patterns

are first explained with respect to the 400 m 400 m microchannels.

Representative visualized images in these six flow regimes are illustrated

in Figure 3.1. In all the flow visualization images in this work, the flow direction is

30

from left to right. For better delineation of the liquid and vapor phases in the flow

patterns, a sketch of the flow pattern is added on the right side of each image.

Figure 3.1(a) shows bubbly flow in which isolated round and elongated bubbles

that are smaller than the cross-section of the microchannels move in the flow

direction. Bubbles generally nucleate at the microchannel walls and detach from

the walls after growing. The shape and size of the bubbles vary with flow rate

and heat flux. As the heat flux increases, the bubble generation rate at the walls

increases and bubbles become larger as a result of bubble coalescence. At

higher heat fluxes or in smaller microchannels, bubbles occupy the entire crosssection of the channels, resulting in slug flow as shown in Figure 3.1(b); small

bubbles exist in the liquid slugs between the elongated bubbles. The churn flow

regime is demonstrated in Figure 3.1(c). This flow regime consists of vapor

chunks transported downstream and large bubbles nucleating at a high rate at

the channel walls; however, at high heat fluxes, the nucleation at the walls may

be suppressed. In wispy-annular flow as in Figure 3.1(d), a vapor core is

separated from the channel walls with a relatively thick and unstable liquid film.

Large, irregular-shaped droplets are entrained into the vapor core. Very few

nucleation sites remain in the liquid film and result in small vapor bubbles in the

liquid layer. In annular flow, as illustrated in Figure 3.1(e), the liquid layer is

thinner than in wispy-annular flow, and the interface between the vapor core and

the liquid film can become wavy. The liquid film thickness decreases as the heat

flux increases. Small, round droplets are entrained into the vapor core, while no

vapor bubbles are seen in the liquid annulus. At vey high heat fluxes, when

critical heat flux is reached, the walls can completely dry out under certain

conditions and a vapor blanket forms at the walls around a liquid core flowing

through the center of the channels. This flow regime is called inverted-annular

flow (Figure 3.1 (f)) and was seen in some of the tests. This flow regime is to be

avoided since it is accompanied with a sudden rise in the wall temperature and a

significant drop in the heat transfer coefficient.

31

Under some conditions, these flow patterns may alternate in a single

channel, resulting in an alternating flow. In channels with large width-to-depth

aspect ratios, two different flow patterns may also be present alongside each

other across the width of the channels. In subsequent sections, the conditions

for the occurrence of these flow patterns are discussed for different channel sizes

and different mass fluxes.

The effects of channel dimensions and heat flux on the boiling flow

patterns are discussed in this section for the mass flux of 630 kg/m2s. The effect

of mass flux on flow patterns will be discussed in section 3.2.3.

In the 400 m 400 m (width depth) microchannel heat sink at a mass

flux of 630 kg/m2s, three general flow patterns are observed as the heat flux is

increased bubbly flow, alternating churn and wispy-annular flow, and

alternating churn and annular flow as illustrated in Figure 3.2. Bubbly flow

starts after the onset of boiling at q = 64.8 kW/m2, with isolated round and

elongated bubbles. As the heat flux increases the bubbles coalesce and

generate larger and longer bubbles. At this flow rate, bubbles do not span the

cross-section of the channels and slug flow does not occur. As the heat flux is

increased to 132.6 kW/m2, the flow pattern becomes intermittent, alternating

between churn flow and wispy-annular flow (Figure 3.2 (b)). Very few nucleation

sites remain in the liquid film in the wispy-annular regime. For heat fluxes of

156.5 kW/m2 and higher, annular flow replaces the wispy-annular regime in the

alternating flow as shown in Figure 3.2(c). Small, round droplets are entrained

into the vapor core. As the heat flux is further increased to 220.2 kW/m2, careful

observation of the churn flow shows that bubbles no longer nucleate at the walls

and all the vapor chunks arrive from further upstream with a very thin liquid layer

separating them from the walls. At this heat flux, the nucleate boiling-dominant

regime ends and boiling enters a convective-dominant region. Similar flow

regimes are observed in the 1000 m 400 m (width depth) microchannels.

32

In the microchannels with a larger cross-sectional area and larger aspect

ratio (1000 m 220 m, 2200 m 400 m, and 5850 m 400 m), similar

flow patterns of bubbly, churn/wispy-annular, and churn/annular occur, except

that unlike the 400 m 400 m channels, alternating churn and wispy-annular,

or annular, flow regimes do not necessarily follow each other along the length of

the channel; instead, they are distributed side by side across the width of the

channel due to the large aspect ratio.

Figure 3.3 shows the flow patterns observed in the 5850 m 400 m

microchannels at a mass flux of 630 kg/m2s. Bubbles start nucleating at the

walls at a heat flux of 45 kW/m2 and when the heat flux reaches 59.7 kW/m2,

bubbly flow similar to that in the 400 m 400 m microchannels begins. Figure

3.3(a) shows the bubbly flow at a heat flux of 77.1 kW/m2. As the heat flux

increases, some bubbles grow bigger and fill the height of the channel while

expanding laterally, as shown in Figure 3.3(b). Increasing the heat flux further to

194 kW/m2 leads to the commencement of churn/wispy-annular flow. As can be

seen in Figure 3.3(c) for a heat flux of 221.7 kW/m2, large liquid droplets exist in

the vapor core in the wispy-annular flow and the two flow regimes of churn and

wispy-annular exist side by side across the width of the channel. At the highest

heat flux of 270 kW/m2, annular flow replaces the wispy-annular regime where

small liquid droplets are entrained in the vapor core as shown in Figure 3.3(d). A

careful study of the flow visualizations indicates that bubble nucleation ceases at

the downstream end of the channels at a heat flux of 255 kW/m2. Figure 3.4

shows similar flow regimes in the 2200 m 400 m microchannels. It can be

seen in Figure 3.4(b, c) that churn flow exists on one side of the channel while

wispy-annular or annular flow occupies the other side.

Figure 3.5 shows the flow patterns in the 100 m 400 m

microchannels. In these microchannels, flow patterns are different from those

observed in the larger microchannels, due to the small cross-sectional area and

the resulting confinement effects. Also, the still images are less clear than in the

larger channels the observations described here are based on close

33

observation of the video images. At this microchannel width, bubbly flow is not

established, and instead, slug flow commences early after the incipience of

boiling. Figure 3.5(a) shows the boiling patterns right after the commencement of

boiling. As can be seen in the photograph, the vapor slugs are separated by a

few small bubbles in the bulk liquid. However, these small bubbles disappear at

a heat flux as low as 33.7 kW/m2. At a heat flux of 44.8 kW/m2, the tail of the

slugs breaks up and is no longer very distinguishable. The liquid layer between

the vapor core and the walls also breaks up at the locations in which bubbles

nucleate on the walls. As shown in Figure 3.5(b), the liquid layer breaks into

rivulets forming a discontinuous liquid layer at the walls.

As the heat flux is increased to 62 kW/m2, flow enters an annular regime.

The liquid layer surrounding the vapor core in the annular flow alternates

between a smooth annulus and a discontinuous layer as shown in Figure 3.5(c)

for the heat flux of 71.5 kW/m2. In the discontinuous annular flow, bubble

nucleation at the walls is still seen in the discontinuous liquid annulus up to a

heat flux of 82.1 kW/m2, beyond which bubble nucleation at the walls is

suppressed. Unlike the larger microchannels, no droplets are observed in the

vapor core of the annular flow. At heat fluxes higher than 92.3 kW/m2, an

alternating churn and annular flow appears. This alternating flow regime is

shown in Figure 3.5(d) for a heat flux of 102.7 kW/m2. Although the top wall of

the microchannel partially dries out at heat fluxes exceeding 62 kW/m2, the side

walls do not seem to dry out even at very high heat fluxes.

Bubble confinement is also observed in the 100 m 220 m , 400 m

100 m and 400 m 220 m (width depth) microchannels. Figure 3.6

presents flow patterns in the latter. Although bubbly flow commences at the

incipience of boiling, as the heat flux increases, some bubbles grow bigger and

fill the height of the channel while expanding laterally, resulting in bubbly/slug

flow as shown in Figure 3.6(b). At higher heat fluxes, alternating churn and

annular flow occurs (Figure 3.6(c)). Visualizations in the 100 m 100 m

34

microchannels show the occurrence of annular flow right after the incipience of

boiling, and no slug flow is observed.

In Figure 3.7, the flow patterns observed in all the microchannels

investigated are summarized for a wide range of microchannel widths, depths,

and aspect ratios for the mass flux of 630 kg/m2s. The abscissa shows the heat

flux and the bars represents flow patterns and flow regime transitions for each

microchannel size, with cross-sectional area of the channels increasing from

bottom to top. Microchannel dimensions are provided on the right side of each

bar as width (m) depth (m), with the area of a single channel cross-section

(mm2) in parentheses.

It can be seen from this figure that in the microchannels with a crosssectional area of 0.037 mm2 and smaller, only slug and annular regimes occur at

the visualization location and bubbly flow is not established. In the larger

microchannels with a cross-sectional area of up to 0.089 mm2, bubbly flow exists

at very low heat fluxes and is followed by slug flow and annular flow at higher

heat fluxes. A careful examination of the flow visualizations reveals that in the

five smallest microchannel heat sinks with cross-sectional area smaller than

0.089 mm2, bubbles occupy the whole cross-section of the channels, resulting in

bubble confinement; however, in the 250 m 400 m microchannels (0.089

mm2 area), although slug flow is detected, the elongated bubbles only occupy the

width of the channels and do not span the entire depth; hence, the bubbles are

not confined in the cross-section.

For cross-sectional areas of 0.144 mm2 and larger, bubbly flow

commences at the incipience of boiling and is followed by alternating churn and

wispy-annular flow. As the heat flux is increased, an annular flow regime

replaces the wispy-annular flow. In these microchannels, nucleate boiling at the

walls occurs up to very high heat fluxes. For aspect ratios (width/depth) of 2.6

and smaller, the wispy-annular and annular flow regimes are symmetric with

respect to the channel width, while for aspect ratios of 4.5 and larger, flow

symmetry is lost (Figure 3.3, Figure 3.4).

35

Considering the flow transition from bubbly or slug flow to churn/annular

flow in smaller microchannels and to churn/wispy-annular flow in larger channels

in Figure 3.7, it is seen that this transition occurs at much lower heat fluxes for

microchannels with a cross-sectional area smaller than 0.089 mm2, in which

confinement was also visually observed. Occurrence of slug flow and the early

transition to churn/annular flow in these smaller channels affects the heat transfer

behavior as will be discussed in the next chapter.

The effect of mass flux on the flow patterns is discussed with respect to

the microchannels of dimensions 400 m 400 m at four mass fluxes of 225,

630, 1050, and 1420 kg/m2s. As depicted in Figure 3.2 and discussed in the

previous section, the main flow regimes for the mass flux of 630 kg/m2s are

bubbly flow, intermittent churn and wispy-annular flow, and intermittent churn and

annular flow. As the mass flux decreases or increases, these flow patterns

change, as does the heat flux at which transitions between the observed flow

regimes occur.

Figure 3.8 shows the flow patterns immediately after the incipience of

boiling at the four mass fluxes tested. It is seen that as the mass flux increases,

boiling commences at a higher heat flux. Also, the bubbly flow regime appears

differently as the mass flux increases. For the lower mass flux of 225 kg/m2s,

vapor confinement is observed and some bubbles grow larger and span the

cross-section of the channel, leading to a bubbly-slug flow regime as soon as

boiling starts, as depicted in Figure 3.8(a). As the heat flux increases at this flow

rate, these vapor slugs coalesce and generate very long vapor slugs with smaller

bubbles following them in the flow (not shown in the figure). As the mass flux

increases, bubbles become smaller but are more elongated at the incipience of

boiling. For mass fluxes of 630 kg/m2s and higher, the bubbles are relatively

small at the incipience of boiling (Figure 3.8(b-d)) and as the heat flux increases,

the size and number of bubbles and the rate of bubble coalescence all increase,

36

resulting in larger and longer bubbles; however, slug flow does not occur at any

heat flux.

As discussed in section 3.2.2, for the mass flux of 630 kg/m2s, an

alternating churn and wispy-annular flow regime arises following the bubbly flow

regime, and annular flow replaces the wispy-annular regime at higher heat

fluxes. A close observation of the annular flow pattern for mass fluxes of 225

and 630 kg/m2s shows that the liquid film thickness decreases and the vaporliquid interface becomes wavy as the mass flux or heat flux increase, due to an

increase in the vapor velocity.

For the mass flux of 225 kg/m2s, the wispy-annular regime is not seen and

the flow enters an alternating churn and confined annular flow regime after the

bubbly/slug regime. At the higher mass flux of 1050 kg/m2s, alternating churn

and wispy-annular flow follows the bubbly flow regime; however, annular flow is

not observed at this mass flux. For the largest mass flux considered of 1420

kg/m2s, bubbly flow changes to churn flow as the heat flux increases and an

intermittent flow and annular regime are not observed. A careful study of the flow

pattern transitions for the 400 m 400 m microchannels, indicates that the

transition from bubbly to alternating churn/annular flow occurs at higher heat

fluxes as the mass flux increases.

Since the transition between specific flow patterns occurs at higher heat

fluxes as the mass flux increases, different flow regimes are seen at a given heat

flux for different mass fluxes. Figure 3.9 presents the flow patterns at a heat flux

of 1452 kW/m2 for four different mass fluxes in the 400 m 400 m

microchannels. It is seen that the alternating annular flow has started for the

mass fluxes of 225 and 630 kg/m2s, while for the mass fluxes of 1050 and 1420

kg/m2s, the flow is still in the bubbly regime. Also, the visualizations reveal that

the flow has entered a convective boiling-dominant regime for the mass flux of

225 kg/m2s at this heat flux, while for the other three mass fluxes, flow is still in

the nucleate boiling regime.

37

In general, the incipience heat flux and the critical heat flux increase with

increasing mass flux. It may also be concluded that bubbly flow replaces slug

flow, and intermittent churn/wispy-annular flow replaces intermittent

churn/annular flow, as the mass flux increases.

In Figure 3.10, the heat transfer coefficient and wall temperature

corresponding to the visualizations in Figure 3.2 are plotted versus the wall heat

flux for the 400 m 400 m microchannels and a mass flux of 630 kg/m2s. It

can be seen that the onset of boiling and commencement of bubbly flow is

accompanied with a sudden increase in the heat transfer coefficient and a drop in

the wall temperature. In the range of heat flux where nucleate boiling is

dominant, the change in the wall temperature is moderate relative to the single

phase region. At a heat flux of 234.1 kW/m2, partial dry-out is observed on the

side walls in the annular flow regime, leading to a drop in the heat transfer

coefficient and an increase in the wall temperature as denoted in the figure.

In Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, the effects of channel dimensions and mass

flux on heat transfer coefficient will be discussed with the aid of flow

visualizations presented in this chapter.

There has been a good deal of discussion in the literature regarding the

appropriate definition of a microchannel; however, a clear, physics-based

distinction of microchannels from conventional-sized channels has not emerged.

In general, a microchannel refers to a channel for which the heat transfer

coefficient and pressure drop deviate from the predictions from widely accepted

models for conventional-sized channels. For single-phase flow, Liu and

Garimella (2004) and Lee et al. (2005) showed that channels with hydraulic

diameters as small as 244 m (the minimum considered in the studies) still

38

exhibit heat transfer and pressure drop behavior that is well-predicted by

conventional models. With boiling present in the channels, however, the flow

phenomena differ from those in macroscale channels as the channel approaches

the bubble diameter in size. In these small channels, correlations and models

developed for larger channels no longer apply (Bertsch et al., 2008a). In this

section, a new criterion is developed for delineating microchannels from

macroscale channels based on the presence of vapor confinement.

Figure 3.11 summarizes the existing flow regimes at different

microchannel sizes and different mass fluxes considered in this work. It is seen

that in the smaller microchannels and at low mass fluxes, bubbly flow is not

established; instead, slug flow is observed for low heat fluxes. As the heat flux is

increased, an alternating churn and confined annular flow appears in these

microchannels. In the confined annular flow, the vapor core occupies the whole

cross-section of the microchannels and is separated from the walls by a thin

liquid film.

As the channel cross-sectional area or the mass flux increases, bubbly

flow is observed at low heat fluxes and confinement is not observed. At higher

heat fluxes, alternating churn and wispy-annular or annular flow occurs. In the

wispy-annular or annular flow, the vapor core does not necessarily occupy the

entire cross-section and can instead exist on only one side of the channel; in

other words, the flow is not confined by the channel walls.

The experimental flow visualizations reveal that the flow confinement

depends not only on the channel size, but also on the mass flux since the bubble

diameter varies with flow rate. The different experimental cases listed in Table

2.2 for various channel sizes and mass fluxes are categorized into two groups of

confined and unconfined flow regardless of the heat input, and are represented in

Figure 3.12 on Reynolds number and Bond number coordinates. This plot shows

that for channels of small cross-sectional area and at low mass fluxes, vapor

confinement is observed, while for larger microchannels and at high mass fluxes,

the flow is not confined. The solid line on this plot shows the transition between

39

confined and unconfined flow and is a curve fit to the transition points,

represented by

1 g ( f g )

GD 2 = 160

Bo Re =

0.5

0.5

(3.1)

is proportional to the mass flux, G, and the cross-sectional area, D2, and is

inversely proportional to the fluid surface tension. This new flow boiling transition

criterion recommends that for Bo 0.5 Re < 160 , vapor bubbles are confined and

the channel should be considered as a microchannel. For larger convective

confinement numbers, the flow does not experience physical confinement by the

channel walls and the channel can be considered as a conventional (macroscale)

channel. It is important to note that this transition criterion is independent of the

heat flux and is very useful in determining whether a channel behaves as a

microchannel or a conventional, macroscale channel, regardless of the heat

input, for practical applications. A comprehensive flow regime map accounting

for the heat input which determines the specific flow patterns is presented in

Chapter 6.

The proposed criterion for transition between confined and unconfined

flow is compared in Figure 3.13 with available experimental observations from

other studies in the literature for water (Peles et al., 1999; Jiang et al., 2001;

Kandlikar, 2002; Serizawa et al., 2002; Hetsroni et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2003;

Steinke and Kandlikar, 2003; Zhang et al., 2005b; Garimella et al., 2006; Wang

et al., 2008), dielectric liquids (Hetsroni et al., 2002; Mukherjee and Mudawar,

2003; Zhang et al., 2005a; Chen and Garimella, 2006a), and refrigerants

(Coleman and Garimella, 2003). Details of the fluid, geometry, mass flux, and

heat flux of the data points used in this comparison are listed in Table 3.1.

Figure 3.13 shows that the proposed criterion is successful in predicting the

confined or unconfined nature of the flow from a variety of studies in the

literature.

40

3.3. Conclusions

Flow boiling regimes obtained with the perfluorinated dielectric liquid FC77 in 11 different microchannel heat sinks with channel widths ranging from 100

m to 5850 m, and depth ranging from 100 m to 400 m, are investigated as a

function of microchannel dimensions, mass flux and heat flux.

Five boiling flow regimes bubbly, slug, churn, wispy-annular, and

annular flow and a post-dryout regime (inverted annular) are identified. Flow

visualization results show that the microchannel width, depth, or aspect ratio

individually do not determine boiling mechanisms in microchannels; instead, it is

the cross-sectional area of the microchannels that plays a determining role. At a

fixed mass flux, vapor confinement occurs for microchannels with cross-sectional

area below a threshold value.

For each microchannel size, as mass flux increases, the bubbles become

smaller and more elongated in the bubbly region, and the liquid layer thickness in

the wispy-annular and annular regimes decreases. Also, the transition between

specific flow patterns occurs at a higher heat flux for higher mass fluxes.

Based on the flow visualization results, a new transition criterion is

developed which predicts the conditions under which microscale confinement

effects are exhibited in flow boiling. This criterion depends on the value of a

parameter termed the convective confinement number in this study, Bo 0.5 Re ,

which depends not only on the channel dimensions and fluid properties, but also

on the mass flux. It is shown that for flow boiling of FC-77, physical confinement

in the microchannels exists for convective confinement numbers less than 160;

under this condition, thin-film evaporation contributes to heat transfer in addition

to nucleate boiling. For larger convective confinement numbers, vapor

confinement does not occur and nucleate boiling is dominant up to very high heat

fluxes.

A gallery of flow visualization movies obtained in the current study for all

the microchannel test pieces and mass fluxes tested is available at

https://engineering.purdue.edu/CTRC.

41

Table 3.1 Summary of the experimental data from the literature used in the

comparisons of the confinement transition criterion.

Reference

Fluid

Geometry

Wall

Mass flux

heat flux

(kg/m2s)

(kW/m2)

Peles et al.

(1999)

Water

Parallel microchannels

Dh = 157, 207 m

3500,

6000

Jiang et al.

(2001)

DI Water

Parallel grooves

w = 50 m

110-365

Kandlikar (2002)

DI Water

Parallel microchannels

w = 1 mm, d = 1 mm

40

Serizawa et al.

(2002)

DI Water

Circular tube

D = 50 m

24

DI Water

Hetsroni et al.

(2003)

Water

Steinke and

Kandlikar (2003)

DI Water

Zhang et al.

(2005)

DI Water

Garimella et al.

(2006)

DI Water

Wang et al.

(2008)

DI Water

Hetsroni et al.

