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You are on page 1of 23

Walter Elson

And Webster

HW#1

Problems 1.3, 1.4, 1.9,

and 2.1

Due- a week from now!

concepts

Scientific method- a hypothesis is tested by

experiment to determine its validity.

Problem

statement

Review

prior work

State

hypothesis

Perform

experiments

Design further

experiments

More

experiments

necessary

Analyze

data

Final

conclusions

Problem

solved

9/16/2015

concepts

The physician obtains the history, examines

the patient, performs tests to determine the

diagnosis and prescribes treatment.

Chief

complaint

Obtain

history

List the

differential

diagnosis

Examination

and tests

Treatment

and

evaluation

Select further

tests

Use data

to narrow the

diagnosis

Final

diagnosis

More than

one likely

Only one

likely

the variable, has signal processing and display, and may

provide feedback.

Outputs

Measurand

Sensor

Signal

conditioning

Feedback

Effector

Signal

processing

Data

storage

Data

displays

Data

communication

9/16/2015

Measurement

Range

Frequency, Hz

Method

Blood flow

1 to 300 mL/s

0 to 20

Electromagnetic or

ultrasonic

Blood pressure

0 to 400 mmHg

0 to 50

Cardiac output

4 to 25 L/min

0 to 20

Electrocardiography

0.5 to 4 mV

0.05 to 150

Skin electrodes

Electroencephalography

5 to 300 V

0.5 to 150

Scalp electrodes

Electromyography

0.1 to 5 mV

0 to 10000

Needle electrodes

Electroretinography

0 to 900 V

0 to 50

pH

3 to 13 pH units

0 to 1

pH electrode

pCO2

40 to 100 mmHg 0 to 2

pCO2 electrode

pO2

30 to 100 mmHg 0 to 2

pO2 electrode

Pneumotachography

0 to 600 L/min

0 to 40

Pneumotachometer

Respiratory rate

2 to 50

breaths/min

0.1 to 10

Impedance

Temperature

32 to 40 C

0 to 0.1

Thermistor

Specification

Value

Pressure range

30 to +300 mmHg

Maximum unbalance

75 mmHg

2% of reading or 1 mmHg

10 A

Defibrillator withstand

360 J into 50

determined by a committee composed of individuals from academia,

industry, hospitals, and government.

9/16/2015

concepts

Amplitude

Amplitude

a limited number of

amplitude values

Time

Time

(a)

(b)

Amplitude

Amplitude

Figure 1.8 (a) Analog signals can have any amplitude value. (b) Digital signals have

a limited number of amplitude values.

Time

(a)

Time

(b)

Figure 1.13 (a) Continuous signals have values at every instant of time. (b)

Discrete-time signals are sampled periodically and do not provide values between

these sampling times.

9/16/2015

Specification

Value

5 mV

Dc offset voltage

300 mV

Slew rate

320 mV/s

Frequency response

0.05 to 150 Hz

Input impedance at 10 Hz

2.5 M

Dc lead current

0.1

1s

5000 V

10

Observe

Committee

committee.

Laboratory test

Typical value

Hemoglobin

13.5 to 18 g/dL

Hematocrit

40 to 54%

Erythrocyte count

Leukocyte count

4500 to 11000/ L

Differential count

Neutrophil 35 to 71%

Band 0 to 6%

Lymphocyte 1 to 10%

Monocyte 1 to 10%

Eosinophil 0 to 4%

Basophil 0 to 2%

9/16/2015

A. Static Instrument characteristics:

1) Accuracy

2) Precision

3) Resolution

4) Sensitivity

B. Dynamic Instrument characteristics:

All are functions of frequency.

1. Accuracy

With this

definition

- smaller

is better

Notes:

2) True value need to be connected also with the National Institute of

Standards Technology (NIST).

9/16/2015

1. Accuracy

(a)

(b) high(b)accuracy

2. Precision

To have distinguishable alternatives

e.g. a measurand of 2.434 V is more precise

than 2.43 V

Related to degree of reproducibility or

repeatability!

Because

precision

has nothing

to do with

true value!

