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MilitaryhistoryWikipedia

Militaryhistory
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Militaryhistoryisahumanitiesdisciplinewithinthescopeofgeneralhistoricalrecordingofarmedconflictinthe
historyofhumanity,anditsimpactonthesocieties,theircultures,economiesandchangingintraandinternational
relationships.
Professionalhistoriansnormallyfocusonmilitaryaffairsthathadamajorimpactonthesocietiesinvolvedaswellasthe
aftermathofconflicts,whileamateurhistoriansandhobbyistsoftentakealargerinterestinthedetailsofbattles,
equipmentanduniformsinuse.
Theessentialsubjectsofmilitaryhistorystudyarethecausesofwar,thesocialandculturalfoundations,military
doctrineoneachside,thelogistics,leadership,technology,strategy,andtacticsused,andhowthesechangedover
time.Ontheotherhand,JustWarTheoryexploresthemoraldimensionsofwarfare,andtobetterlimitthedestructive
realitycausedbywar,seekstoestablishadoctrineofmilitaryethics.
Asanappliedfield,militaryhistoryhasbeenstudiedatacademiesandserviceschoolsbecausethemilitarycommand
seekstonotrepeatpastmistakes,andimproveuponitscurrentperformancebyinstillinganabilityincommandersto
perceivehistoricalparallelsduringabattle,soastocapitalizeonthelessonslearnedfromthepast.Whencertifying
militaryhistoryinstructors[1]theCombatStudiesInstitutedeemphasizesrotedetailmemorizationandfocusesonthemes
andcontextinrelationtocurrentandfutureconflict,usingthemotto"PastisPrologue."[2]
Thedisciplineofmilitaryhistoryisdynamic,changingwithdevelopmentasmuchofthesubjectareaasthesocietiesand
organisationsthatmakeuseofit.[3]Thedynamicnatureofthedisciplineofmilitaryhistoryislargelyrelatedtothe
rapidityofchangethemilitaryforces,andtheartandscienceofmanagingthem,aswellasthefreneticpaceof
technologicaldevelopmentthathadtakenplaceduringtheperiodknownastheIndustrialRevolution,andmorerecently
inthenuclearandinformationages.AnimportantrecentconceptistheRevolutioninMilitaryAffairs(RMA)which
attemptstoexplainhowwarfarehasbeenshapedbyemergingtechnologies,suchasgunpowder.Ithighlightstheshort
outburstsofrapidchangefollowedbyperiodsofrelativestability.

Contents
1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9

Popularversusacademicmilitaryhistory
Historiographyofmilitaryhistory
Earlyhistorians
Technologicalevolution
Periodsofmilitaryhistory
5.1 Ancientwarfare
5.2 Medievalwarfare
5.3 Gunpowderwarfare
5.4 Industrialwarfare
5.5 Modernwarfare
Seealso
Notesandreferences
Furtherreading
8.1 Historiography
Externallinks

Popularversusacademicmilitaryhistory
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Intermsofthehistoryprofessioninmajorcountries,militaryhistoryisanorphan,despiteitsenormouspopularitywith
thegeneralpublic.WilliamH.McNeillpointsout:
Thisbranchofourdisciplineflourishesinanintellectualghetto.The144booksinquestion[publishedin1968
78]fallintotwodistinctclasses:worksaimedatapopularreadership,writtenbyjournalistsandmenofletters
outsideacademiccircles,andprofessionalworknearlyalwaysproducedwithinthemilitaryestablishment....The
studyofmilitaryhistoryinuniversitiesremainsseriouslyunderdeveloped.Indeed,lackofinterestinanddisdain
formilitaryhistoryprobablyconstituteoneofthestrangestprejudicesoftheprofession.[4][5][6]

Historiographyofmilitaryhistory
Historiographyisthestudyofthehistoryandmethodofthedisciplineofhistoryorthestudyofaspecialisedtopic.In
thiscase,militaryhistorywithaneyetogaininganaccurateassessmentofconflictsusingallavailablesources.Forthis
reasonmilitaryhistoryisperiodised,creatingoverlayingboundariesofstudyandanalysisinwhichdescriptionsofbattles
byleadersmaybeunreliableduetotheinclinationtominimizementionoffailureandexaggeratesuccess.Military
historiansuseHistoriographicalanalysisinanefforttoallowanunbiased,contemporaryviewofrecords.[7]
Onemilitaryhistorian,JeremyBlack,inarecentworkmentionedsomeproblems21stcenturymilitaryhistoriansfaceas
aninheritanceoftheirpredecessors:Eurocentricity,atechnologicalbias,afocusonleadingmilitarypowersand
dominantmilitarysystems,theseparationoflandfromseaandrecentlyairconflicts,thefocusonstatetostateconflict,
alackoffocusonpolitical"tasking"inhowforcesareused.[8]
Ifthesechallengeswerenotsufficientforthemilitaryhistorians,thelimitsofmethodarecomplicatedbythelackof
records,eitherdestroyedorneverrecordedforitsvalueasamilitarysecretthatmaypreventsomesalientfactsfrom
beingreportedatallscholarsstilldonotknowtheexactnatureofGreekfireforinstance.ResearchingOperation
EnduringFreedomandOperationIraqiFreedom,forexample,havepresenteduniquechallengestohistoriansdueto
recordsthatweredestroyedtoprotectclassifiedmilitaryinformation,amongotherreasons.Historiansutilizetheir
knowledgeofgovernmentregulationandmilitaryorganization,andemployingatargetedandsystematicresearch
strategytopiecetogetherwarhistories.[9]Despitetheselimits,warsaresomeofthemoststudiedanddetailedperiods
ofhumanhistory.
Militaryhistorianshaveoftencomparedorganization,tacticalandstrategicideas,leadership,andnationalsupportofthe
militariesofdifferentnations.[10]
Intheearly1980s,historianJeffreyKimballsurveyedtheideologicalpreferencesof109activediplomatichistoriansin
theUnitedStatesaswellas54activemilitaryhistorians.Hereportsthat:
Ofhistoriansinthefieldofdiplomatichistory,7%areSocialist,19%areOther,53%areLiberal,11%areNone
and10%Conservative.Ofmilitaryhistorians,0%areSocialist,8%areOther,35%areLiberal,18%areNone
and40%areConservative.[11]