(2002)

Vertrel

XF

FC-72

Mukherjee and

Mudawar (2003)

Parallel microchannels

w = 120 m, d = 14 m

Parallel triangular

microchannels

Dh = 103, 129 m

Parallel microchannels

w = 214 m, d = 200 m

30-60

87-108

80-220

115-467

55-839

Single microchannel

w = 50 m, d = 40 m

160

651

160

91-787

365, 486

Parallel triangular

microchannels

Dh = 130 m

148

36

microchannels in a gap, w

= 200 m, d = 660 m

w = 1.57 mm, d = 3.05 mm

500-1100

Parallel microchannels

w = 275 m, d = 636 m

Parallel trapezoidal

microchannels

w = 208, 427 m, d = 146

m

42

Reference

Fluid

Geometry

Wall

Mass flux

heat flux

(kg/m2s)

(kW/m2)

Zhang et al.

(2005)

FC-72

Parallel microchannels

w = 200 m, d = 2000 m

120

42

Chen and

Garimella (2006)

FC-77

Parallel microchannels

w = 389 m, d = 389 m

345

9-56

Coleman and

Garimella (2003)

R134a

Glass tube

w = 4.9 mm

150, 750

43

Flow direction

Bubbly flow

Vapor bubbles

(a)

Slug flow

Bulk liquid

Elongated vapor bubbles

(b)

Churn flow

Liquid slug

Vapor bubbles

Bulk liquid

Vapor chunks

(c)

Wispy-annular flow

Vapor core

(d)

Annular flow

Liquid droplets

Vapor core

(e)

Inverted annular flow

Vapor bubble

Thin liquid film

Liquid droplets

Liquid core

(f)

225 kg/m2s, q = 33 kW/m2, (b) w = 400 m, G = 225 kg/m2s, q = 40 kW/m2, (c)

w = 400 m, G = 225 kg/m2s, q = 95 kW/m2, (d) w = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s, q

= 131 kW/m2, (e) w = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s, q = 157 kW/m2, (f) w = 250 m,

G = 225 kg/m2s, q = 157 kW/m2.

44

Flow direction

Bubbly flow

(a)

q = 81 kW/m2

Churn

Wispy-annular flow

(b)

q = 132.6 kW/m2

Churn

q = 156.5 kW/m2

Annular flow

(c)

kg/m2s.

45

Bubbly flow

q = 77.1 kW/m2

Bubbly flow

(a)

q = 145.4 kW/m2

Churn/wispy-annular flow

(b)

q = 221.7 kW/m2

(c)

Churn/annular flow

q = 280 kW/m2

(d)

kg/m2s.

46

Bubbly flow

q = 145.4 kW/m2

Churn/wispy-annular flow

(a)

q = 221.7 kW/m2

(b)

Churn/annular flow

q = 280 kW/m2

(c)

kg/m2s.

47

(Bubbles)

q = 28.1 kW/m2

(Vapor core)

q = 44.8 kW/m2

(Vapor slug)

(a)

Slug flow

(Nucleation sites) (Liquid rivulets)

(b)

Slug flow

Annular flow

(c)

q = 71.5 kW/m2

Churn flow

q = 102.7 kW/m2

Annular flow

(d)

kg/m2s.

48

Bubbly flow

(a)

q = 56.7 kW/m2

Bubbly/slug flow

(b)

q = 69.9 kW/m2

Churn

q = 190.7 kW/m2

Annular flow

(c)

kg/m2s.

49

C/W

B

B

C/W

B/S

B

Acs

C/W

C/A

C/A

C/A

1000 x 220 (0.231)

400 x 400 (0.144)

C/A

C/A

C/A

B/S

C/A

C/A

S

S

C/W

B/S

B

B/S

C/W

C/A

C/A

C/A

100

200

q" (kW/m2)

300

B: Bubbly

S: Slug

C: Churn

W: Wispy-annular

B/S: Intermittent bubbly/slug flow

C/W: Intermittent churn/wispy-annular flow

C/A: Intermittent churn/annular flow

: Single-phase flow

400

A: Annular

Figure 3.7. Summary of boiling flow patterns in the microchannel heat sinks for

G = 630 kg/m2s; the microchannel dimensions are presented as nominal width

(m) nominal depth (m) with the actual single-channel cross-sectional area

(mm2) in parentheses.

50

G = 225 kg/m2s

(a)

G = 630 kg/m2s

(b)

G = 1050 kg/m2s

(c)

G = 1420 kg/m2s

(d)

Figure 3.8. Flow patterns at the onset of boiling in the 400 m 400 m

microchannels for four mass fluxes.

51

Churn

Annular flow

(a)

G = 225 kg/m2s

Churn

Wispy-annular flow

(b)

G = 630 kg/m2s

Bubbly flow

(c)

G = 1050 kg/m2s

Bubbly flow

G = 1420 kg/m2s

(d)

Figure 3.9. Effect of mass flux on boiling flow patterns in the 400 m 400 m

microchannels, qw 145 kW/m2.

52

12

w = 400 m

G = 630 kg/m2s

140

Churn/

wispy-annular

130

ONB

Tw (C)

h (kW/m K)

10

Suppression of

nucleate boiling

120

4

Churn/annular

110

Tw

0

50

100

150

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

250

100

300

Figure 3.10. Variation of heat transfer coefficient and wall temperature with wall

heat flux in the 400 m 400 m microchannels, G = 630 kg/m2s.

53

(m) x (m) (mm2)

1420

B

B

B/S

B

C/W

C/W

C/W

B/S

B

C/W

C/A

B

S

C/A

C/A

G (kg/m s)

630

1050

C/W

C/W

C/W

2200 x 400 (0.815)

1000 x 400 (0.366)

400 x 400 (0.144)

250 x 400 (0.089)

100 x 400 (0.037)

B/S

C/A

2200 x 400 (0.815)

1000 x 400 (0.366)

C/W 400 x 400 (0.144)

250 x 400 (0.089)

100 x 400 (0.037)

B

B

B

B/S

C/W

225

B/S

B B/S

S

S

S

S

S

B

B/S

B/S

B/S

B/S

B

S

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/W

C/W

C/W

C/W

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/W

C/W

C/W

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

100

200

q" (kW/m2 )

C/A

C/A

C/A

C/A

2200 x 400 (0.815)

1000 x 400 (0.366)

1000 x 220 (0.231)

400 x 400 (0.144)

250 x 400 (0.089)

400 x 220 (0.079)

100 x 400 (0.037)

400 x 100 (0.026)

100 x 220 (0.021)

100 x 100 (0.009)

2200 x 400 (0.815)

1000 x 400 (0.366)

400 x 400 (0.144)

250 x 400 (0.089)

100 x 400 (0.037)

300

B: Bubbly

S: Slug

C: Churn

W: Wispy-annular

B/S: Alternating bubbly/slug flow

C/W: Alternating churn/wispy-annular flow

C/A: Alternating churn/annular flow

: Single-phase flow

400

A: Annular

Figure 3.11. Summary of boiling flow patterns in the microchannel test pieces for

four mass fluxes; the microchannel dimensions are presented as nominal width

(m) nominal depth (m) with the actual single-channel cross-sectional area

(mm2) in parentheses.

54

104

Confined Flow

Unconfined Flow

Unconfined Flow

Re

103

10

Confined Flow

Bo 0.5 Re = 160

10

10-2

10-1

100

101

Bo

55

105

104

Re

10

102

101

100

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

100

101

Flow Transition

Peles et al., 1999

Jiang et al., 2001

Kandlikar, 2002

Serizawa et al., 2002

Hetsroni et al., 2003

Lee et al., 2003

Steinke & Kandlikar, 2003

Zhang et al., 2005b

Garimella et al., 2006

Wang et al., 2008

Hetsroni et al., 2002

Mukherjee & Mudawar, 2003

Zhang et al., 2005a

Chen & Garimella, 2006a

Coleman & Garimella, 2003

102

103

Bo

from a variety of sources in the literature; solid symbols and open symbols

represent confined and unconfined cases, respectively.

56

support very high heat fluxes for applications such as the thermal management

of high-performance electronics. However, the effects of channel cross-sectional

dimensions on the two-phase heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop have

not been investigated extensively. One aim of the present study is to investigate

as independent parameters the channel width and depth as well as the aspect

ratio and cross-sectional area on boiling heat transfer in microchannels, based

on a large database of experimental results.

Heat transfer and pressure drop during boiling in microchannels are

studied in this chapter for microchannels of different sizes and the dependence of

heat transfer coefficient, boiling curve, and pressure drop on channel size is

discussed. Also, the important geometrical parameters that influence boiling

mechanism and heat transfer in microchannels are identified.

A large number of studies of microchannel flow boiling have been reported

as reviewed by Garimella and Sobhan (2003), Sobhan and Garimella (2001), and

Bertsch, et al. (2008a). However, few have explored the effect of microchannel

dimensions on the thermal transport. While a few studies have considered the

effect of microchannel size on flow boiling patterns and the transition between

different flow regimes, as reviewed in Chapter 3, the effect of microchannel size

on heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop has been largely unexplored.

Lin et al. (2001) performed an experimental study of two-phase flow of

refrigerant R141b in circular tubes of diameter of 1.8, 2.8, 3.6 mm and one

57

square tube of 2 mm 2 mm, with different mass fluxes ranging from 50 to 3500

kg/m2s. They showed that the transition from nucleate to convective boiling at

high heat flux occurred at higher qualities in the smaller diameter tubes. In the

absence of dryout in the saturation boiling region, they found that the mean heat

transfer coefficient varied only slightly with tube diameter and was mainly a

function of heat flux. Saitoh et al. (2005) experimentally investigated the boiling

heat transfer of refrigerant R-134a flow in three horizontal tubes of diameter 0.51,

1.12, and 3.1 mm and mass fluxes ranging from 150 to 450 kg/m2s. Their study

showed that the local heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing mass

flux in larger tubes but was not significantly affected by mass flux in smaller

tubes. The heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing heat flux in all

three tubes. The contribution of forced convective evaporation to the boiling heat

transfer decreased with decreasing tube diameter. Dupont and Thome (2005)

studied the effect of diameter on flow boiling heat transfer and transition from

macro- to microchannel evaporation using a three-zone flow boiling model based

on evaporation of elongated bubbles in microchannels. The model predicted an

increase in heat transfer coefficient with a decrease in diameter for low values of

vapor quality and a decrease in heat transfer coefficient for large vapor qualities.

Use of dielectric liquids in microchannel heat sinks has drawn recent

attention since the working fluid in the microchannel heat sinks can be in direct

contact with the electronics. Despite their poorer thermal properties as

compared to water, perfluorocarbons are particularly suitable for direct contact

cooling due to their high electrical resistivity. Fluorinert FC-77, a perfluorocarbon

liquid manufactured by 3M, is characterized by a specific heat and a latent heat

of vaporization of 1100 J/kg K and 89103 J/kg, respectively, with electrical

resistivity on the order of 1015 ohm-cm. Although there have been a number of

studies on pool boiling of perfluorocarbon liquids (Honda and Wei, 2004; McHale

and Garimella, 2008), investigations of flow boiling in microchannels using

perfluorocarbon liquids have been limited. Chen and Garimella (2006a)

conducted experiments to study the physics of boiling in parallel silicon

58

microchannels with a cross-section of 389 m 389 m using FC-77 as the

working fluid. Zhang et al. (2005a) performed an experimental study of flow

boiling regimes using FC-72 for three different orientations of a microchannel

heat sink: vertical up-flow, vertical down-flow, and horizontal flow. The heat sink

consisted of parallel microchannels 200 m wide and 2 mm deep. Warrier et al.

(2002) performed single-phase and boiling experiments in horizontal parallel

aluminum microchannels of hydraulic diameter 750 m with FC-84 as the test

fluid. They tested different mass flow rates and inlet subcooling conditions and

proposed correlations for both pressure drop and heat transfer.

In view of the absence of any systematic studies in the literature on the

effect of microchannel dimensions on heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop,

one of the objectives of the present work is to investigate the effect of channel

size on boiling heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks with a dielectric fluid, FC77. Boiling curves, heat transfer coefficients, and pressure drops are presented

and compared for a range of flow rates and microchannel widths, and design

criteria for microchannel heat sinks are discussed. The important geometrical

parameters that influence boiling in microchannels are identified based on the

results.

The experimental facility explained in Chapter 2 is used to study the effect

of channel size on boiling in microchannels. Twelve test pieces, with

microchannel widths ranging from 100 m to 5850 m and depths ranging from

100 m to 400 m, are included in the experimental investigation. The aspect

ratio and hydraulic diameter of the microchannels in the different test pieces take

values from 0.27 to 15.55 and 96 m to 707 m, respectively. The width (w),

depth (d), and number (N), along with the hydraulic diameter (Dh), aspect ratio

(w/d), and single channel cross-sectional area (Acs) of the microchannels in each

test piece are provided in Table 2.1.

59

4.3. Results and Discussion

Microchannels tested in the present work span a wide range of channel

width, depth, aspect ratio, hydraulic diameter, and cross-sectional area, thus

providing results that help clarify the dominant geometrical factor that governs

boiling heat transfer in microchannels. The effects of physical confinement on

heat transfer coefficient are explained in this section with the aid of flow

visualizations of Chapter 3. The effects of channel size on boiling curve and

pressure drop are also discussed for a fixed mass flux of 630 kg/m2s; however,

similar results were observed for the other three mass fluxes tested. The results

for mass fluxes of 225, 1050, and 1420 are shown in Appendix E. The effects of

mass flux on heat transfer and pressure drop are explained in Chapter 5.

Figure 4.1 illustrates the effect of microchannel dimensions on the heat

transfer coefficient for a mass flux of 630 kg/m2s. In this figure, the heat transfer

coefficient is plotted versus the wall heat flux for both single-phase and twophase flows in all the microchannels considered. As can be seen from this

figure, the onset of boiling is associated with an increase in the wall heat transfer

coefficient.

A careful examination of Figure 4.1 (and review of the dimensions listed in

Table 2.1) reveals that for microchannels with a cross-sectional area of 0.089

mm2 and larger, the heat transfer coefficient is independent of microchannel size.

For smaller cross-sectional areas where bubble confinement was visually

observed, as discussed in section 3.2.2, the heat transfer coefficient behavior is

markedly different, with the heat transfer coefficient being relatively higher at the

lower heat fluxes. As the heat flux increases, the curves cross over, resulting in

lower values of heat transfer coefficient. The largest heat transfer coefficient is

seen in the 100 m 220 m microchannels, with a cross-sectional area of

0.021 mm2, before partial dryout occurs. For the 100 m 100 m

60

microchannels, the heat transfer coefficient is relatively lower at low heat fluxes

since partial dryout occurs even at very low heat fluxes.

The larger heat transfer coefficients in the smaller microchannels are

attributed to the confinement effects caused by bubbles occupying the whole

cross-section of the microchannels due to the small cross-sectional area relative

to the bubble diameter at departure. As discussed in the section 3.2.2, flow

visualizations reveal that in all of the microchannels with a cross-sectional area

smaller than 0.089 mm2, slug flow commences soon after incipience of boiling

and flow enters the churn/annular regime at relatively low heat fluxes. This is

attributed to the high exit vapor quality for these smaller microchannels, as

illustrated in Figure 4.2. Early establishment of annular flow in microchannels of

very small diameter was also reported in other studies (Zhang et al., 2005b;

Jiang et al., 2001). As a result, bubble nucleation at the walls is not the only heat

transfer mechanism, and the evaporation of the thin liquid film at the walls in the

slug and annular flows also contributes to the heat transfer. Therefore, the value

of heat transfer coefficient is larger for these smaller microchannels at lower heat

fluxes. At high heat fluxes, a decrease in heat transfer coefficient is detected,

which is due to an early partial wall dryout in these small channels.

In microchannels with larger cross-sectional areas, nucleate boiling is the

dominant flow regime, and hence, the heat transfer coefficient is independent of

channel size. Similar trends have been reported in the literature for the

dependence of confined pool boiling on plate spacing in parallel-plate

configurations; as the plate spacing was reduced below the bubble departure

diameter, heat transfer was enhanced in the low heat flux region due to

confinement effects. As the spacing was decreased further, the heat transfer

coefficient increased until it reached a maximum, after which it deteriorated with

decreasing channel spacing (Geisler and Bar-Cohen, 2009).

To better illustrate the effects of microchannel cross-sectional area on

heat transfer coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient is plotted versus the crosssectional area for three heat fluxes on a semi-log plot in Figure 4.3. This plot

61

shows that for the lower heat fluxes of 80 and 100 kW/m2, the heat transfer

coefficient is relatively invariant with channel cross-sectional area for areas of

0.089 mm2 and larger where nucleate boiling is dominant. For smaller

microchannels, the heat transfer coefficient increases with decreasing channel

cross-sectional area due to vapor confinement and the contribution of thin liquid

film evaporation to the heat transfer. For a low heat flux of 80 kW/m2, the heat

transfer coefficient reaches a maximum for the 100 m 220 m channels and

decreases with further decreases in cross-sectional area due to early occurrence

of partial wall dryout in smaller channels. At the higher heat flux of 130 kW/m2,

the difference in the heat transfer coefficient values becomes smaller as the heat

transfer curves for smaller microchannels approach those of the larger

microchannels.

It is emphasized that the channel aspect ratio is not the determining

geometric factor affecting boiling heat transfer. For instance, the 400 m 100

m and 2200 m 400 m microchannels both have comparable aspect ratios

(~6), but the former exhibit larger heat transfer coefficients due to the smaller

cross-sectional area. Similarly, the 100 m 100 m microchannels lead to

larger heat transfer coefficients than the 400 m 400 m microchannels

although the aspect ratios of the channels in both chips are identical. It is also

clear from the results that the smallest dimension of the microchannel is not the

key factor; although all the microchannels with a common smallest dimension of

400 m have similar values of heat transfer coefficient, the 100 m 400 m,

100 m 220 m, and 100 m 100 m microchannels (all with a common

smallest dimension of 100 m) exhibit different values of heat transfer coefficient.

As mentioned before, the reason is the dependence of heat transfer coefficient

on cross-sectional area for channels with areas smaller than 0.089 mm2 due to

vapor confinement.

Figure 4.1 illustrates that increasing the cross-sectional area of the

microchannels beyond a threshold value does not affect the heat transfer

coefficient for a fixed wall heat flux, qw (Eq. (2.5)). However, from a design point

62

of view, the dependence of heat transfer coefficient on microchannel size should

be considered in terms of a given amount of heat dissipation from the chip, i.e., a

fixed value of base heat flux, qb (Eq. (2.6)). Plotted in this manner, the heat

transfer coefficient (as a function of base heat flux) for different microchannel

widths and for a fixed channel depth is presented in Figure 4.4. It is evident from

this figure that for a given heat dissipation from the chip, the heat transfer

coefficient increases as the microchannels width increases. However, the

maximum amount of heat that can be removed from the chip increases as the

microchannels become smaller due to the larger surface enhancement with the

smaller microchannels.

The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients for various

microchannel sizes and four mass fluxes in the range of 225 to 1420 kg/m2s are

plotted in Figure 4.5. At the mass flux of 225 kg/m2s, vapor confinement is

visually observed in microchannels with cross-sectional area of 0.258 mm2

(corresponding to the 700 m 400 m microchannels) and smaller. Figure

4.5(a) shows that the heat transfer coefficients for the microchannels with such

flow confinement are larger in the low heat flux region. As explained in section

3.2.5, for the confined flow (i.e., slug flow at low heat fluxes), evaporation of the

thin liquid film at the walls contributes to the heat transfer, and nucleate boiling is

not the only boiling mechanism. This leads to higher heat transfer coefficient

values. At higher heat fluxes, where annular flow exists in all channel sizes, heat

transfer coefficients in small microchannels approach those of larger channels in

value.

For the mass flux of 630 kg/m2s, flow visualizations reveal confinement in

microchannels smaller than 250 m 400 m. Correspondingly, Figure 4.5(b),

shows that the heat transfer coefficients in these microchannels depend on the

channel dimensions, and also take values that are higher relative to those in

63

larger microchannels, increasing with decreasing channel cross-sectional area.

For microchannels with cross-sectional area of 0.089 mm2 and larger, in which

confinement is not visually observed and nucleate boiling is dominant, the heat

transfer coefficient is independent of channel dimensions.

At a higher mass flux of 1050 kg/m2s, slug flow and vapor confinement are

seen only in the 100 m 400 m microchannel, and all other microchannels

exhibit similar values of heat transfer coefficient regardless of the channel size

(Figure 4.5(c)). For the largest mass flux tested of 1420 kg/m2s, vapor

confinement is not observed for any of the microchannels considered, and Figure

4.5(d) shows an independence of the heat transfer coefficient on channel

dimensions.

The plots in Figure 4.5 show that for the channels in which confinement is

not present and nucleate boiling is dominant up to very high heat fluxes, and for

which the convective confinement number Bo 0.5 Re is larger than 160, the heat

transfer coefficient is independent of microchannel size and all the curves

collapse on to a single curve. For microchannel dimensions and mass fluxes

which result in Bo 0.5 Re < 160 , the heat transfer coefficients are larger due to the

contribution of thin-film evaporation to the heat transfer mechanisms.

The effect of microchannel size on the boiling curve for a fixed mass flux

of 630 kg/m2s is shown in Figure 4.6. Both single-phase and two-phase regions

are included in these plots. In the single-phase region, wall excess temperature

(x-axis) is calculated with respect to the mean fluid temperature at the

corresponding heat flux, while in the two-phase region, the saturation

temperature of the liquid is employed. The saturation temperature takes different

values at different points on the plots depending on the local pressure. As can

be seen from these figures, the onset of boiling is associated with a sharp drop in

the wall excess temperature. With sufficiently small heat flux increments, this

64

temperature overshoot was observed with all the test pieces and at all mass

fluxes.