9/16/2015

2. Precision

(a)

with (a) low

precision

(b)

(b) high precision.

Notes:

2) Best instrument is the one that is both accurate and precise.

2. Precision

1) Two terms closely related to precision

Repeatability

The precision of a set of measurements taken over a short time interval

Reproducibility

The precision of a set of measurements BUT

taken over a long time interval or

Performed by different operators or

with different instruments or

in different laboratories

2) Think of the standard deviation of the measured values.

3) Best instrument is the one that is both accurate and precise.

9/16/2015

Question- Accuracy and preciseness? Which one

is what?

high accuracy!!!

Which is more precise?

9/16/2015

3. Resolution (or discrimination)

Smallest increment that can be resolved in the

measurement!

usually expressed as a number of bits. This relates the number of

bits of resolution to the actual voltage measurements. Also, it

related to ADC.

For digital outputs, it is the one LSB (the number of output levels it can

quantize a signal to)

1 LSB = ?

Think of it as how close values can be to

each other but yet the are discriminated

Answer

is

10mv

4. Sensitivity

This is an absolute quantity. It is the smallest

absolute amount of change that can be detected by

a measurement.

Also,

Gain of a system = change of O/P /change of I/P

10

9/16/2015

4. Sensitivity

Sensor

signal

Sensor

signal

Measurand

(a)

A low-sensitivity sensor

has

low gain.

Measurand

(b) sensor has high

A high sensitivity

gain.

4. Sensitivity

Note 1:

Offset does not affect

sensitivity

Note 2:

Instruments saturate in low

and high input regions,

well, almost. It is best to

operate in high sensitivity

region.

11

9/16/2015

The relationship between the physical measurement

variable

(X) and the signal variable (S)

e

An instrument is calibrated by applying a number of

KNOWN physical inputs and recording the response of

the system

Signal output (Y)

e

Those that the sensor to respond as the linear superposition with the

measurand variable X

Modifying

input Z

Physical variable X

Measuran

d

Sensor

Interfering input Y

e

sensor and, hence, the calibration curve

Signal

variabl

e

S

Z=Z1

Z=Z2

Physical input (X)

12

9/16/2015

Systematic errors

Result from a variety of factors

Drift (i.e., changes in chemical structure or mechanical

stresses)

The measurement process changes the measurand (i.e.,

loading errors)

The transmission process changes the signal (i.e., attenuation)

Human observers (i.e., parallax errors)

methods (i.e., feedback, filtering)

no information

True random errors (white noise) follow a Gaussian

distribution

Sources of randomness:

Repeatability of the measurand itself (i.e., height of a

rough surface)

Environmental noise (i.e., background noise picked by a

microphone or power line signals)

Transmission noise (i.e., 60Hz hum)

Signal to noise ratio (SNR) should be >>1

interpret a signal with a low SNR (i.e., understanding speech in a

loud environment)

13

9/16/2015

Other notes

Linearity

The closeness of the calibration curve to a

specified straight line (i.e., theoretical behavior,

least-squares fit)

Other notes

How about when nonlinear?

Output

Output

Input

(a)

Input

(b)

Figure 1.18 (a) The one-point calibration may miss nonlinearity. (b)

The two-point calibration may also miss nonlinearity.

14

9/16/2015

Other notes

Population standard

deviation

Estimated mean xs

standard deviation sx

xi

n

Frequency

( x i x)

n 1

f (X )

2

2

e X 2

2

Mean

Figure 1.19 For the normal distribution, 68% of the data lies within 1

standard deviation. By measuring samples and averaging, we obtain the

x s sx. is the tail

estimated mean

, which has a smaller standard deviation

probability that xs does not differ from by more than .

0.2

x

x

x

p

0.1

x

x

0

0

15

9/16/2015

Other notes

Threshold

Normal

population

True

negative

False

positive, p =

Diseased

population

False

negative, p =

True

positive

Figure 1.21 The test result threshold is set to minimize false positives and false

negatives.