Earlyhistorians
ThedocumentationofmilitaryhistorybeginswiththeconfrontationbetweenSumer(currentIraq)andElam(current
Iran)c.2700BCnearthemodernBasra,andincludessuchenduringrecordsastheHebrewBible.Otherprominent
recordsinmilitaryhistoryaretheTrojanWarinHomer'sIliad(thoughitshistoricityhasbeenchallenged),The
HistoriesbyHerodotus(484BC425BC)whoisoftencalledthe"fatherofhistory".[12]NextwasThucydides
whoseimpartiality,despitebeinganAthenian,allowedhimtotakeadvantageofhisexiletoresearchthewarfrom
differentperspectivesbycarefullyexaminingdocumentsandinterviewingeyewitnesses.[13]Anapproachcenteredon
theanalysisofaleaderwastakenbyXenophon(430BC355BC)inAnabasis,recordingtheexpeditionofCyrus
theYoungerintoAnatolia.
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TherecordsoftheRomanJuliusCaesar(100BC44BC)enableacomparativeapproachforcampaignssuchas
CommentariideBelloGallicoandCommentariideBelloCivili.

Technologicalevolution
Newweaponsdevelopmentcandramaticallyalterthefaceofwar,thecost
ofwarfare,thepreparations,andthetrainingofsoldiersandleaders.Arule
ofthumbisthatifyourenemyhasapotentiallywarwinningweapon,you
havetoeithermatchitorneutralizeit.[15]

Chariotsoriginatedaround2000BC.Thechariotwasaneffective,fast
weaponwhileonemancontrolledthemaneuveringofthechariot,asecond
bowmancouldshootarrowsatenemysoldiers.Thesebecamecrucialtothe
maintenanceofseveralgovernments,includingtheNewEgyptianKingdom
andtheShangDynastyandthenationstatesofearlytomidZhou
dynasty.[16][17]
Someofthemilitaryunittypesandtechnologieswhichweredevelopedin
theancientworldare:[18]
Slinger
Hoplite
Auxiliaries
Infantry
Archery
Crossbowmen
Chariots
Cavalry

Thenatureofwarfare
neverchanges,onlyits
superficialmanifestations.
JoshuaandDavid,
HectorandAchilles
wouldrecognizethe
combatthatoursoldiers
andMarineshavewaged
inthealleysofSomalia
andIraq.Theuniforms
evolve,bronzegivesway
totitanium,arrowsmay
bereplacedbylaser
guidedbombs,butthe
heartofthematterisstill
killingyourenemiesuntil
anysurvivorssurrender
anddoyourwill.

RalphPeters [14]

Forsettledagrariancivilizations,theinfantrybecamethecoreofmilitaryaction.
Theinfantrystartedasopposingarmedgroupsofsoldiersunderneath
commanders.TheGreeksandearlyRomansusedrigid,heavilyarmed
phalanxes.TheMacedoniansandHellenisticstateswouldadoptphalanx
formationswithsarissapikemen.TheRomanswouldlateradoptmoreflexible
maniplesfromtheirneighborswhichmadethemextremelysuccessfulinthefield
ofbattle.ThekingdomsoftheWarringStatesinEastAsiaalsoadoptedinfantry
combat,atransitionfromchariotwarfarefromcenturiesearlier.[19]
Cavalrybecameanimportanttool.IntheSicilianExpedition,ledbyAthensinan
attempttosubdueSyracuse,thewelltrainedSyracusancavalrybecamecrucial
tothesuccessoftheSyracusans.MacedonianAlexandertheGreateffectively
deployedhiscavalryforcestosecurevictories.InbattlessuchastheBattleof
CannaeoftheSecondPunicWar,andtheBattleofCarrhaeoftheRoman
PersianWars,theimportanceofthecavalrywouldberepeated.[20]

ReliefofRamsesIIlocatedinAbu
SimbelfightingattheBattleof
Kadeshonachariot.

Therewerealsohorsearchers,whohadtheabilitytoshootonhorsebacktheParthians,Scythians,Mongols,and
othervarioussteppepeoplewereespeciallyfearsomewiththistactic.Bythe3rd4thcenturyAD,heavilyarmored
cavalrybecamewidelyadoptedbytheEasternRomanEmpire,Sassanids,EasternHanDynastyandThreeKingdoms,
etc.
EvenintheFirstWorldWar,cavalrywasstillconsideredimportanttheBritishmobilized165,000horses,theAustrians
600,000,theGermans715,000,andtheRussiansmorethanamillion.[21]
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TheearlyIndoIraniansdevelopedtheuseofchariotsinwarfare.ThescythedchariotwaslaterinventedinIndiaand
soonadoptedbythePersianEmpire.[22]
Warelephantsweresometimesdeployedforfightinginancientwarfare.TheywerefirstusedinIndiaandlateradopted
byboththePersiansandAlexandertheGreatagainstoneanother.WarelephantswerealsousedintheBattleofthe
HydaspesRiver,andbyHannibalintheSecondPunicWaragainsttheRomans.Site[23]
Therewerealsoorganizationalchanges,madepossiblebybettertrainingandintercommunication.Combinedarmswas
theconceptofusinginfantry,cavalry,andartilleryinacoordinatedway.
Navalwarfarewasoftencrucialtomilitarysuccess.Earlynaviesused
sailingshipswithoutcannonsoftenthegoalwastoramtheenemyships
andcausethemtosink.Therewashumanoarpower,oftenusingslaves,
builtuptorammingspeed.Galleyswereusedinthe3rdmillenniumBC
bytheCretans.TheGreekslateradvancedtheseships.[24][25]
In1210BC,thefirstrecordednavalbattlewasfoughtbetween
SuppiluliumaII,kingoftheHittites,andCyprus,whichwasdefeated.In
thePersianWars,thenavybecameofincreasingimportance.