For microchannels of cross-sectional area 0.089 mm2 and larger, the

boiling curves cluster together beyond the onset of nucleate boiling, indicating

the dominance of nucleate boiling. As boiling starts in these microchannels, the

wall temperature shows a weak dependency on the heat flux. This is consistent

with the dominant nucleate boiling flow regime that was observed through the

flow visualizations (Chapter 3). As the heat flux increases, the wall temperature

becomes more dependent on the heat flux and the boiling curves deviate for

different channel sizes as convective boiling dominates.

For the microchannels with smaller cross-sectional areas, the wall

temperature increases with increasing wall heat flux and the boiling curves do not

collapse on to those of the larger microchannels. The strong dependence of the

wall temperature on the heat flux for these microchannels can be explained

based on the flow visualizations of the previous chapter which reveal that thinfilm evaporation and forced convection in the thin liquid film surrounding the

vapor slug or annulus, rather than nucleate boiling, are the main heat transfer

mechanisms in the smaller channels.

The effect of microchannel size on the boiling curves seen in Figure 4.6

was also observed in the experiments conducted with other mass fluxes

(Appendix E).

Further, if the base heat flux (Eq. (2.6)), instead of the wall heat flux (Eq.

(2.5)), were plotted versus wall superheat temperature as is done in Figure 4.7

for 400 m-deep microchannels, it is seen that for a fixed heat dissipation rate

from the chip, the wall temperature increases with channel width and is much

lower for the 100 m-wide microchannels. In other words, more heat can be

removed from the chip at a given wall temperature with the smaller

microchannels. It is emphasized that the number of microchannels incorporated

into the chip base area directly affects the base heat flux value; however, the

heat sinks tested in this work are not optimized in terms of maximizing the

65

number of microchannels that can be accommodated in a given footprint.

Nonetheless, results for the different channel dimensions from the present work

may be readily extrapolated for optimizing microchannel heat sinks by adjusting

the number of microchannels present (by changing the fin width).

In Figure 4.8, the pressure drop is presented for different channel sizes at

a fixed mass flux as a function of average wall heat flux. The two-phase region

can be clearly distinguished from the single-phase region by the sharp change in

slope of the curves. In the single-phase region, the pressure drop decreases

slightly with increasing heat flux due to the reduction in liquid viscosity as the

liquid temperature increases. In the two-phase region, the pressure drop is

strongly dependent on heat flux and increases rapidly and almost linearly with

increasing heat flux due to the acceleration of vapor as well as the two-phase

frictional pressure drop. These trends in pressure drop have been reported in

many studies (Warrier et al., 2002; Qu and Mudawar, 2004; Chen and Garimella,

2006a; Pate et al., 2006; Liu and Garimella, 2007).

In both the single-phase and two-phase regions, the pressure drop

increases with decreasing microchannel cross-sectional area at a given heat flux.

In the two-phase region, the slope of the line also increases as the channel area

decreases, with much larger pressure drops for smaller channels at higher heat

fluxes.

It can also be seen that for the microchannels with similar cross-sectional

areas and different aspect ratios, pressure drops are similar in value (e.g., 250

m 400 m and 400 m 220 m microchannels).

Figure 4.9 shows the pumping power required to manage a given heat

sink base heat flux with different microchannel widths for a fixed channel depth of

400 m. In the single-phase region the pumping power required is almost

constant, independent of the heat flux, while in the two phase region, the

pumping power increases rapidly with heat flux. This figure also shows that for

66

microchannels of width 400 m and larger, the pumping power is not a strong

function of microchannel width. For widths below 400 m, however, the pumping

power increases for a given base heat flux. Therefore, for a given pumping

power, more heat can be removed from the heat source with larger

microchannels, although, as discussed in the previous section, using the larger

microchannels results in higher wall temperatures. The maximum heat that can

be removed from the chip is higher for smaller channels because of greater

surface enhancement. It can be concluded that for a fixed channel depth of 400

m, the 400 m wide microchannel heat sink requires lower pumping power than

for widths of 100 m and 250 m, while at the same time providing a larger heat

removal capability and lower wall temperature for a given base heat flux

compared to channels that are of 700 m and larger widths.

4.4. Conclusions

In this chapter, the effect of channel dimensions on microchannel flow

boiling heat transfer and pressure drop has been investigated through a

comprehensive set of experiments. Flow visualizations from Chapter 3 and heat

transfer results presented in this chapter show that the microchannel width,

depth, or aspect ratio individually do not determine boiling mechanisms and heat

transfer in microchannels; instead, it is the cross-sectional area of the

microchannels that plays a determining role.

For microchannel dimensions and mass fluxes with Bo 0.5 Re > 160 , it is

shown that confinement is not present and nucleate boiling is dominant up to

very high heat fluxes; hence, the heat transfer coefficient and boiling curves are

independent of microchannel size and all the curves collapse on to a single

curve. For microchannel dimensions and mass fluxes which result in

Bo 0.5 Re < 160 , the heat transfer coefficients are larger due to the contribution of

thin-film evaporation to the heat transfer mechanisms.

67

The pressure drop is shown to decrease slightly with heat flux in the

single-phase region and increase rapidly with heat flux in the two-phase region.

For a fixed wall heat flux, pressure drop increases with decreasing channel

cross-sectional area.

For a fixed pumping power, the base heat flux, qb , increases with

increasing width of the microchannels for a fixed channel depth, however, the

maximum heat that can be removed from the chip decreases with increasing

channel width. Also, for a given amount of heat dissipation from the chip, the

wall temperature is lower for the smaller channels.

68

9

8

G = 630 kg/m s

h (kW/m2 K)

7

6

5

5850 x 400

2200 x 400

1000 x 400

700 x 400

1000 x 220

400 x 400

250 x 400

400 x 220

100 x 400

400 x 100

100 x 220

100 x 100

4

3

2

1

0

50

100

q"w (kW/m2)

300

350

coefficient as a function of wall heat flux, G = 630 kg/m2s.

69

1

2

G = 630 kg/m s

0.8

xe

0.6

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

0.4

0.2

0

0

50

100

150

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

250

300

Figure 4.2. Variation of exit vapor quality with wall heat flux for different

microchannel widths, d = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s.

70

6

q"w = 80 (kW/m2)

q"w = 100 (kW/m2)

q"w = 130 (kW/m2)

5.5

h (kW/m2K)

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

G = 630 kg/m2s

2.5

10-2

10-1

Acs (mm )

100

coefficient, with trend lines added.

71

9

2

G = 630 kg/m s

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

3

2

1

0

100

200

300 400

2

q"b (kW/m )

500

600

700

function of base heat flux, d = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s.

72

9

2

h (kW/m K)

4

3

5850 x 400

2200 x 400

1000 x 400

700 x 400

400 x 400

250 x 400

100 x 400

2

1

0

50

100

150

2

q"w (kW/m )

200

4

3

1

0

250

G = 1050 kg/m s

50

100

q"w (kW/m2 )

300

350

G = 1420 kg/m2s

h (kW/m K)

10

10

h (kW/m K)

5850 x 400

2200 x 400

1000 x 400

700 x 400

1000 x 220

400 x 400

250 x 400

400 x 220

100 x 400

400 x 100

100 x 220

100 x 100

11

5850 x 400

2200 x 400

1000 x 400

700 x 400

400 x 400

250 x 400

100 x 400

4

3

2

1

0

G = 630 kg/m2s

h (kW/m K)

G = 225 kg/m s

100

200

q"w (kW/m2)

300

6

5

2200 x 400

1000 x 400

4

3

700 x 400

400 x 400

250 x 400

100 x 400

400

100

200

q"w (kW/m2)

300

400

Figure 4.5. Effects of physical confinement on heat transfer coefficients for four

mass fluxes; the microchannel dimensions are presented as width (m) depth

(m).

73

300

2

G = 630 kg/m s

q"w (kW/m2)

250

200

5850 x 400

2200 x 400

1000 x 400

700 x 400

1000 x 220

400 x 400

250 x 400

400 x 220

100 x 400

400 x 100

100 x 220

100 x 100

150

100

50

0

10

20

30

40

Tw-Tref(K)

50

60

630 kg/m2s.

74

700

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

600

q"b (kW/m )

500

400

300

G = 630 kg/m s

200

100

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

Figure 4.7. Variation of base heat flux with wall excess temperature for different

microchannel widths, d = 400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s.

75

80

70

G = 630 kg/m s

5850 x 400

2200 x 400

1000 x 400

700 x 400

1000 x 220

400 x 400

250 x 400

400 x 220

100 x 400

400 x 100

100 x 220

100 x 100

p (kPa)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

50

100

q"w (kW/m2)

300

350

kg/m2s.

76

0.025

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

0.02

P (W)

0.015

G = 630 kg/m s

0.01

0.005

100

200

300 400

2

q"b (kW/m )

500

600

700

630 kg/m2s.

77

The effect of mass flow rate on the boiling heat transfer, boiling curves,

and pressure drop is discussed in this chapter for four mass fluxes ranging from

225 to 1420 kg/m2s. The microchannels with cross-sections of 400 m 400 m

and 2200 m 400 m are selected here for a detailed explanation of variations

with mass flux. Results for the effect of mass flux on boiling heat transfer for

other microchannel heat sinks listed in Table 2.1, are shown in Appendix F.

The effect of flow rate on microchannel flow boiling has been considered

in a number of studies. However, few have arrived at clear conclusions on the

effect of mass flux on boiling heat transfer and pressure drop. Chen and

Garimella (2006a) compared the boiling heat transfer coefficients and pressure

drops for flow rates of 260, 349, and 445 kg/m2s using fluorinert FC-77. Liu and

Garimella (2007) carried out an experimental study of flow boiling heat transfer in

microchannels (275 m 636 m) cut into a copper block, using DI water with

mass fluxes ranging from 341 to 936 kg/m2s. Chen and Garimella (2006c)

performed an experimental study of flow boiling of FC-77 in a copper

microchannel heat sink (10 channels, 405 m 2.5 mm) at flow rates ranging

from 80 to 133 kg/m2s. Pate et al. (2006) explored two-phase heat transfer in

parallel microchannels with hydraulic diameter of 253 m using FC-72 as the test

fluid. Six re-entrant type cavities, spaced evenly on the base of each channel,

were used to promote controlled nucleation. Mass fluxes in the range of 5352138 kg/m2s were considered. All these studies showed that beyond the onset

of nucleate boiling, the boiling curves collapsed on a single curve for all mass

78

flow rates; as the heat flux was increased further, the curves diverged and

became dependent on mass flux. Lin et al. (2001) observed both nucleate and

convective boiling mechanisms to occur in the tubes of diameter ranging from 1.8

to 3.6 mm and the local heat transfer coefficient was found to be a weak function

of mass flux while the mean heat transfer coefficient was independent of mass

flux. Bertsch et al. (2008b) experimentally studied the flow boiling of refrigerant

R134a in parallel microchannels of hydraulic diameter 1.09 mm for four mass

velocities ranging from 20.3 to 81 kg/m2s. They showed that the heat transfer

coefficient is a strong function of inlet vapor quality and mass flow rate.

This review of the literature highlights the limited understanding of the

effect of mass flow rate on flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop in

microchannels. The objective of the present work is therefore to study the effect

of mass flux on boiling heat transfer and pressure drop with a dielectric fluid, FC77, for a wide range of channel sizes.

The same experimental facility as explained in Chapter 2 is used to study

the effect of mass flux on boiling in microchannels. Four mass flux values of 225,

630, 1050, and 1420 kg/m2s are investigated for seven of the 12 test pieces

listed in Table 2.1 to map the effect of flow velocity on boiling heat transfer and

pressure drop over a wide range of microchannel dimensions.

The effect of mass flux on microscale boiling heat transfer and pressure

drop is discussed in this chapter for the 400 m 400 m and 2200 m 400

m microchannels. Similar results were obtained for the other microchannel

sizes and the complete set of results is provided in Appendix F.

79

5.3.1. Heat Transfer Coefficient

Figure 5.1 illustrates the effect of mass flux on the heat transfer coefficient

as a function of the wall heat flux for the 400 m 400 m microchannels. The

heat transfer coefficient increases with mass flux in the single-phase region for a

fixed wall heat flux. After the onset of nucleate boiling, however, the heat

transfer coefficient becomes independent of mass flux, and increases with heat

flux. At high levels of wall heat flux, as the contribution from convective heat

transfer begins to dominate that of nucleate boiling, the heat transfer coefficient

becomes a function of mass flux and increases with increasing mass flux. Flow

visualizations performed in Chapter 3 show that the plots of heat transfer

coefficient diverge from each other at the heat flux where the bubble nucleation

was observed to be suppressed at the walls. Other microchannel sizes tested

yielded similar trends for the dependence of heat transfer coefficient on mass

flux. These results regarding the dependence of heat transfer coefficient on flow

rate are also consistent with the findings of Chen and Garimella (2006a, 2006c).

At high heat fluxes, a decrease in heat transfer coefficient is detected for

lower mass fluxes. Flow visualizations discussed in Chapter 3 reveal that this is

attributed to a partial wall dryout as also reported in Chen and Garimella (2006a).

Figure 5.2 and Figure 5.3 show the boiling curves at four different mass

fluxes for the 400 m 400 m and 2200 m 400 m microchannel test

pieces, respectively. Similar to the boiling curves in Chapter 4, both single-phase

and two-phase regions are included in these plots and the wall excess

temperature (x-axis) is calculated with respect to the mean fluid temperature and

the saturation temperature of the liquid in the single-phase and two-phase

regions, respectively. These two figures show that the onset of nucleate boiling

occurs at a lower temperature and a lower heat flux for a lower mass flux. Also,

the critical heat flux increases with increasing mass flux.

80

For microchannels for which the convective confinement number

Bo 0.5 Re is larger than 160, beyond the onset of nucleate boiling, curves for all

boiling. This is shown in Figure 5.3 for microchannels of 2200 m 400 m (the

full set of results of boiling curves for all the microchannel dimensions is included

in Appendix F). At higher heat fluxes, as the convective heat transfer starts to

dominate, the curves diverge and, as in the single-phase region, more heat is

dissipated as mass flux increases at a fixed wall temperature. These trends are

also consistent with results in the literature (Liu and Garimella, 2007; Chen and

Garimella, 2006c; Pate et al., 2006). However, the boiling curve for the mass flux

of 225 kg/m2s deviates from those for higher mass fluxes as shown in Figure 5.2

for the 400 m 400 m microchannels. This distinct behavior of the boiling

curve at the lowest mass flux in smaller microchannel sizes is due to an early

transition to slug flow and annular flow regimes since the confinement number

Bo 0.5 Re is smaller than 160, in contrast to the behavior at higher mass fluxes

The pressure drop across the microchannels is plotted as a function of the

average wall heat flux in Figure 5.4 for the 400 m 400 m microchannels at

four different mass fluxes. In both single-phase and two-phase regions, the

pressure drop increases with increasing mass flux, which agrees with the results

obtained by Pate et al. (2006). Chen and Garimella (2006a), however, found that

the pressure drop was independent of mass flux in the two-phase region. They

related this observation to the balance between the frictional pressure drop and

accelerational pressure drop with the moderate inlet subcooling considered in

their tests (26C), which is in contrast to the very modest subcooling used in the

current work (5 C).

81

5.4. Conclusions

The effect of mass flux on flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop in

microchannel heat sinks was discussed in this chapter.

For a fixed channel size, boiling curves and heat transfer coefficients are

independent of mass flux in the nucleate boiling region. As the heat flux is

increased further and convective heat transfer becomes dominant, the boiling

curves diverge and more heat is dissipated as the mass flux increases for the

same wall temperatures. The maximum heat transfer coefficient, as well as the

wall heat flux at which this maximum occurs, increase with increasing mass flux.

Pressure drop increases as the heat flux increases in the boiling region.

For a fixed wall heat flux, pressure drop increases with increasing mass flux.

82

10

9

w = 400 m

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

1420 kg/m s

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

Figure 5.1. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient for 400 m 400

m microchannels.

83

350

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

300

1420 kg/m s

q"w (kW/m )

250

200

w = 400 m

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

Figure 5.2. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves for 400 m 400 m

microchannels.

84

400

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

350

300

2

q"w (kW/m )

1420 kg/m s

250

w = 2200 m

200

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

Figure 5.3. Effect of mass flux on boiling curves for 2200 m 400 m

microchannels.

85

12

2

1420 kg/m s

p (kPa)

10

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

2

w = 400 m

6

4

2

0

50

100

150

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

250

300

Figure 5.4. Effect of mass flux on pressure drop for 400 m 400 m

microchannels.

86

Given the complex effects observed on the flow patterns with changes in

channel width, heat flux and mass flux, flow regime maps are essential for the

practical design of microchannel heat sinks that rely on two-phase heat transport.

In this chapter, two types of flow regime maps with coordinates commonly used

for macroscale boiling are developed. However, it is shown that the flow regime

maps represented in these coordinate systems depend on channel dimensions,

and therefore, individual maps need to be developed for each channel size.

Due to the dependence of flow regimes (and regime maps) on channel

dimensions, it is important to include the effects of channel size in the flow

regime maps. Therefore, two types of comprehensive flow regime maps for

microchannel flow boiling are developed in the present study for a wide range of

experimental conditions and microchannel dimensions; quantitative transition

criteria based on nondimensional parameters are also proposed. The capability

of these comprehensive flow regime maps in predicting flow patterns and their

transitions is validated by a comparison to experimental data from a variety of

studies in the literature.

Flow regime maps are commonly used to determine the flow patterns that

exist under different operating conditions, as well as the conditions for flow

pattern transitions. Such maps are essential to the development of flow regimebased models for the prediction of the heat transfer rate and pressure drop in

flow boiling. The coordinates used to plot these flow regime maps can be

superficial phase velocities or derived parameters containing these velocities;

87

however, the effects of important parameters such as channel size are not

represented in a number of these maps. Baker (1954), Hewitt and Roberts

(1969), and Taitel and Dukler (1976) developed early flow regime maps for

horizontal and vertical two-phase flow in channels with diameters of a few

centimeters.

In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the flow patterns

during boiling in microchannels employing high-speed visualizations as reviewed

in Chapter 3. Only a few of these studies, however, have utilized the observed

flow patterns to develop flow regime maps for boiling in microchannels. Hetsroni

et al. (2003) proposed a flow regime map for transition from a low heat flux

region, characterized by the presence of liquid phase in all microchannels, to a

high heat flux region, characterized by a periodic dryout phenomenon, for boiling

of water in parallel triangular microchannels. Huo et al. (2004) also proposed a

flow regime map for R134a in a small tube. Two regime maps developed for

larger tubes by Taitel (1990) and Mishima and Ishii (1984) were compared to

their map for the small tube and were shown to be inapplicable for predicting flow

regime transitions. Revellin et al. (2006) constructed flow regime maps for

R134a in a 500 m-diameter tube in terms of mass flux versus vapor quality and

superficial liquid velocity versus superficial vapor velocity. Their map included

bubbly, slug, semi-annular, and annular flow regions. They compared their flow

pattern transitions to those of macroscale refrigerant flow and microscale airwater flow, neither of which matched their results well. Revellin and Thome

(2007) and Ong and Thome (2009) proposed flow regime maps for three

refrigerants and three channel dimensions using the same coordinates as used

in Revellin et al. (2006), while classifying flow into three types of isolated bubble,

coalescing bubble, and annular regime.

Flow regime maps for adiabatic two-phase flow in microchannels have

also been proposed through high-speed visualizations (Chung and Kawaji, 2004;

Hassan et al., 2005; Field and Hrnjak, 2007); however, it has been shown

(Revellin et al., 2006) that adiabatic flow regime maps are not suitable for the

88

prediction of microscale boiling. Field and Hrnjak (2007) showed that the flow

maps developed for large channels were not suitable for prediction of the flow

regimes in microchannels; also, flow maps were dependent on the specific fluid

for which they were developed.

Despite the inability of macroscale boiling maps or adiabatic two-phase

flow regime maps to predict the flow patterns for boiling in microchannels, a

review of the literature shows a dearth of investigations into flow regime maps

specifically targeted at microchannels undergoing flow boiling that are applicable

to a wide range of microchannel dimensions and experimental conditions.

In this section, two types of flow regime maps are developed based on the

coordinate systems common in the literature, and the effect of channel width on

the transitions between flow regimes is investigated. Also, a need for

comprehensive flow regime maps is noted and new comprehensive flow regime

maps for microchannel flow boiling are proposed which are capable of flow

regime prediction for a wide range of experimental parameters and channel

dimensions.

As discussed above, existing flow regime maps for boiling in

microchannels are limited to a narrow range of channel sizes and have been

developed with water and refrigerants. Flow regime maps are developed in this

section for boiling of FC-77 in microchannel heat sinks for a wide range of

channel dimensions, and the effect of channel size on the transitions between

flow regimes is investigated.

Two different types of flow regime maps are developed in this section

based on the observed flow patterns. In the first, mass flux is plotted versus

vapor quality, and in the second, liquid and vapor superficial velocities are

89

chosen as the coordinates, as is common in the literature. While in developing

the mass flux-quality flow regime map, the required quantities are measured

directly from the experiments, superficial velocities for the second type of flow

map are obtained by assuming that each phase occupies the entire channel

cross-section and are calculated from j f = (1 x) G / f and jg = x G / g for the

liquid and vapor phases, respectively. In these equations, G and x are mass flux

and vapor quality, and f and g are the liquid and vapor densities,

respectively.

Figure 6.1 shows the mass flux versus vapor quality flow regime maps for

six microchannel widths for a fixed channel depth of 400 m. The experimental

data points are represented by different symbols for different flow patterns and

the transitions between the flow regimes are presented by lines.

In general it is seen that transition to intermittent churn and wispy-annular

or annular flow occurs at a lower vapor quality as the mass flux increases.