Other notes

Amplitude

5 mV

(a)

Time

Dynamic

Range

-5 mV

Amplitude

1V

(b)

Time

-1 V

Figure 1.9 (a) An input signal which exceeds the dynamic range. (b) The resulting

amplified signal is saturated at 1 V.

16

9/16/2015

- Inertial: masses, inductances

- Capacitances: electrical, thermal

1/A

time

time

Amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude

instrument to a family of variable input waveforms:

- Impulse, step, ramp, sinusoidal, white noise

time

time

time

linear, therefore, it can be modeled by a constant-coefficient linear

differential equation:

d2 y(t)

ak

d y(t)

a

dt k

dt

dy(t)

a

1

dt

a y(t) x(t)

0

second order. Higher order models are rarely applied

Laplace transform which converts the differential

equation into a polynomial expression

Think of the Laplace domain as an extension of the

Fourier transform.

Fourier analysis is perfect for sinusoidal signals

17

9/16/2015

L[y(t)] = Y(s)

e

The imaginary component defines the frequency of oscillatory behavior

transformation of differentiation

d

L y(t) sY(s) - f 0

dt

Impulse : L (t) 1

1

Lu(t)

Step :

s

1

r(t)

L

Ramp :

s2

Decay :

Lexpat s - a -1

Sine :

Lsin t

Cosine :

Lcos

s2

s

t 2

s

d2 y

dk y

dy

a1

L ak k a 2

a o y(t) x(t)

2

dt

dt

dt

a s

a s 2 a s1 a o Y(s) X(s)

Y(s)

1

G(s)

X(s)

a sk a s2 a s a

k

the s-plane determines the dynamic behavior of the sensor

such as

e

Oscillating components

Exponential decays

Instability

18

9/16/2015

- j

2t

1t

e 1t sin 1t

-1 j

+j1

-2

1

-j1

+j1

+j1

sin

+j2

t

t

+j2

si

t

1t

+1

-1

e 1t sin 1t

j

+j1

-j1

y(t) k x(t)

e

Y(s)

k

X(s)

No delays

Infinite bandwidth

The sensor only changes the amplitude of the input signal

Example- zero-order

sensor

A potentiometer used to

measure linear and rotary

displacements

This model would not work for

fast-varying displacements

VCC

X

Y

do not include

energy-storing

elements

19

9/16/2015

dy

a

1

a y(t) x(t)

dt

Y(s)

X(s)

1

k

a1s a0 s 1

First-order sensors have one element that stores energy and one that dissipates it

Step response

y(t) = Ak(1-e-t/)

A is the amplitude of the step

k (=1/a0) is the static gain, which determines the static response

(=a1/a0) is the time constant, which determines the dynamic response

Ramp response

y(t) = Akt - Aku(t) + Ake-t/

Frequency response

Better described by the amplitude and phase shift plots

Step response

Frequency response

e

Bandwidth

Ramp response

20

9/16/2015

equation

a2

e

d2 y

1

a1 dy a0 y(t) x(t) Y(s)

2

dt 2

dt

X(s) a 2s a 1s a 0

We can express this second-order transfer function as

Y(s)

k

X(s) s2 2

2

n

s n

1

with k ,

a0

Where

a1

,

2 a 0 a1

a0

a2

is known as the damping coefficient

n is known as the natural frequency

Response types

Underdamped (<1)

Critically damped

(=1)

Overdamped (>1)

e

Response parameters

e

Peak overshoot (Mp)

Time to peak (tp)

Settling time (ts)

From [PAW91]

21

9/16/2015

Ramp response

Frequency response

From [PAW91]

e

Adding the heat capacity and thermal resistance of the

protection yields a second-order system with two real poles

(overdamped)

Spring-mass-dampen accelerometer

e

The armature suffers an

acceleration

We will assume that this

acceleration is orthogonal

to the direction of gravity

e

x0 is the displacement of the

mass M with respect to the

armature

Mx i x 0 Kx 0 Bx 0

e

The equilibrium equation is:

Ms 2 X i (s) X 0 (s) K Bs Ms 2

x0

M

M

xi

K/M

X 0 (s) M

22

9/16/2015

End chapter 1

23

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