AGreektrireme

Triremeswereinvolvedinmorecomplicatedsealandoperations.ThemistocleshelpedtobuildupastrongerGreek
navy,composedof310ships,anddefeatedthePersiansattheBattleofSalamis,endingthePersianinvasionof
Greece.[26]
IntheFirstPunicWar,thewarbetweenCarthageandRomestartedwithanadvantagetoCarthagebecauseoftheir
navalexperience.ARomanfleetwasbuiltin261BC,withtheadditionofthecorvusthatallowedRomansoldierson
boardtheshipstoboardtheenemyships.ThebridgewouldproveeffectiveattheBattleofMylae,resultinginaRoman
victory.
TheVikings,inthe8thcenturyAD,inventedashippropelledbyoarswithadragondecoratingtheprow,hencecalled
theDrakkar.The12thcenturyADSongDynastyinventedshipswithwatertightbulkheadcompartmentswhilethe2nd
centuryBCHanDynastyinventedruddersandsculledoarsfortheirwarships.
Fortificationsareimportantinwarfare.EarlyhillfortswereusedtoprotectinhabitantsintheIronAge.Theywere
primitivefortssurroundedbyditchesfilledwithwater.Fortswerethenbuiltoutofmudbricks,stones,wood,andother
availablematerials.Romansusedrectangularfortressesbuiltoutofwoodandstone.Aslongastherehavebeen
fortifications,therehavebeencontraptionstobreakin,datingbacktothetimesofRomansandearlier.Siegewarfareis
oftennecessarytocaptureforts.[27]
Someofthemilitaryunittypesandtechnologieswhichwereusedinthe
medievalperiodare:
Artillery
Cataphract
Condottieri
Fyrd
Rashidun
Mobileguard
Mamluk
Janissary
Knight(seealso:Chivalry)
Crossbow
Pikeman
Samurai
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JapanesesamuraiboardingMongolships
in1281

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Sipahi
Trebuchet
Bowsandarrowswereoftenusedbycombatants.Egyptiansshotarrowsfromchariotseffectively.Thecrossbowwas
developedaround500BCinChina,andwasusedalotintheMiddleAges.[28]TheEnglish/Welshlongbowfromthe
12thcenturyalsobecameimportantintheMiddleAges.IthelpedtogivetheEnglishalargeearlyadvantageinthe
HundredYears'War,eventhoughtheEnglishwereeventuallydefeated.TheBattleofCrcyandtheBattleof
Agincourtareexcellentexamplesofhowtodestroyanenemyusingalongbow.Itdominatedbattlefieldsforovera
century.
Inthe10thcentury,theinventionofgunpowderledtomanynew
weaponsthatwereimprovedovertime.Blackpowderwasusedin
Chinasincethe4thcentury,butitwasnotusedasaweaponuntilthe
11thcentury.[29]Untilthemid15thcentury,gunswereheldinonehand,
whiletheexplosivechargewasignitedbytheotherhand.Thencamethe
matchlock,whichwasusedwidelyuntilaroundthe1720s.Leonardoda
Vincimadedrawingsofthewheellockwhichmadeitsownsparks.
AsmallEnglishCivilWareracannon
Eventually,thematchlockwasreplacedbytheflintlock.Cannonswere
firstusedinEuropeintheearly14thcentury,andplayedavitalrolein
theHundredYears'War.Thefirstcannonsweresimplyweldedmetalbarsintheformofacylinder,andthefirst
cannonballsweremadeofstone.By1346,attheBattleofCrcy,thecannonhadbeenusedattheBattleofAgincourt
theywouldbeusedagain.[30][31]
Atthebeginningofthe16thcentury,thefirstEuropeanfireshipswereused.Shipswerefilledwithflammablematerials,
setonfire,andsenttoenemylines.ThistacticwassuccessfullyusedbyFrancisDraketoscattertheSpanishArmada
attheBattleofGravelines,[32]andwouldlaterbeusedbytheChinese,Russians,Greeks,andseveralothercountriesin
navalbattles.
Navalmineswereinventedinthe17thcentury,thoughtheywerenotusedingreatnumbersuntiltheAmericanCivil
War.TheywereusedheavilyintheFirstandSecondWorldWars.Airdeployednavalmineswereusedtominethe
NorthVietnameseportofHaiphongduringtheVietnamWar.TheIraqiNavyofSaddamHusseinusednavalmines
extensivelyduringtheTankerWar,aspartoftheIranIraqWar.
Thefirstnavigablesubmarinewasbuiltin1624byCorneliusDrebbel,itcouldcruiseatadepthof15feet(5m).
However,thefirstmilitarysubmarinewasconstructedin1885byIsaacPeral.[33]
TheTurtlewasdevelopedbyDavidBushnellduringtheAmericanRevolution.RobertFultonthenimprovedthe
submarinedesignbycreatingtheNautilus.[34]
TheHowitzer,atypeoffieldartillery,wasdevelopedinthe17thcenturytofire
hightrajectoryexplosiveshellsattargetsthatcouldnotbereachedbyflat
trajectoryprojectiles.
Bayonetsalsobecameofwideusagetoinfantrysoldiers.Bayonetisnamedafter
Bayonne,Francewhereitwasfirstmanufacturedinthe16thcentury.Itisused
oftenininfantrychargestofightinhandtohandcombat.GeneralJeanMartinet
introducedthebayonettotheFrencharmy.Theywereusedheavilyinthe
AmericanCivilWar,andcontinuedtobeusedinmodernwarsliketheInvasion
ofIraq.[35]

A155mmM198howitzerfiringa
shell.