Figure 6.1 indicates that the flow patterns, and hence the flow maps, are different

for boiling in microchannels of different sizes. For instance, churn/wispy-annular

flow does not occur in the smaller microchannels. It also appears that slug flow

tends to exist in smaller microchannels with lower mass fluxes and is replaced by

bubbly flow as the microchannel size or mass flux is increased. For the 250 m

400 m and 1000 m 400 m microchannels, the input heat flux exceeded

the critical heat flux and inverted annular flow, which is a post-dryout regime

(Figure 3.1(f)), was observed; transition from the intermittent churn and annular

flow to the post-dryout regime is shown in the corresponding flow maps. As the

mass flux or channel width increases, the transition to post-dryout occurs at a

lower vapor quality.

Figure 6.2 shows the flow maps for different heat sinks using the

superficial velocities as the coordinates. As the liquid superficial velocity

increases, transition to annular flow occurs at higher vapor superficial velocity.

The same trend is seen for transition to the wispy-annular regime in the 400 m

400 m and 1000 m 400 m microchannels; however, in the larger

90

microchannels, this transition occurs at lower vapor superficial velocity as the

liquid superficial velocity increases.

As seen in this section, the flow regime maps represented in these

coordinate systems depend on channel dimensions, and therefore, individual

maps are developed for each channel size. The effect of channel size on the

transitions between different flow regimes is investigated for these maps in the

next section.

In order to readily illustrate the effect of channel size on the transitions

between different flow regimes, the lines representing transition from bubbly or

slug flows to intermittent churn/wispy-annular or churn/annular flows are plotted

for the six microchannel widths in Figure 6.3 and Figure 6.4 for the two types of

flow regime maps. It is seen that as the microchannels become smaller, this

transition occurs at a larger vapor quality or a larger vapor superficial velocity.

Huo et al. (2004) also found that reducing the tube diameter shifts the transition

of slug to churn and churn to annular flow to higher values of gas velocity.

Transition from bubbly flow to intermittent bubbly/slug flow is shown in

Figure 6.5 and Figure 6.6. Since bubbly flow does not occur in the 100 m-wide

microchannels and slug flow is not seen in the 5850 m-wide microchannels, as

discussed in section 3.2.3, the transition lines in these figures are plotted for the

microchannels of width 250 m, 400 m, 1000 m, and 2200 m only, and it is

seen that the flow transitions differ for different microchannel widths.

The dependence of the flow transition on channel size makes the flow

maps in the literature limited to the test conditions and channel dimensions used.

In Figure 6.3 and Figure 6.4, these flow transitions are also compared to those of

Mandhane et al.(1974) and Taitel and Dukler (1976) for adiabatic two-phase flow

in large horizontal channels, Coleman and Garimella (2003) for condensation of

R134a in 4.9 mm tubes, and Revellin et al. (2006) for boiling of R134a in round

tubes of diameter 500 m. It can be seen that only the transition line of Revellin

91

et al. matches the current experimental results well and that of Coleman and

Garimella only predicts the trend. The transition line of Revellin et al. also

matches the current experimental results for the transition from bubbly to

bubbly/slug flow on the mass flux-vapor quality coordinates (Figure 6.5 and

Figure 6.6). It can be concluded that in general the flow maps developed for

boiling or condensation in conventional sized channels or for adiabatic two-phase

flow are not suitable for predicting the boiling in microchannels as also discussed

in the literature (Hetsroni et al., 2003; Huo et al., 2004; Revellin et al., 2006; Field

and Hrnjak, 2007).

Due to dependence of flow regimes (and regime maps) on channel

dimensions, it is important to include the effects of channel size in the flow

regime maps. To address this need, new comprehensive flow regime maps are

proposed in this section.

Figure 6.7 shows the comprehensive flow regime map developed based

on the experimental results and flow visualizations performed with FC-77. The

abscissa in this plot is the convective confinement number, Bo 0.5 Re , which is

proportional to G D 2 . The ordinate is a nondimensional form of the heat flux,

Bl Re , which is proportional to qw D . Plotting all the ~390 experimental data

points obtained for 12 different microchannel test pieces, four mass fluxes, and

heat fluxes in the range of 25 to 380 kW/m2 on Bl Re versus Bo 0.5 Re

logarithmic axes leads to a comprehensive flow regime map with four distinct

regions of confined slug flow, churn/confined annular flow, bubbly flow, and

churn/annular/wispy-annular flow.

The vertical transition line is given by Bo 0.5 Re = 160 , which represents the

transition to confined flow. The other transition line is a curve fit to the points of

transition from bubbly or slug flow to alternating churn/annular or churn/wispyannular flow, given by

92

Bl Re = 0.017 ( Bo 0.5 Re )

0.7

(6.1)

Bl = 0.017 ( Bo 0.4 Re 0.3 )

(6.2)

This flow regime map shows that for Bo 0.5 Re < 160 vapor confinement is

observed in both slug and churn/annular flow regimes while for Bo 0.5 Re > 160 ,

the flow is not confined. For low heat fluxes with Bl < 0.017 ( Bo 0.4 Re 0.3 ) , flow

patterns of slug (if Bo 0.5 Re < 160 ) or bubbly (if Bo 0.5 Re > 160 ) flow exist in the

microchannels. At higher heat fluxes with Bl > 0.017 ( Bo 0.4 Re 0.3 ) , vapor

bubbles coalesce resulting in a continuous vapor core in the alternating

churn/annular or churn/wispy annular flow regimes.

In Figure 6.8 experimental data from a range of other studies in the

literature are plotted on this comprehensive flow regime map. The map

developed here is clearly able to represent the flow regimes found in the

literature for water and fluorocarbon liquids.

It is noted that the flow regime map in Figure 6.7 is developed for flow

regimes occurring at a specific location along the length of the microchannel heat

sink where the heat transfer measurements are obtained (1.27 mm short of the

exit of the central channel). In order to include the effect of the heated length of

the microchannels on two-phase flow development, this flow regime map is

modified by using the phase change number as the ordinate in the map. The

phase change number was first introduced by Saha et al. (1976) to represent the

rate of phase change due to heat addition and is defined as

N pch =

where =

(6.3)

qw PH f g

L

L

is the frequency of vapor generation and = =

Acs h fg f g

u G / f

is the fluid particle residence time. Hence the phase change number can be

rewritten as

93

N pch =

where DhH =

qw PH f g L

L f g

= Bl

Acs h fg f g G / f

DhH

g

(6.4)

Acs

is the hydraulic diameter based on the heated perimeter of a

PH

microchannel. Using the phase change number, N pch , and the convective

confinement number, Bo 0.5 Re , as the coordinates, the flow regime map in

Figure 6.9 is obtained. Similar to the map in Figure 6.7, the transition lines divide

the map into four distinct quadrants of slug and confined annular flow for

Bo 0.5 Re < 160 and bubbly and alternating churn/annular and churn/wispy-

The vertical transition line on the map, given by Bo 0.5 Re = 160 ,

represents the transition from confined flow to unconfined flow. The other

transition line is a curve fit to the points of transition from bubbly or slug flow to

alternating churn/annular or churn/wispy annular flow and is given by

N pch = 96.65 ( Bo 0.5 Re )

0.258

(6.5)

Substituting Eq. (6.4) in Eq. (6.5), the location along the microchannels at which

the transition from bubbly or slug to annular flow occurs can be determined from

La 0 = 96.65 ( Bo 0.5 Re )

0.258

Bl 1

Acs

f g PH

(6.6)

La 0 will be used in modeling of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in

6.3. Conclusions

This review of the literature shows that existing flow regime maps for

boiling in microchannels are limited to narrow ranges of channel sizes and have

been developed for water and refrigerants. In the present work, two types of flow

regime maps with the coordinates conventionally used for flow boiling are

developed on mass flux-vapor quality and superficial velocity coordinates; it is

94

shown that these types of flow regime map depend on microchannel size, hence

for each channel dimension, a separate flow regime map is developed to capture

the flow regime transitions accurately. In these flow regime maps, it is seen that

as the microchannels become smaller, the transition from bubbly or slug flow to

intermittent churn/wispy-annular or churn/annular flow occurs at a larger vapor

quality or a larger vapor superficial velocity. Comparison of flow transitions to

those from the literature shows that flow regime maps developed for large

channels or for adiabatic two-phase flow are not appropriate for predicting boiling

regimes in microchannels.

To include the effects of channel size, a new type of comprehensive flow

regime map for microchannel flow boiling is developed for FC-77 for a wide

range of experimental parameters and channel dimensions with channel crosssectional area in the range of 0.009-2.201 mm2, mass flux in the range of 2251420 kg/m2s, and heat flux in the range of 25-380 kW/m2, with quantitative

transition criteria based on nondimensional parameters. For this comprehensive

flow regime map, the convective confinement number, Bo 0.5 Re , and a

nondimensional form of heat flux, Bl Re , are used as the abscissa, respectively.

Using these coordinates, the flow regime map reveals four distinct regions of

confined slug, bubbly, churn/confined annular, and churn/annular/wispy-annular

flow regimes with two transition lines. One transition line, Bo 0.5 Re = 160 ,

represents the transition to confined flow, while the other transition line,

Bl = 0.017 ( Bo 0.4 Re 0.3 ) ,which includes the effects of heat flux, illustrates the

The proposed comprehensive flow regime map developed is shown to

capture trends observed in the experimental data for water and fluorocarbon

liquids from the literature as well.

A modification to the comprehensive flow regime map is also made, to

include the effect of the heated length of the microchannels on two-phase flow

95

development. The phase change number is used as the ordinate in the modified

comprehensive map, resulting in the same four distinct flow regions on the map

with Bo 0.5 Re = 160 and N pch = 96.65 ( Bo 0.5 Re )

0.258

models for the prediction of boiling heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop

as will be discussed in Chapter 8.

96

1500

1500

Bubbly

w = 100 m

G (kg/m2s)

1000 Bubbly/

Slug

G (kg/m2s)

1000

Churn/Annular

Slug

500

Post-Dryout

500

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Slug

Churn/

Annular

0.2

0.4

0.8

1500

Churn/

Wispy-Annular

w = 1000 m

w = 400 m

1000

Bubbly

G (kg/m2s)

1000

G (kg/m2s)

0.6

x

1500

500

w = 250 m

Churn/

Annular

Bubbly/

Slug

Churn/

Wispy-Annular

Churn/Annular

500

Bubbly

Post-dryout

Bubbly/Slug

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4

x

1500

0.8

1500

w = 2200 m

Bubbly

w = 5850 m

Churn/

Wispy-Annular

Churn/Annular

500

Bubbly/

Slug

0

0.2

Churn/

Wispy-Annular

1000

G (kg/m2s)

G (kg/m2s)

1000

0.6

x

500

Churn/Annular

Bubbly

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

500

Transition from Bubbly/Slug to Slug

Transition to Churn/Wispy-Annular

Transition to Churn/Annular

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Transition to Inverted Annular

x

Figure 6.1. Flow regime maps on mass flux-vapor quality coordinates with

transition lines for six microchannels widths, d = 400 m.

97

100

Bubbly/Slug

100

Bubbly

Slug

10

Churn/

Annular

jf (m/s)

jf (m/s)

Slug

-1

10

Churn/

Annular

-1

PostDryout

10-2

w = 100 m

10-1

10-2

100

101

w = 250 m

10-1

100

jg (m/s)

10

Churn/

Wispy-Annular

101

jg (m/s)

10

Bubbly

10

-1

Bubbly/Slug

jf (m/s)

jf (m/s)

Bubbly

Churn/

Annular

10

-1

Churn/

Annular

Bubbly/Slug

Churn/

Wispy-Annular

10-2

w = 400 m

10-1

10-2

100

w = 1000 m

10-1

101

100

Churn/

Annular

-1

10-2

Churn/

Wispy-Annular

Bubbly

Bubbly/Slug

w = 2200 m

10-1

Bubbly

10

101

Churn/

Annular

-1

10-2

100

Churn/

Wispy-Annular

100

jf (m/s)

jf (m/s)

10

101

jg (m/s)

jg (m/s)

10

PostDryout

w = 5850 m

10-1

100

101

jg (m/s)

jg (m/s)

500

Transition to Churn/Wispy-Annular

0

0

Transition to Churn/Annular

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Transition to Inverted Annular

x

Figure 6.2. Flow regime maps on superficial velocity coordinates with transition

lines for six microchannels widths, d = 400 m.

98

1500

w = 100 m

w = 250 m

w = 400 m

w = 1000 m

w = 2200 m

w = 5850 m

Revellin et al. (2006)

Coleman & Garimella

(2003)

G (kg/m2s)

1000

500

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

x

Figure 6.3. Effect of channel size on transition from bubbly or slug flow to

intermittent churn/wispy-annular or churn/annular flow on the mass flux-vapor

quality coordinate, d = 400 m. Some relevant transition lines from the literature

are also included.

99

jf (m/s)

10

10

w = 100 m

w = 250 m

w = 400 m

w = 1000 m

w = 2200 m

w = 5850 m

Mandhane et al. (1974)

Taitel & Dukler (1976)

Revellin et al. (2006)

-1

10-2

10

-1

10

10

jg (m/s)

Figure 6.4. Effect of channel size on transition from bubbly or slug flow to

intermittent churn/wispy-annular or churn/annular flow on the superficial velocity

coordinates, d = 400 m. Some relevant transition lines from the literature are

also included.

100

1500

w = 250 m

w = 400 m

w = 1000 m

w = 2200 m

Revellin

al. (2006)

w

= 5850etm

G (kg/m s)

1000

500

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

x

Figure 6.5. Effect of channel size on transition from bubbly flow to intermittent

bubbly/slug flow on the mass flux-vapor quality coordinate, d = 400 m. Some

relevant transition lines from the literature are also included.

101

jf (m/s)

100

10

10

-1

w = 250 m

w = 400 m

w = 1000 m

w = 2200 m

Revellin

al. (2006)

w

= 5850etm

-2

10

-1

10

10

jg (m/s)

Figure 6.6. Effect of channel size on transition from bubbly flow to intermittent

bubbly/slug flow on the superficial velocity coordinates, d = 400 m. Some

relevant transition lines from the literature are also included.

102

Confined Slug

Churn/Confined Annular

Bubbly

Churn/Wispy-Annular

Churn/Annular

-2

Bl.Re

101

10

-3

100

Bo 0.5 Re = 160

-4

10

10-1

10

10

0.5

10

(Bo) .Re

10

103

102-1

Churn/Annular/

Wispy-Annular

101-2

Churn/

Confined Annular

Bubbly

Bl.Re

-3

10

100

Flow Transition

Hetsroni et al., 2003 - CB

Hetsroni et al., 2003 - CA

Steinke & Kandlikar, 2003 - CB/S

Steinke & Kandlikar, 2003 - CA

Garimella et al., 2006 - B

Wang et al., 2008 - CB/S

Wang et al., 2008 - CA

Hetsroni et al., 2002 - CB

Zhang et al., 2005a - CB/S

Chen & Garimella, 2006a - CB/S

Chen & Garimella, 2006a - C/CA

-4

10

10-1

-5

10

10-2

Confined Slug

-6

10

10-3

0

10

10

10

10

0.5

10

10

10

(Bo) .Re

B: Bubbly C: Churn

CB: Confined Bubbly

S: Slug

Figure 6.8. Comparison of the comprehensive flow regime map with the

experimental data from the literature.

104

10

10

N Zu

N

pch

N pch

Bo 0.5 Re = 160

0.258

= 96.65 ( Bo 0.5 Re )

Confined Slug

Churn/Confined Annular

Bubbly

Churn/Wispy-Annular

Churn/Annular

0

10

1

10

10

0.5

10

10

(Bo) .Re

Figure 6.9. Comprehensive flow regime map for FC-77; modified with the phase

change number.

105

PRESSURE DROP WITH EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS

The ability to predict heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop is required

for the design of two-phase microchannel devices. Empirical correlations have

been developed in the literature for prediction of heat transfer coefficient and

pressure drop in these systems. In this chapter, the experimental results for the

heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are compared to predictions from a

range of correlations from the literature.

A large number of empirical correlations have been developed in various

studies in the literature for prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop in flow

boiling in microchannels as recently reviewed by. Of the many predictive

correlations for boiling heat transfer proposed in the literature, those by Cooper

(1984b) and Gorenflo (1993) are widely used for predicting nucleate pool boiling

heat transfer coefficients. Flow boiling features simultaneous contributions from

nucleate boiling and forced convection. There have been two main approaches

to model flow boiling: a superposition approach and an extrapolation approach

(Liu and Garimella, 2007). Chen (1966) proposed the first correlation of the

superposition type, in which the nucleate boiling and forced convection

components were linearly summed with the introduction of a suppression factor

for the nucleate boiling term and an enhancement factor for the forced

convection term. Shah (1977) proposed an extrapolation-type correlation which

used a boiling number and a convective number. After these two early studies,

many modifications have been proposed to both approaches to obtain better

106

agreement with different sets of experimental data. Until the last decade, most

experiments were performed in large channels with diameters of the order of a

few millimeters and larger (Gungor and Winterton, 1986; Tran et al., 1996).

Studies adopting the superposition-type correlations typically employed turbulent

flow models for forced convection (Gungor and Winterton, 1986). In the last

decade, experiments have focused on mini- and microchannels, and considering

the low Reynolds numbers for the flow in these small channels, the forced

convection component in flow boiling correlations has been targeted at laminar or

developing flows to better match the flow conditions in mini- and microchannels

(Warrier et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2004; Liu and Garimella, 2007; Peters and

Kandlikar, 2007; Bertsch et al., 2008c).

In a comprehensive review by Bertsch et al. (2008a), predictions from 25

widely used correlations for boiling heat transfer coefficient were compared

against a large database of 1847 data points from ten different published studies

in the literature. This comprehensive quantitative comparison showed that the

pool boiling correlations evaluated resulted in a better prediction of the

microchannel flow boiling data than those proposed particularly for flow boiling

and that nucleate boiling dominates the heat transfer in microchannels. BarCohen and Rahim (2009) examined the predictions from five classical two-phase

heat transfer correlations for miniature channel flow. They concluded that

although some of these correlations provide good accuracy in prediction of

single-channel refrigerant flow, they fail to predict boiling of water in single

microchannels or refrigerants and dielectric liquids in multiple microchannel

configurations.

The experimental results obtained in the present work are compared to

predictions from ten correlations from the literature. The pool boiling and flow

boiling correlations included in the comparisons in the present study are listed in

Table 7.1.

107

These comparisons are illustrated in Figure 7.1- Figure 7.4 for two

different channel dimensions and two mass fluxes. Among all the correlations

considered, including those for pool boiling and flow boiling, Coopers nucleate

pool boiling correlation (1984b) best predicts the experimental results from the

present work. The mean absolute error (MAE) in the predictions from Coopers

correlation for seven test pieces with a fixed channel depth of 400 m and four

mass fluxes is included in Table 7.2. Except for the 100 m and 250 m wide

microchannels for the lower mass flux of 225 kg/m2s, for which the MAE is 25.9%

and 19.5%, respectively, the MAE for all other cases is less than 12.2%. In

general, it can be concluded that for most of the experimental cases with

Bo 0.5 Re > 160 where nucleate boiling is dominant, the nucleate pool boiling

correlation of Cooper (1984b) predicts the experimental results very well, while

for smaller microchannels at lower mass fluxes with Bo 0.5 Re < 160 (which would

exhibit vapor confinement), the error associated with the prediction of heat

transfer coefficient using this correlation are larger.

Deviations from the experimental values of the heat transfer coefficients

predicted by all the studied correlations, for all seven test pieces with a channel

depth of 400 m, are listed in Table 7.3. Correlations proposed by Peters and

Kandlikar (2007) and Warrier et al. (2002) generally overpredict the experimental

results for small microchannels or low mass fluxes and underpredict those for the

large channels with high mass fluxes. The other correlations (Gorenflo, 1993;

Chen, 1966; Shah, 1977; Gungor and Winterton, 1986; Tran et al., 1996; Liu and

Garimella, 2007; Zhang et al., 2004) highly overpredict the experimental results

for all tested microchannels and mass fluxes.

As shown in Figure 7.1 - Figure 7.4 and discussed earlier, except for the

very high heat fluxes, h increases with increasing heat flux. Some of the

correlations (Cooper, 1984b; Gorenflo, 1993; Tran et al., 1996) show this

dependency of h on heat flux correctly, while some others (Chen, 1966; Shah,

1977; Gungor and Winterton, 1986; Zhang et al., 2004; Peters and Kandlikar,

2007) only show this trend for large mass fluxes.

108

The experimental results obtained in the current study were also

compared by Bertsch et al. (2008a) to 25 empirical correlations, ten of which

were discussed above. The values of mean average error with the percentage of

data predicted within 30% for all of the 25 correlations, along with the fluid and

geometry for which each correlation was developed, are listed in Table 7.4. As

seen in this table, none of the examined correlations predict the heat transfer

measurements adequately, except Coopers pool boiling correlation which

predicts the experimental results in the 400 m-deep channels with an MAE of

7.3%. Including the data for the other microchannel test pieces listed in Table

2.1, an MAE of 11.9% is obtained for correlation of Cooper. Kew and Cornwell

(1997) also showed that the correlation of Cooper (1984a) predicted their

experimental results better than the existing correlations for flow boiling.

It may be concluded that for the range of parameters considered in the

present study, heat transfer coefficient predictions from Coopers correlation are

very satisfactory for flow boiling in microchannels for nucleate boiling dominant

regime.

The experimental results for pressure drop are compared in this section

with predictions from empirical correlations in the literature.

The pressure drop measured between the inlet and outlet manifolds

located upstream and downstream of the microchannels includes the pressure

drop across the microchannels and the inlet and outlet manifolds as well as the

pressure loss and recovery due to the inlet contraction and the outlet expansion.

For the comparisons in this work, the pressure drop across the microchannels

alone is extracted as follows:

Pch = Pmeas Pe Pc

(7.1)

109

The working fluid enters the microchannels in a purely liquid state. The

pressure loss associated with the flow contraction at the inlet of the

microchannels is obtained from (Blevins, 1992; Liu and Garimella, 2004)

NA

Pc = 1 cs

Apl

2

1 G2

+ K c

2 f

(7.2)

K c = 0.0088 2 0.1785 + 1.6027

(7.3)

Before entering the microchannels, the liquid enters a plenum with a crosssectional area smaller than that of the inlet manifold. The pressure loss at the

entrance of this plenum is calculated similarly, using the appropriate values for

the cross-sectional areas and mass flux in Eq. (7.2) and aspect ratio in Eq.(7.3).

A two-phase mixture of liquid and vapor exits the microchannels and the

pressure recovery resulting from the flow expansion at the exit for two-phase flow

is calculated from (Chisholm and Sutherland, 1969)

Pe,tp =

G 2 NAcs

f Aman

NAcs

5

1

2

1 (1 xexit ) 1 +

+ 2

Aman

X vv X vv

(7.4)

in which X vv is the Martinelli parameter for laminar liquid and laminar vapor

phases and is given by

X vv = f

0.5

(1 xexit )

xexit

0.5

0.5

(7.5)

In cases where both single-phase and two-phase flow exists in the

microchannels, the predicted values are calculated separately for the singlephase and two-phase regions. The single-phase region can be divided into a

developing and a fully developed region for which the lengths can be obtained

from (Lee and Garimella, 2008)

Lsp ,dev

Lsp

if L+sp < 0.05

=

if L+sp 0.05

0.05 ( Re Dh )

(7.6)

110

Lsp , fd = Lsp Lsp ,dev

(7.7)

where L+sp = Lsp / ( Re Dh ) in which the overall length of the single-phase region,

Lsp , can be obtained from a heat balance

Lsp =

(7.8)

qw PH

The friction factor associated with the developing region is then obtained from

f sp ,dev

0.05

2

2

+ 0.57

=

0.05

2

0.57 2

+ ( f fd Re )

3.2

/

0.5

0.05

/ Re

(

)

(7.9)

if L+sp 0.05

96 1.3553 1.9467 1.7012 0.9564 0.2537

f fd = 1

+

2

3

4

5

Re

(7.10)

Psp =

G2

2 f

(f

sp , dev

Dh

(7.11)

sum of the frictional and the accelerational components. A large number of

empirical correlations are available in the literature for prediction of these two

components and many studies in the literature have compared these correlations

to experimental data (Lee and Garimella, 2008; Qu and Mudawar, 2003a; Lee

and Mudawar, 2005; Mauro et al., 2007; Cheng et al., 2008). Six of these

correlations that predicted the experiments of Lee and Garimella (2008), Qu and

Mudawar (2003a), and Lee and Mudawar (2005) better than other correlations

are chosen here for comparison to the experimental data. One of these

correlations is a widely used macrochannel correlation (Lockhart and Martinelli,

1949), while the others were developed for mini/microchannels (Lee and Lee,

2001; Lee and Garimella, 2008; Mishima and Hibiki, 1996; Qu and Mudawar,

2003a; Lee and Mudawar, 2005). Predictions from these correlations are

111

compared with the measured pressure drops in Figure 7.5. The MAEs listed in

this figure ranging from 84.7% to 394.2% reveal the failure of these empirical

correlations in providing a suitable prediction of the experimental results, mainly

because the correlations were developed for specific fluids and ranges of

operating parameters that differ from those of the current experimental data.

7.4. Conclusions

The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the current experiments are

compared to predictions from a number of correlations in the literature. The

correlation of Cooper (1984b) for nucleate pool boiling predicts the experimental

heat transfer coefficients very well, with an average mean absolute percentage

error of 11.9%. This error is larger for smaller microchannels and lower mass

fluxes where confinement occurs.

The experimental results for pressure drop are also compared with

predictions from empirical correlations in the literature. The empirical

correlations are shown to fail to adequately predict experimental pressure drops

in microchannels.

Although the pool boiling correlation of Cooper was shown to predict the

experimental heat transfer data well, none of the empirical correlations

developed specifically for flow boiling in microchannels were found to predict

experimental heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop to within a reasonable

error. Hence, it is essential to develop physics-based models based on the

relevant flow regimes to predict both heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop

in microchannel flow boiling. Physics-based models are expected to be

applicable to a wider range of parameters, and not just to specific data sets.

112

Reference

Fluid

Cooper

(1984b)

Water,

refrigerant,

organic

fluids

Geometry

Parameters range/

Flow regime

Pool boiling

0.001< pr<0.9

2<M<200

Nucleate pool boiling

Correlation for h

hnb = 55 pr

0.120.4343ln Rp

( 0.4343ln pr )

hnb = h0 FPF ( q q0 ) ( Rp Rp 0 )

n

Gorenflo

(1993)

Large

selection of

fluids

Pool boiling

0.0005< pr<0.95

Nucleate pool boiling

for RC318

FPF = 1.2 p

0.27

r

n = 0.9 0.3 p

Chen

(1966)

Water &

organic

fluids

Vertical tubes

& annuli

Shah

(1977)

Water,

refrigerants

(R11, R12,

R22, R502)

Horizontal &

vertical tubes

D=6-41 mm

0.06 < ui< 4.5 m/s

1 < x < 71 %

6.2 < q < 2400 kW/m2

Saturated flow boiling

0.004< pr<0.8

Saturated flow boiling

0.133

0.55

M 0.5q0.67

(7.12)

, h0 = 4200 W / m 2 K

+ 2.5 pr + pr (1 pr )

(7.13)

(7.14)

(7.15)

(7.16)

0.3

r

hsp = 0.023 (1 x ) Re f

0.8

Pr f0.4 ( k f D )

(7.17)

0.24

0.75

hnb = 0.00122 0.5f 0.29p f 0.24 f 0.24 ( Tsat ) ( psat ) (7.18)

f h fg g

(7.19)

F = f ( X tt ) , S = f ( Re )

hsp = 0.023 (1 x ) Re

0.8

(7.20)

Pr f0.4 ( k f D )

nb = f ( Bl , Co ) , cb = f ( Co )

(7.21)

(7.22)

112

113

Reference

Gungor &

Winterton

(1986)

Tran et al.

(1996)

Warrier et

al.

(2002)

Fluid

Water,

refrigerants,

ethylene

glycol

Refrigerants

(R12, R113)

FC84

Geometry

Horizontal &

vertical tubes

& annuli

D=3-32 mm

Horizontal

circular &

rectangular

channels of

Dh ~ 2.4 mm

Horizontal

rectangular

parallel

channels of

Dh=0.75 mm

Parameters range/

Flow regime

0.08 < Psat < 203 bar

12 < Gi< 61518 kg/m2s

0 < x < 173 %

1 < q < 91534 kW/m2

Saturated & subcooled

flow boiling

Psat = 0.8 Mpa

44 < Gi< 832 kg/m2s

x < 94 %

3.6 < q < 129 kW/m2

Nucleation dominant

region in small

channels

0.00027 < Bl < 0.00089

3 < x < 55 %

Saturated flow boiling

Correlation for h

(7.23)

hsp = 0.023 (1 x ) Re

0.8

Pr 0.4

f (k f D)

0.55

M 0.5 q0.67

F = f ( Bl , X tt ) , S = f ( Re )

htp hsp , fd = 1 + 6 Bl

1

16

) (

0.3

(7.24)

(7.25)

(7.26)

g )

0.4

(7.27)

(7.28)

113

114

Reference

Zhang et

al.

(2004)

Fluid

Water,

refrigerants

(R11, R12,

R113)

Geometry

Horizontal/

vertical single

circular/rectan

gular

channels

Dh = 0.78-6

mm

Parameters range/

Flow regime

0.101 < P < 1.21 MPa

23.4 < Gi< 2939 kg/m2s

2.95 < q < 2511

kW/m2

Saturated flow boiling

in mini channels

Correlation for h

htp = Shnb + Fhsp

(7.29)

(7.31)

0.45 0.49

k0.79

0.24

0.75

f cp f f

(7.32)

hnb = 0.00122 0.5 0.29 0.24 0.24 ( Tsat ) ( Psat )

f hfg g

(7.33)

F = max ( 0.64 f ,1) , S = f ( Re )

0.8

( 25Fr )

c5

+ c3 Bl c4 (1 x ) Ffl (7.34)

0.8

0.8

Peters &

Kandlikar

(2007)

R123

Circular &

rectangular

channels of

Dh ~ 0.21 mm

25 < q < 85 kW/m2

0 < x < 70 %

Flow boiling in

mini/micro channels

hsp =

hsp =

( Re

1000 ) Pr f ( f 2 ) ( k f D )

1 + 12.7 Pr f 3 1 ( f 2 )

Re f Pr f ( f 2 ) ( k f D )

)( f

1 + 12.7 Pr f 3 1

2)

0.5

0.5

(7.35)

(7.36)

(7.38)

114

115

Reference

Liu &

Garimella

(2007)

Bertsch et

al.

(2008c)

Fluid

Water

12 different

fluids

Geometry

Parameters range/

Flow regime

Rectangular

channels

0.30.6 &

0.41 mm

q < 1290 kW/m2

x < 20 %

Saturated flow boiling

in micro channels

0.16 mm < Dh

< 2.92 mm

4 < q < 1150 kW/m2

0 < x < 100 %

Correlation for h

(7.39)

hsp = 1.86 (1 x ) Re f Prf Dh L

1

3

hnb = h0 FPF ( q q0 ) ( R p R p 0 )

n

w )( k f Dh )

0.133

F = f ( f , , c p , k , Pr ) , S = f ( Re, F )

(7.41)

(7.42)

hnb = 55 pr

0.120.2log10 Rp

( log10 pr )

(7.40)

(7.43)

(7.44)

0.55

M 0.5q0.67 (7.45)

115

116

Table 7.2. Deviation of heat transfer coefficient obtained from the experiments

and predicted by Coopers correlation (1984b). (The channel dimensions are

referred to by their nominal values. The deviation is presented in terms of Mean

Absolute Percentage Error.)

Microchannel Microchannel

width, w (m) depth, d (m)

100

250

400

700

1000

2200

5850

Mass flux, G

(kg/m2s)

hpred (Cooper 1984b) (%)

400

214

621

1017

1405

25.9

12.1

8.1

4.7

400

226

611

1126

1415

19.5

12.2

10.7

9

400

227

633

1031

1431

9.4

7

9.3

10.8

400

225

641

1053

1461

10.3

6.1

5.1

3

400

224

627

1037

1440

10.7

6.9

3.8

4.1

400

227

633

1034

1427

6.8

5.9

6.7

7.7

400

229

632

1028

1289

10

7.2

6.1

6.9

117

Table 7.3. Deviation of heat transfer coefficient obtained from the experiments and predicted by existing correlations.

(The deviation is presented in terms of Mean Absolute Percentage Error.)4

w (m)

Gungor & Tran Warrier Zang Peters &

Liu &

Betsch et

Cooper Gorenflo Chen Shah

al.

(nominal

Winterton et al.

et al.

et al. Kandlikar Garimella

(1984b)

(1993)

(1966) (1977)

(1986)

(1996) (2002) (2004)

(2007)

(2007)

(2008c)

values)

100

13

183

203

307

464

36

369

211

239

428

26

250

13

217

164

284

531

80

124

161

159

381

43

400

177

84

198

445

60

61

76

86

253

19

700

213

87

209

512

92

58

82

80

266

34

1000

214

77

179

519

102

55

85

75

269

37

2200

230

42

191

549

105

64

62

21

129

46

5850

214

54

122

524

120

46

108

63

290

35

All data

207

102

213

506

85

97

112

103

288

34

Comparison is made to the experimental data in the 400 m-deep microchannels only.

117

118

Table 7.4. Studies in the literature from which heat transfer correlations are

selected for comparison against the current experimental data. Mean absolute

error (MAE) and percentage of predictions which fall within 30% of the

measurements are listed for each correlation.5

Correlation

Fluid,

Geometry

MAE

(%)

Percentage of

pred. within

30%

(1984b)

cryogens

7.3

100

cryogenics

154

Chen (1966)

Heptane, Benzene,

161.1

(1980)

Heptane, Benzene,

186.3

1.6

836

R113; Dh = 3.1 mm

149.6

Dh = 2.95-32.0 mm

484.1

Kandlikar (1991)

Nitrogen,...

Dh = 4.632 mm

106.7

29.7

(1991)

79.0

28.1

(1992)

Dh = 1 - 32 mm

148.1

61.4

14.4

Gorenflo (pool

boiling) (1993)

Shah (1977)

Lazarek and Black

(1982)

Gungor and Winterton

(1986)

microchannels only.

119

Fluid,

Geometry

MAE

(%)

Percentage of

pred. within

30%

R134a; Dh = 2.0 mm

16248.6

2.6

R113; Dh = 0.78-3.6 mm

295.4

18.2

FC-84; Dh = 0.75 mm

68.1

27.2

Yu et al. (2002)

Water; Dh = 2.98 mm

4131.5

(2003)

126.6

0.6

Water; Dh = 1.45 mm

101.1

35.1

Balasubramanian and

Kandlikar (2004)

Dh = 0.19 - 2.92 mm

103.1

29.7

R141b, CO2

Dh = 0.7-3.1 mm

43.4

39.3

(2005)

461.2

6.1

Dh = 0.78-6.0 mm

100.2

11.8

502.2

(2007)

83.7

31.9

R134a; Dh = 0.5-11.0 mm

211.7

(2008)

Water; Dh = 0.16-0.57 mm

339.9

Correlation

120

30

w = 250 m

2

G = 225 kg/m s

25

h (kW/m K)

20

Experiments

Cooper, 1984

Gorenflo, 1993

Chen, 1966

Shah, 1977

Gungor & Winterton, 1986

Tran et al., 1996

Warrier et al., 2002

Zhang et al., 2004

Peters & Kandlikar, 2007

Liu & Garimella, 2007

15

10

5

0

50

q"w (kW/m2)

250

300

coefficients, 250 m 400 m microchannels, G = 225 kg/m2s.

121

30

w = 250 m

G = 1420 kg/m2s

25

h (kW/m K)

20

Experiments

Cooper, 1984

Gorenflo, 1993

Chen, 1966

Shah, 1977

Gungor & Winterton, 1986

Tran et al., 1996

Warrier et al., 2002

Zhang et al., 2004

Peters & Kandlikar, 2007

Liu & Garimella, 2007

15

10

5

0

100

q"w (kW/m2)

500

600

coefficients, 250 m 400 m microchannels, G = 1420 kg/m2s.

122

30

w = 1000 m

2

G = 225 kg/m s

25

h (kW/m K)

20

Experiments

Cooper, 1984

Gorenflo, 1993

Chen, 1966

Shah, 1977

Gungor & Winterton, 1986

Tran et al., 1996

Warrier et al., 2002

Zhang et al., 2004

Peters & Kandlikar, 2007

Liu & Garimella, 2007

15

10

5

0

50

q"w (kW/m2)

250

300

coefficients, 1000 m 400 m microchannels, G = 225 kg/m2s.

123

30

w = 1000 m

2

G = 1420 kg/m s

25

h (kW/m K)

Experiments

Cooper, 1984

Gorenflo, 1993

Chen, 1966

Shah, 1977

Gungor & Winterton, 1986

Tran et al., 1996

Warrier et al., 2002

Zhang et al., 2004

Peters & Kandlikar, 2007

Liu & Garimella, 2007

15

10

5

0

100

q"w (kW/m2)

500

600

coefficients, 1000 m 400 m microchannels, G = 1420 kg/m2s.

124

350

350

+30%

300

250

250

-30%

200

150

P pred (kPa)

P pred (kPa)

+30%

300

100

150

100

MAE

MAE == 186.0%

186.0%

12.8%

of predictions

12.8%

of predictions

within within

error of 30%

30%

50

-30%

200

50

100

150

200

250

300

MAE

MAE= =84.7%

84.7%

23.2%

predictions

within

23.2%

of of

predictions

within

error of30%

30%

50

350

50

100

P exp (kPa)

150

350

250

250

-30%

200

150

P pred (kPa)

P pred (kPa)

300

100

350

-30%

200

150

100

MAE

MAE == 108.6%

108.6%

21.1%

of predictions

21.1%

of predictions

within within

error of 30%

30%

50

50

100

150

200

250

300

MAE

= =163.3%

MAE

163.3%

7.4%

of predictions

7.4%

of predictions

withinwithin

error of30%

30%

50

0

350

50

100

P exp (kPa)

150

200

250

300

350

P exp (kPa)

350

350

+30%

+30%

300

300

250

250

P pred (kPa)

P pred (kPa)

300

+30%

300

-30%

200

150

100

-30%

200

150

100

MAE

MAE == 394.2%

394.2%

4.7%

of predictions

4.7%

of predictions

within within

error of 30%

30%

50

0

250

350

+30%

200

P exp (kPa)

50

100

150

200

P exp (kPa)

250

300

MAE

MAE == 193.0%

193.0%

4.4%

of predictions

4.4%

of predictions

within within

error of 30%

30%

50

350

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

P exp (kPa)

microchannels with predictions from empirical correlations in the literature.

125

PRESSURE DROP

range of channel dimensions and experimental conditions, consisted of four

distinct regions of bubbly, slug, confined annular, and alternating

churn/annular/wispy-annular flow regimes. In this chapter, physics-based

analyses of local heat transfer in each of the four regimes of the comprehensive

map are formulated. Flow regime-based models for prediction of heat transfer

coefficient in slug flow and annular/wispy-annular flow are developed and

compared to the experimental data. Also, regime-based prediction of pressure

drop in microchannels is discussed by evaluating pressure drop of each flow

regime along the microchannels separately.

Few regime-based models exist in the literature for the prediction of heat

transfer coefficient and pressure drop in microchannel flow boiling. Thome et al.

(2004) proposed a three-zone boiling model to predict the local dynamic and

time-averaged heat transfer coefficient in the elongated bubble regime. This

model assumed the passage of a liquid slug, confined elongated bubble, and

vapor slug at a fixed point in the microchannel, with transient evaporation of the

thin liquid film surrounding the elongated bubble being the dominant heat transfer

mechanism (rather than nucleate boiling). This model illustrates the strong

dependency of the heat transfer on bubble frequency, the minimum liquid film

thickness at dryout, and the liquid film formation thickness, all of which are

obtained from experiments due to the difficulty in obtaining them theoretically.

126

The authors compared the time-averaged local heat transfer coefficient predicted

by the three-zone model to the experimental measurements from seven

independent studies in the literature, including six refrigerants and CO2 (Dupont

et al., 2004), and obtained a set of general empirical parameters to be used in

the model. The model predicted 67% of the database within a mean average

error (MAE) of 30%. Ribatski et al. (2007) compared predictions from the threezone slug flow model (Thome et al., 2004) to experimental results for boiling heat

transfer of pure Acetone. Using the general empirical parameters developed in

(Dupont et al., 2004), 69% of the experimental data were predicted to within

30%, while using a new set of empirical parameters optimized for Acetone data,

the model predicted 90% of the heat transfer data to within 30%. Predictions

from this model were also compared to experimental data for flow boiling of

R254fa and R236fa (Agostini et al., 2008). Adjusting the empirical parameters of

the model to this experimental dataset, the model predicted 90% of the

measurements to within 30% of error. Shiferaw et al. (2007) compared their

experimental data with R134a to the predictions from the three-zone model of

Thome et al. (2004) as well as from other empirical correlations and suggested

that the three-zone model based on convective heat transfer performs at least as

well as empirical correlations that interpret the data in terms of nucleate boiling.

Qu and Mudawar (2003b) performed experiments in water-cooled

microchannel heat sinks and showed an abrupt transition to an annular regime

upon the onset of boiling. They concluded that the dominant heat transfer

mechanism in microchannels is forced convective boiling corresponding to

annular flow. Comparison of their experimental results to predictions from 11

empirical correlations which were developed for both macrochannels and

microchannels revealed deviations from 19.3% to 272.1% in terms of mean

absolute errors due to the unique features of water-cooled microchannel boiling

and the operating conditions that fall outside the recommended range for most

correlations. Qu and Mudawar (2003c) developed a model to predict the

saturated heat transfer coefficient in the annular regime, incorporating features

127

relevant to boiling of water in microchannels such as laminar liquid and vapor

flow, smooth interface, and strong droplet entrainment and deposition effects.

Their model predicted their experiments with an MAE of 13.3%. Their model also

allowed the calculation of pressure drop over the length of the annular region,

considering the entire two-phase length of the channel as being in annular flow

(Qu and Mudawar, 2003a). This led to an MAE of 12.7%, matching the accuracy

of the best of ten empirical correlations that were also tested.

Quiben and Thome (2007b) performed an analytical investigation of

pressure drop during boiling in horizontal single tubes. They proposed a flow

pattern-based model for prediction of the frictional pressure drop, treating each

flow regime separately and assuming that only one flow regime exists in the

complete test section. Their model ensured a smooth transition in the predicted

pressure drop at the transitions between flow regimes and predicted 82.3% of the

experimental data with three refrigerants (Quiben and Thome, 2007a) to within

30%.

A review of the literature reveals only a few studies that have focused on

modeling of flow boiling based on the existing flow regimes and taken into

account the interfacial structure between the liquid and vapor phases. Also, even

these studies have assumed the existence of a single regime in the channels. It

has been shown in the current study as well as in the literature (Huo et al., 2004;

Kandlikar, 2004; Revellin et al., 2006; Chen and Garimella, 2006a), however, that

several flow regimes can be present in microchannels for different operational

and geometric conditions or even concurrently in a streamwise direction.