Balloonswerefirstusedinwarfareattheendofthe18thcentury.ItwasfirstintroducedinParisof1783thefirst
balloontraveledover5miles(8km).Previouslymilitaryscoutscouldonlyseefromhighpointsontheground,orfrom
themastofaship.Nowtheycouldbehighinthesky,signallingtotroopsontheground.Thismadeitmuchmore
difficultfortroopmovementstogounobserved.[36]
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Attheendofthe18thcentury,ironcasedartilleryrocketsweresuccessfullyusedmilitarilyinIndiaagainsttheBritishby
TipuSultanoftheKingdomofMysoreduringtheAngloMysoreWars.Rocketsweregenerallyinaccurateatthattime,
thoughWilliamHale,in1844,wasabletodevelopabetterrocket.Thenewrocketnolongerneededtherocketstick,
andhadahigheraccuracy.[37]
Inthe1860stherewereaseriesofadvancementsinrifles.Thefirstrepeatingriflewasdesignedin1860byacompany
boughtoutbyWinchester,whichmadenewandimprovedversions.Springfieldriflesarrivedinthemid19thcentury
also.Machinegunsarrivedinthelate19thcentury.Automaticriflesandlightmachinegunsfirstarrivedatthebeginning
ofthe20thcentury.[38]
Inthelaterpartofthe19thcentury,theselfpropelledtorpedowasdeveloped.TheHNoMSRapwastheworld'sfirst
torpedoboat.[39]
AtthestartoftheWorldWars,variousnationshaddevelopedweaponsthatwereasurprisetotheiradversaries,
leadingtoaneedtolearnfromthis,andalterhowtocombatthem.FlamethrowerswerefirstusedintheFirstWorld
War.TheFrenchwerethefirsttointroducethearmoredcarin1902.Thenin1918,theBritishproducedthefirst
armoredtroopcarrier.Manyearlytankswereproofofconceptbutimpracticaluntilfurtherdevelopment.InWorld
WarI,theBritishandFrenchheldacrucialadvantageduetotheirsuperiorityintankstheGermanshadonlyafew
dozenA7Vtanks,aswellas170capturedtanks.TheBritishandFrenchbothhadseveralhundredeach.TheFrench
tanksincludedthe13tonSchneiderCreusot,witha75mmgun,andtheBritishhadtheMarkIVandMarkV
tanks.[40]
OnDecember17,1903,theWrightBrothersperformedthefirstcontrolled,powered,heavierthanairflightitwent39
meters(120ft).In1907,thefirsthelicopterflew,butitwasn'tpracticalforusage.AviationbecameimportantinWorld
WarI,inwhichseveralacesgainedfame.In1911anaircrafttookofffromawarshipforthefirsttime.Landingsona
cruiserwereanothermatter.Thisledtothedevelopmentofanaircraftcarrierwithadecentunobstructedflight
deck.[41]
ChemicalwarfareexplodedintothepublicconsciousnessinWorldWarIbutmayhavebeenusedinearlierwars
withoutasmuchhumanattention.TheGermansusedgasfilledshellsattheBattleofBolimovonJanuary3,1915.
Thesewerenotlethal,however.InApril1915,theGermansdevelopedachlorinegasthatwashighlylethal,andusedit
tomoderateeffectattheSecondBattleofYpres.Gasmaskswereinventedinmatterofweeks,andpoisongasproved
ineffectiveatwinningbattles.Itwasmadeillegalbyallnationsinthe1920s.[42]
WorldWarIIgaverisetoevenmoretechnology.Theworthoftheaircraftcarrierwasprovedinthebattlesbetween
theUnitedStatesandJapanliketheBattleofMidway.RadarwasindependentlyinventedbytheAlliesandAxis
powers.Itusedradiowavestodetectobjects.MolotovcocktailswereinventedbyGeneralFrancointheSpanishCivil
War,directingtheNationaliststousethemagainstSoviettanksintheassaultonToledo.Theatomicbombwas
developedbytheManhattanProjectanddroppedonHiroshimaandNagasakiin1945,quicklyendingWorldWar
II.[43]
DuringtheColdWar,themainpowersengagedinaNucleararmsrace.[44]Inthespacerace,bothnationsattempted
tolaunchhumanbeingsintospacetothemoon.Othertechnologicaladvancescenteredonintelligence(likethespy
satellite)andmissiles(ballisticmissiles,cruisemissiles).Nuclearsubmarine,inventedin1955.Thismeantsubmarinesno
longerhadtosurfaceasoften,andcouldrunmorequietly.Theyevolvedintobecomingunderwatermissile
platforms.[45]

Periodsofmilitaryhistory
Theinfluenceoftechnologyonmilitaryhistory,andevidentEurocentrismarenowheremorepronouncedthaninthe
attemptbythemilitaryhistorianstodividetheirsubjectareaintomoremanageableperiodsofanalysis.Whilegeneral
disciplineofhistorysubdivideshistoryintoAncienthistory(Classicalantiquity),MiddleAges(Europe,4thcentury
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15thcentury),EarlyModernperiod(Europe,14thcentury18thcentury),Modernera(Europe,18thcentury20th
century),andthePostModern(USA,1949present),theperiodisationbelowstressestechnologicalchangeinits
emphasis,particularlythecrucialdramaticchangeduringtheGunpowderwarfareperiod.
Periodisationisnotuniformlyappliedthroughtimeandspace,affirmingtheclaimsofEurocentrismfromregional
historians.Forexample,whatmightbedescribedasprehistoricwarfareisstillpractisedinafewpartsoftheworld.
OthererasthataredistinctinEuropeanhistory,suchastheeraofmedievalwarfare,mayhavelittlerelevanceinEast
Asia.

Ancientwarfare
Muchofwhatweknowofancienthistoryisthehistoryofmilitaries:theirconquests,theirmovements,andtheir
technologicalinnovations.Therearemanyreasonsforthis.Kingdomsandempires,thecentralunitsofcontrolinthe
ancientworld,couldonlybemaintainedthroughmilitaryforce.Duetolimitedagriculturalability,therewererelatively
fewareasthatcouldsupportlargecommunities,sofightingwascommon.
Weaponsandarmor,designedtobesturdy,tendedtolastlongerthanotherartifacts,andthusagreatdealofsurviving
artifactsrecoveredtendtofallinthiscategoryastheyaremorelikelytosurvive.Weaponsandarmorwerealsomass
producedtoascalethatmakesthemquiteplentifulthroughouthistory,andthusmorelikelytobefoundin
archaeologicaldigs.
Suchitemswerealsoconsideredsignsofprosperityorvirtue,andthuswerelikelytobeplacedintombsand
monumentstoprominentwarriors.Andwriting,whenitexisted,wasoftenusedforkingstoboastofmilitaryconquests
orvictories.
Writing,whenusedbythecommonman,alsotendedtorecordsuchevents,asmajorbattlesandconquestsconstituted
majoreventsthatmanywouldhaveconsideredworthyofrecordingeitherinanepicsuchastheHomericwritings
pertainingtotheTrojanWar,orevenpersonalwritings.Indeed,theearlieststoriescenteronwarfare,aswarwasboth
acommonanddramaticaspectoflifethewitnessingofamajorbattleinvolvingmanythousandsofsoldierswouldbe
quiteaspectacle,eventoday,andthusconsideredworthybothofbeingrecordedinsongandart,butalsoinrealistic
histories,aswellasbeingacentralelementinafictionalwork.
Lastly,asnationstatesevolvedandempiresgrew,theincreasedneedfororderandefficiencyleadtoanincreaseinthe
numberofrecordsandwritings.Officialsandarmieswouldhavegoodreasonforkeepingdetailedrecordsand
accountsinvolvinganyandallthingsconcerningamattersuchaswarfarethatinthewordsofSunTzuwas"amatterof
vitalimportancetothestate".Forallthesereasons,militaryhistorycomprisesalargepartofancienthistory.
NotablemilitariesintheancientworldincludedtheEgyptians,Babylonians,Persians,AncientGreeks(notablythe
SpartansandMacedonians),Indians(notablytheMagadhas,Gangaridais,GandharasandCholas),EarlyImperial
Chinese(notablytheQinandHanDynasties),XiongnuConfederation,AncientRomans,andCarthaginians.
ThefertilecrescentofMesopotamiawasthecenterofseveralprehistoricconquests.Mesopotamiawasconqueredby
theSumerians,Akkadians,Babylonians,AssyriansandPersians.Iranianswerethefirstnationtointroducecavalryinto
theirarmy.[46]
Egyptbegangrowingasanancientpower,buteventuallyfelltotheLibyans,Nubians,Assyrians,Persians,Greeks,
Romans,ByzantinesandArabs.
TheearliestrecordedbattleinIndiawastheBattleoftheTenKings.TheIndianepicsMahabharataandRamayana
arecenteredonconflictsandrefertomilitaryformations,theoriesofwarfareandesotericweaponry.Chanakya's
Arthashastracontainsadetailedstudyonancientwarfare,includingtopicsonespionageandwarelephants.
AlexandertheGreatinvadedNorthwesternIndiaanddefeatedKingPorusintheBattleoftheHydaspesRiver.The
sameregionwassoonreconqueredbyChandraguptaMauryaafterdefeatingtheMacedoniansandSeleucids.Healso
wentontoconquertheNandaEmpireandunifyNorthernIndia.MostofSouthernAsiawasunifiedunderhisgrandson
AshokatheGreataftertheKalingaWar,thoughtheempirecollapsednotlongafterhisreign.
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InChina,theShangDynastyandZhouDynastyhadrisenandcollapsed.ThisledtoaWarringStatesperiod,inwhich
severalstatescontinuedtofightwitheachotheroverterritory.PhilosopherstrategistssuchasConfuciusandSunTzu
wrotevariousmanuscriptsonancientwarfare(aswellasinternationaldiplomacy).
TheWarringStateseraphilosopherMozi(Micius)andhisMohistfollowersinventedvarioussiegeweaponsand
siegecraft,includingtheCloudLadder(afourwheeled,extendableramp)toscalefortifiedwallsduringasiegeofan
enemycity.ThewarringstateswerefirstunifiedbyQinShiHuangafteraseriesofmilitaryconquests,creatingthefirst
empireinChina.
HisempirewassucceededbytheHanDynasty,whichexpandedintoCentralAsia,NorthernChina/Manchuria,
SouthernChina,andpresentdayKoreaandVietnam.TheHancameintoconflictwithsettledpeoplesuchasthe
WimanJoseon,andprotoVietnameseNanyue.TheyalsocameintoconflictwiththeXiongnu(Huns),Yuezhi,and
othersteppecivilizations.
TheHandefeatedanddrovetheXiongnuswest,securingthecitystatesalongthesilkroutethatcontinuedintothe
ParthianEmpire.Afterthedeclineofcentralimperialauthority,theHanDynastycollapsedintoaneraofcivilwarand
continuouswarfareduringtheThreeKingdomsperiodinthe3rdcenturyAD.
TheAchaemenidPersianEmpirewasfoundedbyCyrustheGreatafterconqueringtheMedianEmpire,Neo
BabylonianEmpire,LydiaandAsiaMinor.HissuccessorCambyseswentontoconquertheEgyptianEmpire,muchof
CentralAsia,andpartsofGreece,IndiaandLibya.TheempirelaterfelltoAlexandertheGreatafterdefeatingDarius
III.AfterbeingruledbytheSeleuciddynasty,thePersianEmpirewassubsequentlyruledbytheParthianandSassanid
dynasties,whichweretheRomanEmpire'sgreatestrivalsduringtheRomanPersianWars.
InGreece,severalcitystatesrosetopower,includingAthensandSparta.TheGreekssuccessfullystoppedtwo
Persianinvasions,thefirstattheBattleofMarathon,wherethePersianswereledbyDariustheGreat,andthesecond
attheBattleofSalamis,anavalbattlewheretheGreekshipsweredeployedbyordersofThemistoclesandthe
PersianswereunderXerxesI,andthelandengagementoftheBattleofPlataea.
ThePeloponnesianWartheneruptedbetweenthetwoGreekpowersAthensandSparta.Athensbuiltalongwallto
protectitsinhabitants,butthewallhelpedtofacilitatethespreadofaplaguethatkilledabout30,000Athenians,
includingPericles.AfteradisastrouscampaignagainstSyracuse,theAtheniannavywasdecisivelydefeatedby
LysanderattheBattleofAegospotami.
TheMacedonians,underneathPhilipIIofMacedonandAlexandertheGreat,invadedPersiaandwonseveralmajor
victories,establishingMacedoniaasamajorpower.However,followingAlexander'sdeathatanearlyage,theempire
quicklyfellapart.
Meanwhile,Romewasgainingpower,followingarebellionagainstthe
Etruscans.DuringthethreePunicWars,theRomansdefeatedthe
neighboringpowerofCarthage.TheFirstPunicWarcenteredonnaval
warfare.TheSecondPunicWarstartedwithHannibal'sinvasionofItaly
bycrossingtheAlps.HefamouslywontheencirclementattheBattleof
Cannae.However,afterScipioinvadedCarthage,Hannibalwasforced
tofollowandwasdefeatedattheBattleofZama,endingtheroleof
Carthageasapower.
The3rdcenturyGreatLudovisi