In the present study, an analytical model is developed for the annular flow

regime to predict local heat transfer coefficient. An empirical parameter is

introduced for calculating the interfacial shear stress in the liquid film surrounding

the vapor core. This model also enables calculation of pressure drop in the

annular flow. For the slug flow regime, the three-zone model of Thome et al.

(2004) is compared against the measured data in the slug region. The model is

then modified by using a different method for prediction of the initial liquid film

128

thickness surrounding the elongated bubble in order to improve the original

model for better agreement with the measurements.

In this section, three different analytical models are proposed for three of

the four quadrants of the flow regime map in Figure 6.9, i.e., confined annular,

annular/wispy-annular, and slug flow. The three models are then validated by a

comparison to the experimental data. For the fourth region of bubbly flow, use of

an existing empirical correlation the Cooper correlation (1984b) is suggested.

The proposed physical models for heat transfer are also used to predict pressure

drop in these flow regimes.

An analytical model for the bubbly flow is not attempted in this study since

it has been shown in Chapter 7 that the empirical correlation of Cooper (1984b)

for pool boiling predicts the experimental data very well in this nucleate boiling

dominant region. Figure 8.1 depicts predictions from Coopers pool boiling

correlation for the bubbly flow data in the current study; the MAE is 13.9% and

86.5% data points are captured to within 30%.

A model for prediction of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in

confined annular flow is developed based on the conservation of mass,

momentum, and energy, using an approach similar to that presented by Carey

(1992) for large vertical tubes.

129

8.2.2.1. Model Development

Figure 8.2 shows a schematic representation of annular flow in

microchannels. A continuous vapor core flows along the center of the

microchannel and is surrounded by a thin liquid film along the channel walls.

Liquid droplets can be entrained into this vapor core. The model discussed here

assumes that the two-phase flow is steady, the pressure is uniform across the

channel cross-section, the liquid film-vapor core interface is smooth, the

thickness of the liquid film is uniform along the channel circumference, and

evaporation occurs only at the liquid film-vapor core interface and evaporation

from the entrained droplets is neglected.

The mass flow rates of the vapor core, the liquid film, and the liquid

droplets can be found from

m g = x0 m

(8.1)

m film = (1 x0 e0 ) m

(8.2)

m E = e0 m

(8.3)

where x0 is the vapor quality at the onset of annular flow. Knowing the location

along the channel at which annular flow commences, La 0 , from the flow regime

map discussed in section 6.2.3 (Eq. (6.6)), x0 can be obtained from an energy

balance over the length of La 0

x0 =

1 qw PH La 0

c p (Tsat Tin )

h fg m

(8.4)

In Eq. (8.2), e0 is the liquid droplet quality at the onset of annular flow. Qu and

Mudawar (2003c) discussed different correlations to determine this parameter

and developed an expression of the form e0 = 0.951 0.15 We f 0 . The total mass

flow rate in each microchannel is the sum of the three components of the flow in

Eqs. (8.1)-(8.3): m = m g + m film + m E .

130

The mass transfer rate due to evaporation per unit channel length is defined as

fg =

qw PH

and the mass transfer rate due to deposition is d = kd C Pc (Qu and

h fg

C

and kd = 47.8 Bo

m E

is the liquid droplet concentration

m g / g + m E / f

0.147

Paleev and Filippovich (1966). Using these mass transfer rates, the variation of

each component of the mass flow rate with distance along the channel can be

calculated from

dm film

dz

= fg + d

dm E

= d

dz

dm g

dz

= fg

(8.5)

(8.6)

(8.7)

A control volume of length z covering the vapor core and extending to

the liquid film interface as depicted in Figure 8.2(b), is used to apply the

momentum and force balance to the vapor core in the flow direction which results

in (Qu and Mudawar, 2003c)

d

d

H uc2 Ac ) + d uc fg ui = ( PAc ) i Pc

(

dz

dz

where H = x / g + (1 x ) / f

(8.8)

From this equation, the pressure gradient for the vapor core (and the liquid

film) is obtained

1

dP Pc

= i ( fg ui d uc )

dz Ac

Ac

(8.9)

131

where i is the interfacial shear stress. The interfacial velocity ui is

approximated to be twice the mean liquid film velocity, ui = 2u film = 2

m film

f ( Acs Ac )

The validity of the approximation used for ui was discussed by Qu and Mudawar

(2003c). The mean velocity of the vapor core is evaluated assuming

homogeneous flow for the vapor core, uc =

m E + m g

H Ac

To determine the interfacial shear stress, an approach by Wallis (1969) is

used to incorporate the influence of evaporation mass transfer at the interface on

interfacial friction, as expressed in Qu and Mudawar (2003c) in the form

i =

fg

1

2

f i H ( uc ui )

( uc ui )

2

2 Pc

(8.10)

(1969) is used in the current model. Since this correlation is developed from airwater data in large tubes, a correction factor, c fi , is introduced in the current

model which is optimized based on the current experimental data for annular flow

in microchannels as discussed further below in the model assessment

f i = c fi 0.005 1 + 300

Dh

(8.11)

Applying momentum conservation to a control volume in the liquid film as

shown in Figure 8.2(b), with the shape of a rectangular ring, leads to (Qu and

Mudawar, 2003c)

1

dP

( fg ui d uc )

+i

Pch

dz

= ( y )

(8.12)

Substituting the shear stress in the laminar liquid film with an expression in terms

of the local velocity gradient, = f

du f

dy

132

resulting equation, using the no-slip boundary condition at the wall, the local

velocity in the liquid film is obtained as

uf =

1

1

y 2 dP 1

y

y i

y ( fg ui d uc )

+

f

f Pch

2 dz f

(8.13)

Integrating the local liquid velocity over the film thickness, conservation of mass

in the liquid film requires that:

Pch f 3 dP Pch f 2

f 2

= f Pch u f dy =

i

( fg ui d uc ) (8.14)

+

3 f dz

2 f

2 f

0

m film

Solution procedure:

For known values of qw , G , x0 , channel dimensions, and fluid properties,

the equations developed above give a closed system to obtain m F , i ,

dP

, and

dz

numerically according to the following procedure:

1. The location of the onset of annular flow is determined first using

Eq. (6.6). A one-dimensional grid with sufficient number of cells is

then assumed along the channel length in the annular region. The

solution is initiated at the upstream boundary node.

2. The mass flow rates of the vapor core, liquid film, and entrained

droplets are determined at the upstream boundary, using Eqs. (8.1)

-(8.3).

3. A value of is guessed at this node.

4. Ac and Pc can be calculated using the guessed value of . ui and

uc are obtained knowing the mass flow rates and the geometrical

Eqs. (8.10) and (8.11).

5. Eq. (8.9) is solved to obtain dP / dz .

6. The pressure gradient obtained in step 5 is substituted in Eq. (8.14)

to evaluate the integral of u f across the film thickness. Knowing

133

Eq. (8.14) is satisfied, the solution is complete at this node.

Otherwise, the calculations must be repeated from step 3 by

guessing a new value of . This process is continued until Eq.

(8.14) is satisfied, at which time the values of parameters from the

last iteration are adopted for this node.

7. Now the solution for the next downstream node is sought. The

mass flow rates for the three components of the flow are calculated

using Eqs. (8.5)-(8.7). The numerical procedure in steps 3 to 6 are

then repeated for this new node to complete the solution by

satisfying Eq. (8.14). This procedure is then repeated by marching

downstream to finally obtain a local solution for all the nodes in the

annular region.

After obtaining the film thickness from the procedure described above, the

local heat transfer coefficient in the annular region can be obtained, assuming a

laminar liquid film and that all the heat input to the fluid is transferred to the vapor

core, from

h( z ) =

kf

(8.15)

The validity of this equation for annular flow heat transfer has been discussed by

Collier and Thome (1994).

Flow visualizations in Chapter 3 reveal that droplet entrainment in the

vapor core is negligible for the confined annular flow in case of the perfluorinated

liquids discussed here. Hence, e0 , m E , and d are all set to zero in the model.

This simplifies the solution procedure explained in the previous section, due to

the linear variation of the vapor and film mass flow rates in the flow direction

when no droplet entrainment is present. Hence, in order to find the local heat

134

not necessary to start the solution at the upstream boundary; instead, the

calculations are performed at location L following steps 2 to 6 of section 8.2.2.1,

by substituting L for La 0 in Eq. (8.4). In Appendix G, a MATLAB script is given

that calculates the heat transfer coefficient in the annular region.

The heat transfer coefficient values were obtained from the proposed

numerical model at the same location along the microchannels where the

experimental measurements were performed. Only data for the confined annular

flow are included in this section. The value of c fi in Eq. (8.11) was optimized by

a comparison of the numerical values to the experimental values from the current

study. The optimized value obtained for the correction factor in the friction

coefficient for confined annular flow is expressed as

c fi = 4 10 5 ( Bo 0.5 Re )

(8.16)

proposed in section 3.2.5. For different geometries and mass fluxes where

confined annular flow is present, c fi takes values in the range of 0.01 to 1.11.

Eq. (8.16) indicates that the correction factor for the interfacial friction factor is

smaller for smaller microchannels and lower mass fluxes.

In Figure 8.3, predictions from the proposed model for annular flow are

compared to the experimental data from the present work for confined annular

flow. The experiments are predicted with an MAE of 16.4% with 87.2% of the

data predicted to within 30%. Also, good agreement is seen in prediction of the

trend seen in the variation of heat transfer coefficient with heat flux, as depicted

in Figure 8.4(a)-(c) for microchannels of dimension 100 m 400 m for three

mass fluxes of 225, 1050, and 1420 kg/m2s.

135

8.2.3. Annular/Wispy-Annular Flow

Alternating annular/churn flow and alternating wispy-annular/churn flow

occurs in the channels for Bo 0.5 Re > 160 and N pch > 96.65 ( Bo 0.5 Re )

0.258

. In this

study it is assumed that the effect of film evaporation in the annular/wispyannular flow is more dominant than the nucleate boiling heat transfer in the churn

flow in determining the heat transfer coefficient. Hence, the same model

developed for confined annular flow is used to predict the heat transfer coefficient

in the annular/wispy-annular/churn region in the microchannels with an optimized

value of c fi specific for the data in this region.

An optimized value of c fi is obtained for the annular/wispy-annular data as

c fi = 32 105 ( Bo 0.5 Re )

(8.17)

which results in c fi values in the range of 7.4 to 67.5 for different channel

dimensions and mass fluxes, which are much larger than the values obtain for

confined annular flow and increase with increasing the channel cross-sectional

area and mass flux.

Predictions from the proposed annular model, using the interfacial friction

factor correction in Eq. (8.17) and neglecting droplet entrainment, are compared

to the experimental data in Figure 8.5. This plot shows an MAE of 24.8% with

71.9% of the data predicted to within 30%. Figure 8.6 illustrates the heat

transfer coefficients as a function of heat flux for annular/wispy-annular flow data

in 400 m 400 m microchannels and shows that the model predicts the trends

very well.

Although entrained droplets are seen in flow visualizations of the wispyannular flow as reported in section 3.2.1, the model gives better predictions of

the heat transfer coefficient without considering this effect rather than taking into

account droplet deposition. It should also be noted that in channels with very

136

large aspect ratios, i.e., channels with width of 2200 m and 5850 m, flow loses

symmetry and churn and annular flow exist side-by-side in the channels as

shown in section 3.2.2; hence, the assumption of a circumferentially uniform film

thickness does not hold anymore in these cases and the simplified model

proposed in the current study does not agree well with the data; data for these

very large aspect ratios are excluded from the comparisons reported in this

section.

Thome et al. (2004) proposed a model for prediction of the transient local

heat transfer coefficient in a slug flow regime, based on the cyclic passage of a

liquid slug, an elongated bubble, and a vapor slug triplet. The model is briefly

explained here and reference may be made to Thome et al. (2004) and Dupont

et al. (2004) for more detailed descriptions.

At a fixed location along the channel, an elongated bubble follows a liquid

slug. In the elongated bubble, heat transfer is characterized by evaporation of a

thin liquid film surrounding the vapor bubble at the walls. If the liquid film

evaporates completely and local dry-out occurs, a vapor slug follows the

elongated bubble. The time-averaged local heat transfer coefficient over the

three zones is given by

h( z ) =

tf

hf ( z) +

t film

h film ( z ) +

tdry

hg ( z )

(8.18)

In this equation, h f and hg are the heat transfer coefficients for the liquid and

vapor slugs and are obtained from the local Nusselt number using correlations of

Shah and London (VDI-Warmeatlas, 1997) for laminar flow and Gnielinski (VDIWarmeatlas, 1997) for transitional and turbulent flow. The mean heat transfer

coefficient of the evaporating thin liquid film of the elongated bubble is obtained

by assuming one-dimensional heat conduction in a stagnant liquid film, using the

averaged value of the film thickness

137

h film ( z ) =

2k f

(8.19)

0 ( z ) + end

Here, 0 is the initial film thickness at the formation of the elongated bubble and

end is the film thickness at dryout or at the beginning of the next cycle. In case

of dryout, end = min , which is the minimum possible film thickness before dryout

occurs.

To find the initial film thickness, Thome et al. (2004) used a prediction

method proposed by Moriyama and Inoue (1996), who experimentally measured

the thickness of a liquid film of R-113 formed by a bubble growing radially in a

gap between two parallel heated plates. For large superheat or bubble velocity,

the film formation was shown to be controlled by the viscous boundary layer,

while at low bubble speed or small gap between plates, the surface tension force

was dominant. Two different expressions were proposed for the film thickness

for each of these conditions. Thome et al. (2004) used these empirical

correlations and proposed the following asymptotic expression to calculate the

film thickness

f

= C 0 3

u p Dh f

Dh

0.84

1/8

(8.20)

The triplet (or feature pair, if dryout does not occur) period, , in Eq. (8.18) is

predicted empirically as a function of the process variables as follows

c Pr nq

= q

q

nf

(8.21)

liquid film thickness at dryout, min , the pair period, , and the correction factor in

the initial film thickness, C 0 . The pair period in turn contains three parameters

that need to be determined: cq , nq , and n f . In order to determine these five

parameters, Dupont et al. (2004) compared the three-zone model to 1591

138

experimental data points from the literature and performed a parametric study to

determine the optimum values of these parameters. An optimized set of values

for these parameters from least-squares fits were proposed as listed in Table 8.1.

In the present study, model proposed by Thome et al. (2004) is modified

by using a different approach in determining the initial film thickness that is more

relevant to microchannel flow boiling. Aussillous and Quere (2000) investigated

the thickness of the liquid film left behind when a drop moves inside a capillary

tube for wetting liquids with a range of liquid viscosities. They observed three

regimes: a visco-capillary regime where the film thickness only depends on

Capillary number, a visco-inertial regime where inertia has a thickening effect on

the film and the thickness depends on both Capillary number and Weber number,

and a viscous boundary layer regime where the film thickness is limited by the

viscous boundary layer.

For the visco-capillary regime, which occurs at very low Capillary

numbers, they proposed the following correlation for film thickness:

0 (z)

Dh

0.66Ca 2/3

=

1 + 3.33Ca 2/3

(8.22)

In the viscous boundary layer regime, the film thickness is obtained by balancing

inertia and viscosity which yields

0 ( z)

Dh

L

= f f

u

f

1/ 2

(8.23)

where L f is the liquid slug length and u is the film deposition velocity. In case of

small velocity, a viscous fluid, or a long drop where the boundary layer thickness

is larger than the thickness obtained from Eq.(8.22), capillary effects are

dominant. Otherwise, the boundary layer limits the fluid deposition and Eq.

(8.23) should be used to find the film thickness.

139

In the modified model proposed in current study, the smaller value of the

film thickness obtained from Eqs. (8.22) and (8.23) is used as the film thickness

at formation, with a correction factor that takes into account the difference in

channel shape and fluid properties:

0.66 D Ca 2/3 L

h

, f f

0 ( z ) = C 0 min

2/3

1 + 3.33Ca f u p

1/2

(8.24)

In calculating the viscous boundary layer, the liquid slug and elongated bubble

pair velocity is used for the deposition velocity with the same definition as in

Thome et al. (2004).

The minimum possible film thickness is assumed to be of the same order

of magnitude as the surface roughness since the film breaks up and a dry zone

appears as the film thins to the height of the surface roughness. Agostini et al.

(2008) used the actual surface roughness instead of the value of 0.3 m

proposed in Dupont et al. (2004) and obtained much better predictions. In the

current study, the actual surface roughness values for each test piece are used

for min ; these values are listed in Table 2.1.

The Thome et al. model with the original values recommended for the

adjustable parameters is compared to the slug flow data from the present work in

Figure 8.7(a). The original model is seen to generally underpredict the

experiments with an MAE of 41.2%, and only 35.9% of data are predicted to

within 30%.

In Figure 8.7(b), experimental data are compared to predictions from the

modified model proposed in this study, using Eq. (8.24) to find the liquid film

thickness. Similar to the comparison in Figure 8.7(a), the values proposed by

Thome et al. (2004) are again used for all five empirical parameters. This

comparison shows some improvement by using the modified model for film

140

thickness, with an MAE of 33.4%, and 56.4% of the data predicted to within

30%.

Next, the actual values of surface roughness are used for min , and the

values of the other four parameters C 0 , cq , nq , and n f are optimized in the

modified model to match the current experimental data, using the MATLAB

scripts in Appendix H. The optimized parameters are listed in Table 8.1. Figure

8.8 shows the comparison between the experimental data and the predictions

from this modified model with the optimized parameters. The predictions from

the modified model are found to be in good agreement with the slug flow

experimental data, with an MAE of 17.8% and 82.1% of the data predicted to

within 30%.

In Figure 8.9, the heat transfer coefficients for slug flow in microchannels

of dimensions 250 m 400 m and 400 m 400 m are plotted versus the

wall heat flux. Both the experimental data and the predictions from the modified

model with current optimized parameters are shown in this figure which illustrates

the capability of the model for prediction of the trends in the heat transfer

coefficient.

As discussed in section 7.2 and 7.3, although the empirical correlation of

Cooper (1984b) predicts the heat transfer data as well as do the flow regimebased models, the empirical correlations for pressure drop fail to predict

experimental values in microchannels. Flow regime-based modeling of the

pressure drop is discussed for confined and unconfined flow in this section,

corresponding to the heat transfer model developed above for annular flow.

Since several flow regimes co-exist along the microchannels at once, the

pressure drop of each region is calculated separately for each regime, as

discussed below.

141

8.3.1. Confined Flow

A possible arrangement of flow in each microchannel for confined flow

( Bo 0.5 Re < 160 ) is depicted in Figure 8.10. The single-phase length and the

length of the onset of annular flow can be determined from Eqs. (7.8) and (6.6),

respectively. The total pressure drop in the microchannel is the sum of the

pressure drop in the single-phase region, the slug region, and the annular region:

Pch = Psp + Ps + Pa

(8.25)

The single-phase pressure drop is calculated from Eq. (7.11). The pressure drop

over the annular region can be evaluated by integrating Eq. (8.9). The pressure

drop in the slug region cannot be readily calculated using the three-zone heat

transfer model discussed in section 8.2.4. Hence, the pressure drop in the slug

region is assumed to be similar in magnitude to the annular pressure drop, if

annular flow existed over the length of La 0 Lsp . In other words, assuming that

transition to annular flow occurs at Lsp , a grid is superposed over both the slug

and annular regions along the microchannel length and the numerical procedure

developed in section 8.2.2.1 is followed to calculate dP / dz from Eq. (8.9) at

each node. The two-phase pressure drop, Ps + Pa , is then calculated by

integrating the pressure gradient along the slug and annular flow regions. It

should be noted that Eq. (8.16) is used to determine the friction factor at the

interface.

For the unconfined flow ( Bo 0.5 Re > 160 ), the two-phase flow in the

microchannels consists of bubbly flow and annular/wispy-annular flow as

illustrated in Figure 8.10(b). The total pressure drop across the microchannel is

then:

Pch = Psp + Pb + Pa

(8.26)

142

For the annular/wispy-annular region, the pressure drop is calculated from Eq.

(8.9) along with Eq. (8.17), following the numerical procedure developed earlier

for annular flow. For the bubbly flow region, pressure drop is calculated using

the single-phase methodology as in Eq. (7.11), using the homogeneous density,

Regime-based pressure drop predictions along the microchannels as

discussed above are compared to the experimental values for pressure drop in

Figure 8.11(a). It can be concluded that the regime-based models predict the

experiments much better than the empirical correlations reviewed in section 7.3,

with an MAE of 37.7%. A closer examination reveals that the errors are much

larger for some of the confined annular flow data in the smallest microchannels

with Bo 0.5 Re < 72 . This may be due to the approximation made in the

calculation of pressure drop in the slug flow region. Excluding these data from

the comparison, as depicted in Figure 8.11(b), results in an improved MAE of

29.2%.

Although experimental pressure drop has been predicted in the literature

(Qu and Mudawar, 2003; Lee and Garimella, 2008) with an MAE as low as

11.4%, the empirical correlations used in these predictions were developed by

fitting curves to the specific experimental data considered in the studies and the

accuracy of prediction is limited to the range of operating conditions and fluids

considered. The regime-based models, on the other hand, are expected to

extrapolate to a wider range of parameters with better accuracy.

8.4. Conclusions

Although the pool boiling correlation of Cooper was shown to predict the

experimental heat transfer data well, none of the empirical correlations

143

developed specifically for flow boiling in microchannels were found to predict

experimental heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop to within a reasonable

error (Chapter 7). Hence, it is essential to develop physics-based models based

on the relevant flow regimes to predict both heat transfer coefficient and pressure

drop in microchannel flow boiling. Physics-based models are expected to be

applicable to a wider range of parameters, and not just to specific data sets.

In the current study, models are proposed or identified for prediction of

heat transfer coefficient in each of the four regions in the comprehensive flow

regime map developed in section 6.2.3. For the bubbly flow region, the empirical

correlation of Cooper (1984b), originally developed for pool boiling, is suggested

as it results in excellent agreement with the experiments (MAE of 13.9%). For

the other three regions, physics-based models are developed. For the annular

region, an analytical model is developed which predicts the heat transfer

coefficient in confined annular flow with an MAE of 16.4% and that in

annular/wispy-annular flow with an MAE of 24.8, while capturing correct trends

for heat transfer coefficient. For slug flow, the three-zone model of Thome et al.

(2004) is modified in terms of the prediction of liquid film thickness in the

elongated bubble. This modified model predicts the experiments with an MAE of

17.8% and is able to capture trends in variation of heat transfer coefficient with

heat flux.

Knowing the location along the microchannels at which the transitions to

bubbly, slug, and annular flow occur, the pressure drop in each region can be

calculated separately. The annular flow model developed in this work is used to

calculate the pressure drop across the length of the channel where confined

annular, annular, or wispy-annular flow exists. Pressure drop in the slug flow

region of the channel is estimated with the annular flow model, while pressure

drop in the bubbly flow region is calculated using the homogeneous model. It is

shown that the regime-based prediction of pressure drop results in much better

agreement with experiment than is possible with the empirical correlations.

144

To improve these regime-based models, it is necessary to determine the

bubble generation frequency and liquid film thickness in the slug region

analytically, and account for the vapor-liquid film interfacial phenomena in the

annular flow. Pressure drop predictions, using regime-based methods, are very

sensitive to the length of different flow regimes in the microchannels; hence,

regime maps capable of accurately determining the transition points should be

used.

145

Table 8.1. Proposed values for the empirical parameters in the three-zone model

for slug flow.

Empirical

parameters

Dupont et

al. (2004)

Current

study

min

0.3

N/A

C 0

0.29

1.31

cq

3328

1.18108

nq

-0.5

3.26

nf

1.74

1.64

146

10000

+30%

h pred (W/m2K)

8000

6000

-30%

4000

2000

MAE = 13.9%

86.5% of predictions within error of 30%

0

2000

4000

6000

2

8000

10000

h exp (W/m K)

with predictions from the Cooper correlation (1984b).

147

(a)

Vapor core

CV

Liquid film

CV

(b)

Figure 8.2. (a) Schematic representation of annular flow in microchannels, and

(b) simplified flow diagram with vapor core and liquid film control volumes.

148

8000

+30%

7000

h pred (W/m2K)

6000

5000

-30%

4000

3000

2000

MAE = 16.4%

1000

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

h exp (W/m K)

coefficients with predictions from the proposed model.

149

7000

4000

G = 1050 kg/m2s

w = 100 m

d = 400 m

G = 225 kg/m s

w = 100 m

d = 400 m

6000

5000

h (W/m2 K)

h (W/m2 K)

3000

2000

3000

2000

1000

hexp

hpred

MAE = 8.7%

0

4000

20

40

60

80

100

1000

120

hexp

hpred

MAE = 11.4%

0

50

100

150

200

250

q"w (kW/m2 )

q"w (kW/m2)

(a)

(b)

7000

G = 1420 kg/m2 s

w = 100 m

d = 400 m

6000

h (W/m2 K)

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

hexp

hpred

MAE = 4.1%

0

50

100

150

200

250

q"w (kW/m2)

(c)

Figure 8.4. Variation of heat transfer coefficient with wall heat flux for confined

annular flow. Experimental results and predictions from the proposed model are

included.

150

12000

+30%

h pred (W/m2K)

10000

8000

-30%

6000

4000

2000

MAE = 24.8%

71.9% of predictions within error of 30%

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

h exp (W/m K)

transfer coefficients with predictions from the proposed model.

151

7000

G = 630 kg/m2s

w = 400 m

d = 400 m

6000

h (W/m K)

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

hexp

hpred

MAE = 17.6%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

q"w (kW/m )

Figure 8.6. Variation of heat transfer coefficient with wall heat flux for

annular/wispy annular flow. Experimental results and predictions from the

proposed model are included.

152

5000

+30%

h pred (W/m K)

4000

3000

-30%

2000

1000

MAE = 41.2%

35.9% of predictions within error of 30%

0

1000

2000

3000

2

4000

5000

h exp (W/m K)

(a)

5000

+30%

h pred (W/m K)

4000

3000

-30%

2000

1000

MAE = 33.4%

56.4% of predictions within error of 30%

0

1000

2000

3000

2

4000

5000

h exp (W/m K)

(b)

Figure 8.7. Comparison of slug flow experimental heat transfer coefficients with

predictions from (a) original three-zone model (Thome et al., 2004),and (b)

modified three-zone model; both predictions use values proposed in (Dupont et

al., 2004) for the five empirical parameters.

153

5000

+30%

h pred (W/m2K)

4000

3000

-30%

2000

1000

MAE = 17.8%

82.1% of predictions within error of 30%

0

1000

2000

3000

2

4000

5000

h exp (W/m K)

Figure 8.8. Comparison of slug flow experimental heat transfer coefficients with

predictions from the modified three-zone model, using empirical parameters

optimized for the current data.

154

4

G = 225 kg/m2s

w = 250 m

d = 400 m

3.5

2.5

h (kW/m K)

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

hexp

hpred

MAE = 11.4%

0

20

40

60

80

100

q"w (kW/m )

(a)

4

G = 225 kg/m2s

w = 400 m

d = 400 m

3.5

2.5

h (kW/m K)

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

hexp

hpred

MAE = 7.7%

0

20

40

60

80

100

q"w (kW/m )

(b)

Figure 8.9. Variation of heat transfer coefficient with wall heat flux for slug flow:

comparison of experiments with predictions from the modified three-zone model,

using empirical parameters optimized for the current data.

155

Lsp

La0

(a)

Lsp

La0

(b)

Figure 8.10. Schematic representation of flow in microchannels for (a) confined

flow, and (b) unconfined flow.

156

60

+30%

50

Ppred (kPa)

40

-30%

30

20

10

MAE = 37.7%

46.7% of predictions within error of 30%

0

10

20

30

P exp (kPa)

40

50

60

(a)

60

+30%

50

P pred (kPa)

40

-30%

30

20

10

MAE = 29.2%

58.7% of predictions within error of 30%

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

P exp (kPa)

(b)

Figure 8.11. Comparison of experimental pressure drops with predictions from

the proposed model: (a) including all the experimental data, and (b) excluding

data for which Bo 0.5 Re < 72 .

157

In this chapter, the main conclusions of the present work are summarized

and recommendations for future work provided.

9.1. Conclusions

In the present study, boiling in microchannels is investigated with a

dielectric liquid, FC-77. Extensive experimental work has been conducted with

microchannel test pieces encompassing a wide range of channel dimensions and

over a broad range of operating conditions to systematically determine the

effects of important geometric and flow parameters on flow regimes, heat

transfer, and pressure drop associated with microscale flow boiling. Local heat

transfer measurements obtained with simultaneous, detailed flow visualizations

have led to a better understanding of boiling phenomena in microchannels and

the governing heat transfer mechanisms, and facilitated physics-based analyses

of local heat transfer and pressure drop. The extensive microscale boiling

experiments and analyses have resulted in a comprehensive understanding of

boiling, with some of the significant findings listed below:

wide range of channel dimensions and flow parameters, leading to a

good understanding of microscale flow regimes.

boiling is obtained; the cross-sectional area of the microchannels is

found to play a determining role in boiling mechanisms and heat

transfer.

158

depend not only on channel size and fluid properties, but also on the

flow rate. Based on the experimental results, a new transition criterion

is developed which predicts the conditions under which microscale

confinement effects are exhibited in flow boiling.

For conditions under which flow confinement does not occur, the heat

transfer and boiling curves are independent of, and pressure drop and

pumping power have only minor sensitivity to, channel size and flow

rate.

In confined flow, the heat transfer coefficient increases as the crosssectional area of the microchannels decreases. Thin liquid film

evaporation in confined boiling results in larger values of heat transfer

coefficients relative to unconfined flow where nucleate boiling is

dominant.

used for flow boiling are developed on mass flux-vapor quality and

liquid-vapor superficial velocity coordinates. It is shown that these types

of flow regime maps depend on microchannel size; the effects of

channel dimensions on flow transitions are discussed.

are developed for flow boiling of FC-77, along with quantitative regimetransition criteria, based on approximately 390 data points

encompassing a wide range of microchannel dimensions, mass fluxes,

and heat fluxes. These maps are presented in terms of four regions

slug, confined annular, bubbly, and alternating churn/annular/wispyannular flow. The comprehensive flow maps facilitate the development

of flow regime-based models for the prediction of boiling heat transfer

coefficients.

The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the current experiments are

compared to predictions from a number of empirical correlations in the

159

literature. The correlation of Cooper (1984b) for nucleate pool boiling

predicts the experimental heat transfer coefficients very well, especially

in the nucleate boiling region, with an average mean absolute

percentage error of 11.9%.

The experimental results for pressure drop are also compared with

predictions from empirical correlations in the literature. Large errors

obtained in these comparisons reveal the failure of these empirical

correlations in providing a suitable prediction of the experimental

results, mainly because the correlations were developed for specific

fluids and ranges of operating parameters that differ from those of the

current experimental data.

Although the pool boiling correlation of Cooper was shown to predict the

experimental heat transfer data well, none of the empirical correlations

developed specifically for flow boiling in microchannels were found to

predict experimental heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop to

within a reasonable error. Hence, it is essential to develop physicsbased models based on the relevant flow regimes to predict both heat

transfer coefficient and pressure drop in microchannel flow boiling.

coefficient in each of the four regions in the comprehensive flow regime

maps. For the bubbly flow region, the empirical correlation of Cooper

(1984b), originally developed for pool boiling, is suggested as it results

in excellent agreement with the experiments (MAE of 13.9%).

the heat transfer coefficient in confined annular flow with an MAE of

16.4% and that in annular/wispy-annular flow with an MAE of 24.8%,

while capturing correct trends for heat transfer coefficient. For slug flow,

the three-zone model of Thome et al. (2004) is modified in terms of the

prediction of liquid film thickness in the elongated bubble. This modified

160

model predicts the experiments with an MAE of 17.8% and is able to

capture trends in variation of heat transfer coefficient with heat flux.

bubbly, slug, and annular flow occur from the developed flow regime

map, the pressure drop in each region can be calculated separately.

The annular flow model developed in this work is used to calculate the

pressure drop across the length of the channel where confined annular,

annular, or wispy-annular flow exists. Pressure drop in the slug flow

region of the channel is estimated with the annular flow model, while

pressure drop in the bubbly flow region is calculated using the

homogeneous model. It is shown that the regime-based prediction of

pressure drop results in much better agreement with experiment than is

possible with the empirical correlations.

Recent experimental investigations and analyses in the authors group

(Chen and Garimella, 2006a; Chen and Garimella, 2006c; Liu and Garimella,

2007; Lee and Garimella, 2008; Bertsch et al., 2008b; Bertsch et al., 2009; Jones

et al., 2009) including the present work have led to a more comprehensive

understanding of the physical mechanisms and parameter dependencies in

microchannel flow boiling for several liquids, and have facilitated development of

predictive methods for flow boiling heat transfer over a wide parameter space.

The effects of important geometric parameters, operating conditions, and fluid

properties on the flow regimes and thermal performance of microchannels have

been determined through extensive experimental work. In this section, some

suggestions for the future work are presented based on the work done in the

current study.

While the convective confinement number criterion for microscale effects

and the comprehensive flow regime map developed in the current work have

161

been demonstrated to be very promising tools for predicting the flow regimes and

their transitions in microchannel boiling, only limited studies are available for

comparison, as both visualized flow boiling patterns in microchannels as well as

heat flux data are necessary for such comparisons. As more well-characterized

data become available, it will be possible to further generalize this confinement

criterion and to expand the applicability of the comprehensive flow regime map to

other fluids.

In the present study, the three-zone model of Thome et al. (2004) for slug

flow is modified for prediction of heat transfer coefficient in the slug region. In

this model, the initial liquid film thickness at the formation of the elongated

bubble, the minimum liquid film thickness at dryout, and the bubble frequency

need to be determined; however, these parameters are obtained empirically

without a fundamental analysis. For the initial film thickness surrounding the

elongated bubble, Thome et al. (2004) used an empirical relation developed by

Moriyama and Inoue (1996) for thickness of a liquid film formed by a bubble

growing radially in a gap between two parallel heated plates. In the current

modified model, a different method for prediction of the initial liquid film thickness,

originally developed for the film thickness in capillary tubes by Aussillous and

Quere (2000), is used which is more relevant to microchannel flow boiling; the

modified model shows some improvement comparing to the original model.

However, in order to improve the analytical models for heat transfer, a careful

experimental and analytical study is necessary to develop methods for prediction

of the liquid film thickness surrounding an elongated bubble in microchannels for

a wide range of operating conditions and fluid properties.

Although expressions are available to determine the bubble nucleation

frequency in macrochannels, methods are not available in the literature to

determine the bubble departure frequency in microchannels. To improve the

regime-based models for heat transfer in the slug regime, it is necessary to

determine the bubble generation frequency in the slug region analytically.

Bubble departure frequency is complicated by the nucleation process; hence,

162

detailed experimental investigation needs to be conducted to develop a better

understanding of the nucleation process and propose predictive models for

bubble departure frequency.

In the current study, a simplified analytical model is developed to predict

heat transfer and pressure drop in the annular flow regime. To improve this

model, the vapor-liquid film interfacial phenomena in the annular flow should be

investigated carefully and taken into account in the model. The current study has

also shown that the model results in better accuracy without considering the

liquid droplet deposition even in the wispy-annular region in which flow

visualizations reveal the presence of entrained droplet in the vapor core. The

criteria under which droplet deposition to the liquid film occurs have not been

studied for microchannels and needs to be further investigated.

Flow visualizations of the current study reveal that annular or wispyannular flow are not always steady and often alternate with churn flow. In the

annular model developed in the current study, it is assumed that the effect of film

evaporation in the annular/wispy-annular flow is more dominant than the nucleate

boiling heat transfer in the churn flow in determining the heat transfer coefficient.

To examine the effects of churn flow on heat transfer and possibly improve the

model in the alternating churn/annular flow, a superposition approach for the heat

transfer mechanisms in the annular and churn flow regimes should be

developed. Due to complexity of the heat transfer mechanisms in churn flow, a

nucleate boiling model such as correlation of Cooper (1984b) may be used as an

approximation to estimate the heat transfer.

A regime-based approach has been presented here to predict pressure

drop in microchannel flow boiling. Once the location along the microchannels at

which the transitions to different flow regimes occur is determined from the

developed flow maps, the pressure drop in each region can be calculated

separately. The annular flow model developed in this work is used to calculate

the pressure drop across the length of the channel where confined annular,

annular, or wispy-annular flow exists; however, pressure drop in the slug flow

163

region of the channel is estimated with the annular flow model, while pressure

drop in the bubbly flow region is calculated using the homogeneous model. To

improve the pressure drop predictions, models need to be developed for

pressure drop predictions in the slug and bubbly flow regimes.

Void fraction is one of the key parameters that characterize flow regimes;

hence, the measurement of void fraction and its temporal and spatial variation is

of great importance in experimental investigations. It is important to develop void

fraction measurement techniques for microchannels to aid in the development

and improvement of theoretical models.

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APPENDICES

175

Appendix A. Test Chip Calibration

The calibration results for the resistor heating elements and diode

temperature sensors are presented in this appendix for the 400 m 400 m

microchannel heat sink. Pictures of the test piece assembly and the convection

oven are provided in Figure A.1 and Figure A.2, respectively.

The calibration results for the 25 resistors fabricated on the back side of

the chip are depicted in Figure A.3. In this figure, symbols show the measured

data points and the curves represent quadratic polynomial curves fit to the

measured values. For instance, the R-T relation for the heating element 3

(Figure 2.3) is R = 0.0003 T 2 + 0.0148 T + 34.55 .

The voltage drop measurements across the 25 temperature sensing

diodes are shown in Figure A.4 along with linear curves fit to the measured

values. The V-T relation for diode 3 in Figure 2.3 is V = .0105 T + 3.509 .

176

177

178

55

50

R ()

45

40

35

30

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

T (C)

fabricated on the back side of the 400 m 400 m microchannel heat sink.

179

3.2

V (Volt)

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.2

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

T (C)

Figure A.4. Calibration of the voltage drop across the 25 diode temperature

sensors fabricated on the back side of the 400 m 400 m microchannel heat

sink.

180

Appendix B. Degassing Procedures

At standard pressure and temperature conditions, FC-77 contains 41% of

air by volume (3M 1999), which is equivalent to an air concentration of 283 parts

per million. A custom-built degassing scheme, designed by Tailian Chen (Chen

and Garimella, 2006b), is used in order to fully degas the liquid. Figure B.1

shows an expandable reservoir and a constraint mechanism used to facilitate the

degassing of the liquid. After testing the reservoir to be leak-free, it is filled with

the working fluid, FC-77. Degassing is performed by repeatedly evacuating the

reservoir of air from the top, while the container is expanded, using a vacuum

pump. A period of 10 minutes is allowed between evacuations for air to diffuse

from the liquid to the open volume in the container. When the pressure in the

reservoir remains at its maximum vacuum level and is unchanged with time, the

fluid is considered to be fully degassed. The constraint mechanism on the

reservoir is then adjusted to allow the bellows to contract such that the pressure

in the reservoir is maintained at atmospheric pressure.

An additional degassing port is also provided in the test loop (Figure 2.1)

to facilitate the evacuation of air form the flow loop prior to charging it with the

coolant.

181

(a)

(b)

Figure B.1. (a) Photograph and (b) schematic of the expandable reservoir used

to degas the fluid (Chen and Garimella, 2006b).

182

Appendix C. Heat Loss Measurements

To determine the heat loss in the microchannel test section, before the

test section is charged with liquid, a constant voltage is applied to the heaters.

When the readings of the diode temperature sensors reach a steady state, the

temperature of each sensor is recorded and correlated to the heat dissipated

from the corresponding heater at that location. This procedure is repeated for

several levels of input power and a linear relation in the form of qloss = c1Td + c2 is

obtained, where c1 and c 2 are constants and are slightly different at each

location and for different test pieces. The heat loss measurements for the 400

m 400 m microchannel test chip are presented in Figure C.1.

183

0.5

0.4

q loss (W)

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

20

40

60

80

T d (C)

100

120

140

the back side of the 400 m 400 m microchannel heat sink.

184

Appendix D. Measurement Uncertainties and Experiment Repeatability

Figure D.1 shows the heat transfer coefficients for five microchannel sizes

for a mass flux of 630 kg/m2s, including the uncertainties in the measurement of

heat transfer coefficient. As discussed in section 4.3.1, heat transfer coefficient

is independent of channel size for microchannels with a cross-sectional area

larger than 0.089 mm2 (shown for 1000 m 400 m microchannels in Figure

D.1), and increases with decreasing the channel cross-sectional area for smaller

microchannels. Figure D.2 depicts the effect of mass flux on heat transfer

coefficient for the 1000 m 400 m microchannels, including the error bars.

This figure shows that heat transfer coefficient is independent of mass flux as

discussed in 5.3.1.

To ensure repeatability of the experiments, all the measurements are

repeated twice or more, and the results are compared. Figure D.3 to Figure D.6

present the boiling curves in the 250 m 400 m microchannels. In each of

these figures, results of two repeated tests are included for a fixed mass flux. It

can be seen that repeating the experiments under the same operating conditions

leads to very similar results.

185

9

8

G = 630 kg/m s

h (kW/m2 K)

7

6

5

4

3

1000 x 400

400 x 220

100 x 400

400 x 100

100 x 100

2

1

0

50

100

150

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

250

300

Figure D.1. Measurement uncertainties in the heat transfer coefficient for five

microchannel sizes, G = 630 kg/m2s.

186

10

9

1000 m x 400 m

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

225 kg/m2 s

630 kg/m2 s

3

2

1050 kg/m2s

1420 kg/m2s

1

0

50

100

q"w (kW/m2)

300

350

Figure D.2. Measurement uncertainties in the heat transfer coefficient for four

mass fluxes in the 1000 m 400 m microchannels.

187

400

350

q"w (kW/m2)

300

250

Test 1

Test 2

250 m x 400 m

G = 225 kg/m2s

200

150

100

50

0

80

100

120

T w (C)

140

160

Figure D.3. Boiling curves from two separate tests, G = 225 kg/m2s, 250 m

400 m microchannels.

188

400

350

q"w (kW/m2)

300

250

Test 1

Test 2

250 m x 400 m

G = 630 kg/m2s

200

150

100

50

0

80

100

120

T w (C)

140

160

Figure D.4. Boiling curves from two separate tests, G = 630 kg/m2s, 250 m

400 m microchannels.

189

400

350

q"w (kW/m2)

300

250

Test 1

Test 2

250 m x 400 m

G = 1050 kg/m2s

200

150

100

50

0

80

100

120

T w (C)

140

160

Figure D.5. Boiling curves from two separate tests, G = 1050 kg/m2s, 250 m

400 m microchannels.

190

400

350

q"w (kW/m2)

300

250

Test 1

Test 2

250 m x 400 m

G = 1420 kg/m2s

200

150

100

50

0

80

100

120

T w (C)

140

160

Figure D.6. Boiling curves from two separate tests, G = 1420 kg/m2s, 250 m

400 m microchannels.

191

Appendix E. Effect of Channel Size on Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop

The effects of channel size on heat transfer coefficient, boiling curve, and

pressure drop have been discussed in Chapter 4 for a fixed mass flux of 630

kg/m2s. In this appendix, results for mass fluxes of 225, 1050, and 1420 are

presented for a fixed channel depth of 400 m.