AfterdefeatingCarthagetheRomanswentontobecomethe
sarcophagusdepictsabattlebetween
Mediterranean'sdominantpower,successfullycampaigninginGreece,
RomansandGoths.
(AemiliusPaulusdecisivevictoryoverMacedoniaattheBattleof
Pydna),intheMiddleEast(LuciusLiciniusLucullus,GnaeusPompeius
Magnus),inGaul(GaiusJuliusCaesar)anddefeatingseveralGermanictribes(GaiusMarius,Germanicus).While
Romanarmiessufferedseveralmajorlosses,theirlargepopulationandability(andwill)toreplacebattlefieldcasualties,
theirtraining,organization,tacticalandtechnicalsuperiorityenabledRometostayapredominantmilitaryforcefor
severalcenturies,utilizingwelltrainedandmaneuverablearmiestoroutinelyovercomethemuchlarger"tribal"armiesof
theirfoes(seeBattlesofAquaeSextiae,Vercellae,Tigranocerta,Alesia).
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In54BCtheRomantriumvirMarcusLiciniusCrassustooktheoffensiveagainsttheParthianEmpireintheeast.Ina
decisivebattleatCarrhaeRomansweredefeatedandthegoldenAquilae(legionarybattlestandards)weretakenas
trophiestoCtesiphon.ThebattlewasoneoftheworstdefeatssufferedbytheRomanRepublicinitsentirehistory.
Whilesuccessfullydealingwithforeignopponents,Romeexperiencednumerouscivilwars,notablythepowerstruggles
ofRomangeneralssuchasMariusandSulladuringtheendoftheRepublic.Caesarwasalsonotableforhisroleinthe
civilwaragainsttheothermemberoftheTriumvirate(Pompey)andagainsttheRomanSenate.
ThesuccessorsofCaesarOctavianandMarkAnthony,alsofoughtacivilwarwithCaesar'sassassins(Senators
Brutus,Cassius,etc.).OctavianandMarkAnthonyeventuallyfoughtanothercivilwarbetweenthemselvesto
determinethesolerulerofRome.OctavianemergedvictoriousandRomewasturnedintoanempirewithahuge
standingarmyofprofessionalsoldiers.
BythetimeofMarcusAurelius,theRomanshadexpandedtotheAtlanticOceaninthewestandtoMesopotamiain
theeastandcontrolledNorthernAfricaandCentralEuropeuptotheBlackSea.However,Aureliusmarkedtheendof
theFiveGoodEmperors,andRomequicklyfellintodecline.
TheHuns,Goths,andotherbarbaricgroupsinvadedRome,whichcontinuedtosufferfrominflationandotherinternal
strifes.DespitetheattemptsofDiocletian,ConstantineI,andTheodosiusI,westernRomecollapsedandwas
eventuallyconqueredin476.TheByzantineempirecontinuedtoprosper,however.

Medievalwarfare
WhenstirrupscameintousesometimeduringtheDarkAgesmilitarieswere
foreverchanged.Thisinventioncoupledwithtechnological,cultural,and
socialdevelopmentshadforcedadramatictransformationinthecharacterof
warfarefromantiquity,changingmilitarytacticsandtheroleofcavalryand
artillery.
Similarpatternsofwarfareexistedinotherpartsoftheworld.InChina
aroundthe5thcenturyarmiesmovedfrommassedinfantrytocavalrybased
forces,copyingthesteppenomads.TheMiddleEastandNorthAfricaused
similar,ifoftenmoreadvanced,technologiesthanEurope.
InJapantheMedievalwarfareperiodisconsideredbymanytohave
stretchedintothe19thcentury.InAfricaalongtheSahelandSudanstates
liketheKingdomofSennarandFulaniEmpireemployedMedievaltactics
andweaponswellaftertheyhadbeensupplantedinEurope.

BattleofCrcy(1346)betweenthe
EnglishandFrenchintheHundred
Years'War.