192

300

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

200

q"w (kW/m )

250

150

G = 225 kg/m s

100

50

0

10

20

30

T w-Tref (C)

40

50

kg/m2s.

193

300

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

200

q"w (kW/m )

250

150

G = 630 kg/m s

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

kg/m2s.

194

400

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

350

q"w (kW/m )

300

250

200

G = 1050 kg/m s

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

1050 kg/m2s.

195

400

100 m

250 m

400 m

350

q"w (kW/m )

300

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

250

200

G = 1420 kg/m s

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

1420 kg/m2s.

196

6

2

G = 225 kg/m s

h (kW/m2K)

5

4

3

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

2

1

0

50

100

150

2

q"w (kW/m )

200

250

400 m, G = 225 kg/m2s.

197

9

2

G = 630 kg/m s

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

4

3

2

1

0

50

100

150

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

250

300

400 m, G = 630 kg/m2s.

198

11

10

G = 1050 kg/m s

h (kW/m2K)

8

7

6

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

5

4

3

2

1

0

100

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

400

400 m, G = 1050 kg/m2s.

199

10

9

G = 1420 kg/m s

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

100 m

250 m

400 m

4

3

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

2

1

0

100

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

400

400 m, G = 1420 kg/m2s.

200

14

2

G = 225 kg/m s

12

p (kPa)

10

8

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

6

4

2

0

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

150

200

kg/m2s.

201

30

2

G = 630 kg/m s

25

p (kPa)

20

15

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

10

5

0

50

100

150

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

250

300

630 kg/m2s.

202

35

30

G = 1050 kg/m2s

p (kPa)

25

20

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

5850 m

15

10

5

0

100

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

400

1050 kg/m2s.

203

40

2

G = 1420 kg/m s

35

p (kPa)

30

100 m

250 m

400 m

700 m

1000 m

2200 m

25

20

15

10

5

0

100

200

300

2

q"w (kW/m )

400

1420 kg/m2s.

204

Appendix F. Effect of Mass Flux on Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop

The effects of mass flux on heat transfer coefficient, boiling curve, and

pressure drop have been discussed in Chapter 5 for microchannels with crosssections of 400 m 400 m and 2200 m 400 m. In this appendix, results

for other microchannel test pieces are shown.

205

300

250

200

1420 kg/m s

q"w (kW/m )

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

w = 100 m

150

100

50

0

10

20

30

T w-Tref (C)

40

50

206

350

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

300

1420 kg/m s

q"w (kW/m )

250

200

w = 250 m

150

100

50

0

10

20

30

T w-Tref (C)

40

50

207

350

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

300

1420 kg/m s

q"w (kW/m )

250

200

w = 400 m

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

208

400

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

350

300

2

q"w (kW/m )

1420 kg/m s

250

w = 700 m

200

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

209

400

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

350

300

2

q"w (kW/m )

1420 kg/m s

250

w = 1000 m

200

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

210

400

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

350

300

2

q"w (kW/m )

1420 kg/m s

250

w = 2200 m

200

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

211

400

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

350

q"w (kW/m )

300

250

w = 5850 m

200

150

100

50

0

10

20

T w-Tref (C)

30

40

212

9

w = 100 m

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

3

2

1

0

1420 kg/m s

0

50

100

150

2

q"w (kW/m )

200

250

Figure F.8. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 100 m 400

m.

213

10

9

w = 250 m

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

1420 kg/m s

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

Figure F.9. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 250 m 400

m.

214

10

9

w = 400 m

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

1420 kg/m s

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

Figure F.10. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 400 m 400

m.

215

10

9

w = 700 m

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

1420 kg/m s

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

Figure F.11. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 700 m 400

m.

216

10

9

w = 1000 m

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

1420 kg/m s

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

Figure F.12. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 1000 m 400

m.

217

10

9

w = 2200 m

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

1420 kg/m s

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

Figure F.13. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 2200 m 400

m.

218

10

9

w = 5850 m

8

h (kW/m2K)

7

6

5

4

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

3

2

1

0

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

Figure F.14. Effect of mass flux on local heat transfer coefficient, 5850 m 400

m.

219

40

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

2

1050 kg/m s

2

1420 kg/m s

p (kPa)

30

w = 100 m

20

10

50

100

150

2

q"w (kW/m )

200

250

220

25

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

20

p (kPa)

1420 kg/m s

15

w = 250 m

10

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

221

12

2

1420 kg/m s

p (kPa)

10

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

2

w = 400 m

6

4

2

0

50

100

150

200

2

q"w (kW/m )

250

300

222

10

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

p (kPa)

1420 kg/m s

6

w = 700 m

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

223

10

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

p (kPa)

1420 kg/m s

6

w = 1000 m

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

224

10

2

225 kg/m s

2

630 kg/m s

1050 kg/m2s

p (kPa)

w = 5850 m

50

100

2

q"w (kW/m )

300

350

225

Appendix G. MATLAB Script for Heat Transfer Calculations in Annular Flow

As discussed in section 8.2.2.1, to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in

the annular regime using the analytical model proposed in the current study, a

numerical procedure should be followed. The following MATLAB script

calculates the local heat transfer coefficient in the confined annular region with

no droplet entrainment as discussed in section 8.2.2.2.

%---------------------------------------------------------------------%Annular.m

%script by Tannaz Harirchian, Purdue University, Apr. 2010

%for PhD work under Dr. Garimella

%

%caculating the heat transfer coefficient using the

%model developed for confined annular regime in Chapter 8

%

clear

fluidproperties

%reading fluid properties

data

%reading experimental data

GG=GqxhP(:,1);

%mass flux

qq=GqxhP(:,2)*1000;

%heat flux, W/m2

xx_exp=GqxhP(:,3);

%exit vapor quality

hh_exp=GqxhP(:,4)*1000; %experimental heat transfer coefficient, W/m2k

PP_sat=GqxhP(:,5)*1000; %saturation pressure, Pa

TT_in=GqxhP(:,6);

%inlet temperature

TT_sat=GqxhP(:,7);

%saturation temperature

nrow=nNwd(:,1);

N=nNwd(:,2);

w=nNwd(:,3);

d=nNwd(:,4);

L_ch=0.012667;

%chip length, channel length, also chip width

s=0;

n=0;

m=length(nrow);

%# of cases

within30=0;

for i=1:7

%loop over different cases

s=sum(nrow(1:i-1));

n=sum(nrow(1:i));

%# of data for each case

wch=w(i)*1e-6;

%channel width; m

dch=d(i)*1e-6;

%channel depth; m

Nch=N(i);

%# of channels

%Geometry calculations

A_cs=wch*dch;

P_h=wch+2*dch;

%heated perimeter of one channel

P_ch=2*wch+2*dch;

%total perimeter of channel

D_h=sqrt(A_cs);

R=D_h/2;

zzz=0;

for z=s+1:n

%loop over data in each case

width(z)=wch;

226

depth(z)=dch;

G=GG(z);

q=qq(z);

x_exit=xx_exp(z);

h_exp=hh_exp(z);

P_sat=PP_sat(z);

T_in=TT_in(z);

T_sat=TT_sat(z);

Re=G*D_h/mu_l;

Bo=g*(rho_l-rho_v)*D_h^2/sigmal; %Bond number

Bl=q/(G*h_fg);

%Boiling number

C1=.00004*(Re^2*Bo);

%correction factor in f_i

%STEP 1

L_sp(z)=G*A_cs*C_p_l*(T_sat-T_in)/(q*P_h); %onset of boiling

%location of onset of annular flow; from flow regime map

L_a0(z)= 96.65*(A_cs/P_h)*(rho_v/(rho_l-rho_v))*Bl^(-1)*

(Re*sqrt(Bo))^(-0.26);

%quality at onset of annular regime

x_a0(z)=(L_a0(z)-L_sp(z))*x_exit/(L_ch-L_sp(z));

L_a=L_ch-L_a0(z); %length of channel under annular regime

h_dry=0;

L_dry=0;

if (L_a>0)

%STEP 2

L=.01143; %distance from channel inlet at which

%experimental data are obtained

x0=(L-L_sp(z))*x_exit/(L_ch-L_sp(z));

m_dot=G*A_cs;

%total mass flow rate through one channel

m_Ff=m_dot*(1-x0);

%liquid film flow rate

m_g=m_dot*x0;

%vapor flow rate

delta_init=1e-6;

%initial guess for delta

d_delta=1e-8;

delta=delta_init;

zzz=zzz+1;

balance=false;

zz=0;

while ~balance

%STEP 3

delta=delta+d_delta; %increasing delta

zz=zz+1;

gama_fg=q*P_h/h_fg; %evaporation rate per unit length

%STEP 4

P_c=2*((wch-2*delta)+(dch-2*delta));

rho_H=rho_v;

A_c=(wch-2*delta)*(dch-2*delta);

alpha=A_c/A_cs;

u_c=G*x0/(rho_v*alpha);

u_Ff=G*(1-x0)/(rho_l*(1-alpha));

u_i=2*u_Ff;

beta_c=(wch-2*delta)/(dch-2*delta);

d_hc=4*A_c/P_c;

Re_c=rho_H*(u_c-u_i)*d_hc/mu_v;

%interfacial friction factor

f_i=.005*(1+300*delta/D_h)*C1;

227

%interfacial shear stress

Tau_i=f_i*(0.5*rho_H*(u_c-u_i)^2)(gama_fg/(2*P_c))*(u_c-u_i);

dxdz=4*q/(G*D_h*h_fg);

%STEP 5

dpdz=-Tau_i*P_c/A_c+gama_fg*u_i/A_c;

%mass conservation in Eq. (8.14)

m_Ff_n=((P_ch*rho_l*delta^3)/(3*mu_l))*(-dpdz+3*Tau_i/

(2*delta)-3*gama_fg*u_i/(2*delta*P_ch));%[M]

%STEP 6: balancing m_Ff_n with m_Ff

RHS(zz)=m_Ff_n;

LHS(zz)=m_Ff;

error1(zz)=LHS(zz)-RHS(zz);

sign1(zz)=sign(real(error1(zz)));

if (zz~=1)&&(sign1(zz)~=sign1(zz-1))&&(1e-6<delta)

balance=true;

%break out of while loop

deltabalance=delta;

end

if (delta>200e-6)

balance=true;

%break out of while loop

deltabalance=0.;

end

end

%calculating heat transfer coefficient

if deltabalance~=0

h_z(z)=lambda_l/delta; %conduction through liquid film

else

%vapor convection in the case of dryout

L_dry=L_a;

Re_v=G*D_h/mu_v;

Pr_v=C_p_v*mu_v/lambda_v;

Nus_lam_v=0.455*Pr_v^(1/3)*sqrt((D_h*Re_v)/L_dry);

xi_v= (1.82*log10(Re_v)-1.64)^(-2);

Nus_trans_v=(xi_v/8*(Re_v-1000)*Pr_v)/(1+12.7*

sqrt(xi_v/8)*(Pr_v^(2/3)-1))*(1+(1/3)*(D_h/L_dry)^(2/3));

h_z(z)=(lambda_v/D_h)*(Nus_lam_v^4+Nus_trans_v^4)^0.25;

'dried';

end

error_h(z)=abs(h_exp-h_z(z))/h_exp*100;

if (error_h(z) <= 30)

within30=within30+1; %# of data points within 30%

end

end

%check if entrainemt occurs:

%min liquid film G for onset of entrainment (Carey 1992)

G_Ff0=(mu_l/D_h)*exp(5.8504+.429*(mu_v/mu_l)*sqrt(rho_l/rho_v));

G_Ff=m_Ff/(A_cs-A_c);

if G_Ff>G_Ff0

ent(z)=1;

else

ent(z)=0;

end

end

228

end

MAE_h=mean(error_h); %mean average error

within30=within30/n*100; %percentage of data within 30%

%----------------------------------------------------------------------

229

Appendix H. MATLAB Script for Heat Transfer Calculations in Slug Flow

The following MATLAB script calculates the heat transfer coefficient in the

slug region, using the modified model of Thome et al. (2004) developed in

section 8.2.4.1. Four empirical parameters of C 0 , cq , nq , and n f are optimized

with the least-square error method, using the nlinfit tool in MATLAB.

%---------------------------------------------------------------------%nonlinfit.m

%script by Tannaz Harirchian, Purdue University, Apr. 2010

%for PhD work under Dr. Garimella

%

%using MATLAB tool nlinfit to estimate the coefficients of

%a nonlinear regression function using least squares

%

clear

%reading experimental data

data

G=GqxhP(:,1);

%mass flux

q=GqxhP(:,2);

%heat flux

x_exp=GqxhP(:,3);

%exit vapor quality

h_exp=GqxhP(:,4);

%experimental heat transfer coefficient

P_sat=GqxhP(:,5);

%saturation pressure

X=[G,q,x_exp,P_sat];

%matrix of independent variables

y=h_exp;

%vector of dependent variable

c0=[1,1.74,3.3,1e8];

%coefficient vector; initial values

options=statset('MaxIter',400);

c = nlinfit(X,y,@htcoef,c0,options);

%---------------------------------------------------------------------%---------------------------------------------------------------------%htcoef.m

%Script for calculating the heat transfer coefficient using the

% modified model of Thome et al. (2004) developed in Chapter 8

%

function yhat=htcoef(c,X)

C_delta_o=c(1);

eta_f=c(2);

n_q=c(3);

alpha_q=c(4);

fluidproperties

%reading fluid properties

data

%reading experimental data

G=GqxhP(:,1);

q=GqxhP(:,2)*1000;

x_exp=GqxhP(:,3);

h_exp=GqxhP(:,4)*1000;

P_sat=GqxhP(:,5)*1000;

nrow=nNwd(:,1);

N=nNwd(:,2);

% # of data in each case

230

w=nNwd(:,3);

d=nNwd(:,4);

roughness=nNwd(:,5); %using max roughness for delta_min

%calculations:

s=0;

n=0;

m=length(nrow);

%# of cases; each case comprises of data points for

%one microchannel test piece and a fixed mass flux

mm=sum(nrow);

%total # of data points

h_z=zeros(mm,1);

error_h=zeros(mm,1);

f=zeros(mm,1);

within30=0;

for i=1:m

%loop over different cases

n=nrow(i)+s;

wch=w(i)*1e-6; %channel width; m

dch=d(i)*1e-6; %channel depth; m

Nch=N(i);

%# of channels

delta_min=roughness(i); %using max roughness for delta_min

%Geometry calculations

A_cs=wch*dch;

D_h=sqrt(A_cs);

R=D_h/2;

for z=s+1:n

%loop over data in each case

%delta_o calculation

q_ref=alpha_q*(P_sat(z)/P_crit)^n_q;

f_opt=(q(z)/q_ref)^eta_f;

tau=1/f_opt;

G_tot=G(z)+(4/3)*R*(rho_v/tau);

U_p=G_tot*(x_exp(z)/rho_v+(1-x_exp(z))/rho_l);

L_p=U_p*tau;

L_v=(tau*G_tot)/rho_v*x_exp(z);

L_l=(tau*G_tot)/rho_l*(1-x_exp(z));

Bo=(rho_l*D_h)/sigmal*U_p^2;

Ca=mu_l*U_p/sigmal;

%calculating liquid film thickness

delta_T=D_h*(0.66*Ca^(2/3))/(1+3.33*Ca^(2/3));

delta_BL=sqrt((nu_l*L_l)/U_p); %boundary layer thickness

delta_small=min(delta_T,delta_BL);

delta_o_z=C_delta_o*delta_small;

t_v=tau/(1+(rho_v/rho_l)*((1-x_exp(z))/x_exp(z)));

t_l=tau/(1+(rho_l/rho_v)*(x_exp(z)/(1-x_exp(z))));

t_dryfilm=(rho_l*h_fg)/q(z)*(delta_o_z-delta_min);

if (t_dryfilm < 0.)

t_dryfilm=0;

end

if (t_dryfilm > t_v)

delta_end=delta_o_z-(q(z)/(rho_l*h_fg))*t_v;

t_film=t_v;

t_dry=0;

L_dry=0;

else

delta_end=delta_min;

t_film=t_dryfilm;

t_dry=t_v-t_film;

231

L_dry=U_p*t_dry;

end

%calculating h for liquid slug

Re_l=rho_l*U_p*D_h/mu_l;

Pr_l=C_p_l*mu_l/lambda_l;

Nus_lam_l=0.455*Pr_l^(1/3)*sqrt((D_h*Re_l)/L_l);

xi_l= (1.82*log10(Re_l)-1.64)^(-2);

Nus_trans_l=(xi_l/8*(Re_l-1000)*Pr_l)/(1+12.7*sqrt(xi_l/8)*

(Pr_l^(2/3)-1))*(1+1/3*(D_h/L_l)^(2/3));

h_l=(lambda_l/D_h)*(Nus_lam_l^4+Nus_trans_l^4)^0.25;

%calculating h for vapor slug

if (t_dryfilm < t_v)

Re_v=rho_v*U_p*D_h/mu_v;

Pr_v=C_p_v*mu_v/lambda_v;

Nus_lam_v=0.455*Pr_v^(1/3)*sqrt((D_h*Re_v)/L_dry);

xi_v= (1.82*log10(Re_v)-1.64)^(-2);

Nus_trans_v=(xi_v/8*(Re_v-1000)*Pr_v)/(1+12.7*sqrt(xi_v/8)*

(Pr_v^(2/3)-1))*(1+1/3*(D_h/L_dry)^(2/3));

h_v=(lambda_v/D_h)*(Nus_lam_v^4+Nus_trans_v^4)^0.25;

else

h_v=0;

end

%calculating h for annulus

h_film=2*lambda_l/(delta_o_z+delta_min);

%calculating local time-averaged h of a triplet passing z

h_z(z)=(t_l/tau)*h_l+(t_film/tau)*h_film+(t_dry/tau)*h_v;

(t_l/tau)*h_l;

(t_film/tau)*h_film;

(t_dry/tau)*h_v;

error_h(z)=abs(h_exp(z)-h_z(z))/h_exp(z)*100;

if (error_h(z) <= 30)

within30=within30+1; %# of data points within 30%

end

end

s=n;

end

yhat=h_z/1000;

MAE_h=mean(error_h); %mean average error

within30=within30/mm*100; %percentage of data within 30%

%----------------------------------------------------------------------

VITA

232

VITA

Tannaz Harirchian was born in Tehran, Iran. She obtained her BS degree

in mechanical engineering in the area of thermal fluid sciences from the

University of Tehran in 2003. During the last two years of her studies, she

worked part-time in a pharmaceutical machinery designing company where she

continued working for 18 months after her graduation. Tannaz attended

Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville and obtained her MS degree in

mechanical engineering in 2006. Her MS thesis was focused on heat transfer

enhancement using electrohydrodynamic technique. She then joined the PhD

program in mechanical engineering at Purdue University. She has been a

research assistant in the NSF Cooling Technologies Research Center,

performing experimental and analytical work on two phase flow and heat transfer

in microchannel heat sinks for cooling of power electronics. She received the

EPPD Student Member of the Year Award from the Electronic and Photonic

Packaging Division of the ASME in 2009 as well as the 2009 Harvey Rosten

Award for Excellence in the physical design of electronics.

PUBLICATIONS

233

PUBLICATIONS

Components. Bar-Cohen, A. (Editor), The Encyclopedia of Electronic Packaging.

World Scientific, in preparation.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., Phenomenological Modeling of Heat

Transfer and Pressure drop for Boiling in Microchannels, International Journal of

Multiphase Flow, in preparation.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., Boiling Heat Transfer and Flow Regimes in

Microchannels a Comprehensive Understanding, Journal of Electronic

Packaging, accepted for publication.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2010, A Comprehensive Flow Regime Map

for Microchannel Flow Boiling with Quantitative Transition Criteria, International

Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53, pp. 2694-2702.

Garimella, S. V. and Harirchian, T., 2009, Boiling Heat Transfer and Flow

Regimes in Microchannels a Comprehensive Understanding, Keynote lecture

at Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems, THERMINIC 2009, October 7-9,

Leuven, Belgium.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2009, Effects of Channel Dimension, Heat

Flux, and Mass Flux on Flow Boiling Regimes in Microchannels, International

Journal of Multiphase Flow, 35, pp. 349-362.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2009, The Critical Role of Channel CrossSectional Area in Microchannel Flow Boiling Heat Transfer, International Journal

of Multiphase Flow, 35, pp. 904-913.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2009. A Systematic Investigation of the

Effects of Channel Width, Depth, and Aspect Ratio on Boiling in Microchannels,

ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, July 19-23, San Francisco, CA.

234

Holcomb, B. T., Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2009, An Experimental

Investigation of Microchannel Size Effects on Flow Boiling with De-Ionized

Water, ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, July 19-23, San Francisco,

CA.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2008, Microchannel Size Effects on Local

Flow Boiling Heat Transfer to a Dielectric Fluid, International Journal of Heat and

Mass Transfer, 51, pp. 3724-3735.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2008, Flow Patterns during Convective

Boiling in Microchannels, Journal of Heat Transfer, 130 (8), 080909-1.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2008, An Investigation of Flow Boiling

Regimes in Microchannels of Different Sizes by Means of High-Speed

Visualization, 11th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and

Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, I-THERM, pp. 197-206.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2008, Flow Boiling in Silicon Microchannel

Heat Sinks, Proceedings of the Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal

Measurement and Management Symposium, SEMI-THERM, pp. 1-8.

Harirchian, T. and Garimella, S. V., 2007, Microchannel Size Effects on TwoPhase Local Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Silicon Microchannel Heat

Sinks with a Dielectric Fluid, Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical

Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2007, 11, pp. 437-446.

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