IntheMedievalperiod,feudalismwasfirmlyimplanted,andthereexistedmanylandlordsinEurope.Landlordsoften
ownedcastlestoprotecttheirterritory.
TheIslamicArabEmpirebeganrapidlyexpandingthroughouttheMiddleEast,NorthAfrica,andCentralAsia,initially
ledbyRashidunCaliphate,andlaterundertheUmayyads.WhiletheirattemptstoinvadeEuropebywayofthe
BalkansweredefeatedbyByzantiumandBulgaria,[47]theArabsexpandedtotheIberianPeninsulainthewestandthe
IndusValleyintheeast.TheAbassidsthentookovertheArabEmpire,thoughtheUmayyadsremainedincontrolof
IslamicSpain.
AttheBattleofTours,theFranksunderCharlesMartelstoppedshortaMusliminvasion.TheAbassidsdefeatedthe
TangChinesearmyattheBattleofTalas,butwerelaterdefeatedbytheSeljukTurksandtheMongolscenturieslater,
untiltheArabEmpireeventuallycametoanendaftertheBattleofBaghdadin1258.
InChina,theSuiDynastyhadrisenandconqueredtheChenDynastyofthesouth.TheyinvadedVietnam(northern
VietnamhadbeeninChinesecontrolsincetheHanDynasty),fightingthetroopsofChampa,whohadcavalrymounted
onelephants.AfterdecadesofeconomicturmoilandafailedinvasionofKorea,theSuicollapsedandwasfollowedby
theTangDynasty,whofoughtwithvariousTurkicgroups,theTibetansofLhasa,theTanguts,theKhitans,and
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collapsedduetopoliticalfragmentationofpowerfulregionalmilitarygovernors(jiedushi).TheinnovativeSongDynasty
followednext,inventingnewweaponsofwarthatemployedtheuseofGreekFireandgunpowder(seesectionbelow)
againstenemiessuchastheJurchens.
TheMongolsunderGenghisKhan,gedeiKhan,MngkeKhan,and
KublaiKhanconqueredmostofEurasia.TheytookoverChina,Persia,
Turkestan,andRussia.AfterKublaiKhantookpowerandcreatedtheYuan
Dynasty,thedivisionsoftheempireceasedtocooperatewitheachother,
andtheMongolEmpirewasonlynominallyunited.
InNewZealand,priortoEuropeandiscovery,oralhistories,legendsand
whakapapaincludemanystoriesofbattlesandwars.Moriwarriorswere
heldinhighesteem.OnegroupofPolynesiansmigratedtotheChatham
Islands,wheretheydevelopedthelargelypacifistMorioriculture.Their
pacifismlefttheMorioriunabletodefendthemselveswhentheislandswere
invadedbymainlandMoriinthe1830s.

ThevictoryofthePolishLithuanian
forcesovertheMuscovitesatthe
BattleofOrshain1514

TheyproceededtomassacretheMorioriandenslavethesurvivors.[48][49]Warriorculturealsodevelopedinthe
isolatedHawaiianIslands.Duringthe1780sand1790sthechiefsandaliiwereconstantlyfightingforpower.Aftera
seriesofbattlestheHawaiianIslandswereunitedforthefirsttimeunderasinglerulerwhowouldbecomeknownas
KamehamehaI.

Gunpowderwarfare
AftergunpowderweaponswerefirstdevelopedinSongDynastyChina(see
alsoTechnologyofSongDynasty),thetechnologylaterspreadwesttothe
OttomanEmpire,fromwhereitspreadtotheSafavidEmpireofPersiaand
theMughalEmpireofIndia.ThearquebuswaslateradoptedbyEuropean
armiesduringtheItalianWarsoftheearly16thcentury.
Thisallbroughtanendtothedominanceofarmoredcavalryonthe
battlefield.Thesimultaneousdeclineofthefeudalsystemandthe
absorptionofthemedievalcitystatesintolargerstatesallowedthecreation
ofprofessionalstandingarmiestoreplacethefeudalleviesandmercenaries
thathadbeenthestandardmilitarycomponentoftheMiddleAges.

EightyYears'War,orDutchRevolt
againstSpain

InAfrica,AhmadibnIbrihimalGhazi,wasthefirstAfricancommanderto
usegunpowderonthecontinentintheEthiopianAdalWar,thatlastedforfourteenyears(15291543).
Theperiodspanningbetweenthe1648PeaceofWestphaliaandthe1789FrenchRevolutionisalsoknownas
Kabinettskriege(Princes'warfare)aswarsweremainlycarriedoutbyimperialormonarchicsstates,decidedby
cabinetsandlimitedinscopeandintheiraims.Theyalsoinvolvedquicklyshiftingalliances,andmainlyused
mercenaries.
Overthecourseofthe18th19thcenturiesallmilitaryarmsandservicesunderwentsignificantdevelopmentsthat
includedamoremobilefieldartillery,thetransitionfromuseofbattalioninfantrydrillincloseordertoopenorder
formationsandthetransferofemphasisfromtheuseofbayonetstotheriflethatreplacedthemusket,andvirtual
replacementofalltypesofcavalrywiththeuniversaldragoons,ormountedinfantry.

Industrialwarfare
Asweaponsparticularlysmallarmsbecameeasiertouse,countriesbegantoabandonacompleterelianceon
professionalsoldiersinfavorofconscription.Technologicaladvancesbecameincreasinglyimportantwhilethearmies
ofthepreviousperiodhadusuallyhadsimilarweapons,theindustrialagesawencounterssuchastheBattleofSadowa,
inwhichpossessionofamoreadvancedtechnologyplayedadecisiveroleintheoutcome.
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Conscriptionwasemployedinindustrialwarfaretoincreasethenumberof
militarypersonnelthatwereavailableforcombat.Thiswasusedby
NapoleonBonaparteintheNapoleonicWars.
Totalwarwasusedinindustrialwarfare,theobjectivebeingtopreventthe
opposingnationtoengageinwar.WilliamTecumsehSherman's"Marchto
theSea"andPhilipSheridan'sburningoftheShenandoahValleyduringthe
AmericanCivilWarandthestrategicbombingofenemycitiesandindustrial
factoriesduringWorldWarIIareexamplesoftotalwarfare.

FrancoPrussianWar

Modernwarfare
Inmoderntimes,warhasevolvedfromanactivitysteepedintraditiontoascientificenterprisewheresuccessisvalued
abovemethods.Thenotionoftotalwaristheextremeofthistrend.Militarieshavedevelopedtechnologicaladvances
rivalingthescientificaccomplishmentsofanyotherfieldofstudy.Modernmilitariesbenefitinthedevelopmentofthese
technologiesunderthefundingofthepublic,theleadershipofnationalgovernments.Whatdistinguishesmodernmilitary
organizationsfromthosepreviousisnottheirwillingnesstoprevailinconflictbyanymethod,butratherthe
technologicalvarietyoftoolsandmethodsavailabletomodernbattlefieldcommanders,fromsubmarinestosatellites,
fromknivestonuclearwarheads.

Seealso
Armyhistory
AncientGreekwarfare
Historyofwar
Militaryscience
Listofmilitarywriters
Maritimehistory
Militaryglobalization
Navalhistory
Militarytime
Romanwarfare

SocietyforMilitaryHistory
MilitaryhistoryofancientRome
MilitaryhistoryofAfrica
MilitaryhistoryofAsia
MilitaryhistoryofEurope
MilitaryhistoryofOceania
MilitaryhistoryofNorthAmerica
MilitaryhistoryofSouthAmerica

Notesandreferences
1.http://usacac.army.mil/organizations/cace/csi/mhic
2."BecomingaMilitaryHistoryInstructorintheArmy".TheGriffon108th.
3.Cowley,Parker,p.xiii
4.WilliamHMcNeill,"ModernEuropeanHistory"inMichaelKammen,ed.,ThePastBeforeUs:ContemporaryHistorical
WritingintheUnitedStates(1980)pp99100
5.JohnA.Lynn,"Theembattledfutureofacademicmilitaryhistory."JournalofMilitaryHistory61.4(1997):77789.
6.IanFWBeckett(2016).AGuidetoBritishMilitaryHistory:TheSubjectandtheSources.PenandSword.p.24.
7.Morillo,Pevkovic,pp.45
8.Black,p.ix
9.Bergen,Hilary,DocumentingShockandAwe:ResearchingOperationEnduringFreedomandOperationIraqiFreedom'
HistoryAssociations,2015.http://www.historyassociates.com/blog/historicalresearchblog/researchingiraqand
afghanistanwars/
10.PaulKennedy,TheRiseandFalloftheGreatPowers:EconomicChangeandMilitaryConflictfrom1500to2000
(RandomHouse,1987)
11.JeffreyKimball,"TheInfluenceofIdeologyonInterpretiveDisagreement:AReportonaSurveyofDiplomatic,Military
andPeaceHistoriansontheCausesof20thCenturyU.S.Wars,"TheHistoryTeacher(May,1984)17#3pp.355384
inJSTOR(http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/493146.pdf)
12."Herodotus:Thefatherofhistory"(http://www.abc.net.au/tasmania/stories/s999564.htm),Warburton
13.Farah,Karls,pp.137138
14.Peters,Ralph.NewGlory:ExpandingAmerica'sSupremacy,2005.p.30
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15.BartonC.Hacker,"Militaryinstitutions,weapons,andsocialchange:Towardanewhistoryofmilitarytechnology."
TechnologyandCulture35.4(1994):768834.
16.MaryAikenLittauer,"ThemilitaryuseofthechariotintheAegeanintheLateBronzeAge."AmericanJournalof
Archaeology76.2(1972):145157.inJSTOR(http://www.jstor.org/stable/503858)
17.P.R.S.Moorey,"Theemergenceofthelight,horsedrawnchariotintheNearEastc.20001500BC."World
Archaeology18.2(1986):196215.
18.RichardErnestDupuy,andTrevorNevittDupuy,Theencyclopediaofmilitaryhistory:from3500BCtothepresent
(1970).
19.RobinD.S.Yates,"NewLightonAncientChineseMilitaryTexts:NotesonTheirNatureandEvolution,andthe
DevelopmentofMilitarySpecializationinWarringStatesChina."T'oungPao(1988):211248.inJSTOR(http://www.j
stor.org/stable/4528419)
20.LeslieJ.Worley,Hippeis:thecavalryofAncientGreece(1994).
21.Keegan,p.73
22.JeffreyRop,"ReconsideringtheOriginoftheScythedChariot."Historia62.2(2013):167181.
23.WilliamGowers,"TheAfricanelephantinwarfare."Africanaffairs46.182(1947):4249.inJSTOR(http://www.jstor.
org/stable/718841)
24.JohnS.Morrison,"TheGreekTrireme."TheMariner'sMirror27.1(1941):1444.
25.H.T.Wallinga,"TheTriremeandHistory"MnemosyneVol.43,Fasc.1/2,1990pp.132149inJSTOR(http://www.jst
or.org/stable/4431893)
26.Moerbeek,Martijn(January21,1998)."ThebattleofSalamis,480BC"(http://monolith.dnsalias.org/~marsares/warfar
e/battle/salamis.html)AccessedMay16,2006.
27.See"TheMedievalCastle"(http://www.timeref.com/casterly.htm).AccessedMay16,2006
28.Selby,Stephen(2001)."ACrossbowMechanismwithSomeUniqueFeaturesfromShandong,China"(http://www.atar
n.org/chinese/bjng_xbow/bjng_xbow.htm).AccessedonMay17,2006.
29.BrendaJ.Buchanan,ed.,Gunpowder,explosivesandthestate:atechnologicalhistory(Ashgate,2006).
30.Calvert,J.B.(February19,2006)"CannonsandGunpowder"(http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/cannon.htm).
AccessedonMay18,2006
31.H.C.B.Rogers,AHistoryofArtillery(1975).
32.Jorge.The"Invincible"Armada(http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/defeat_of_the_armada.htm).Accessedon
May18,2006.
33.TomParrish,TheSubmarine:AHistory(2004)
34."EarlyUnderwaterWarfare".CaliforniaCenterforMilitaryHistory.May18,2006.Archivedfromtheoriginalon
February17,2006.RetrievedMarch2,2016.
35.MartinJ.Brayley,Bayonets:AnIllustratedHistory(2012)
36.JohnChristopher,BalloonsatWar:Gasbags,FlyingBombs&ColdWarSecrets(2004)
37.HMIftekharJaim,andJasmineJaim,"TheDecisiveNatureoftheIndianWarRocketintheAngloMysoreWarsofthe
EighteenthCentury."Arms&Armour8.2(2011):131138.
38.RobertHeld,TheAgeofFirearms:apictorialhistory.(Harper,1957).
39.GeorgeElliotArmstrong,TorpedoesandTorpedovessels(1896)online(https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id
=YDzWQbUP3sUC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=History+Torpedo+Armstrong&ots=Yi8gMyNBO_&sig=bDvs5yoMT1OCw
mQ12xIoHeh_co).
40.PatrickWright,Tank:theprogressofamonstrouswarmachine(Penguin,2003).
41.NormanPolmar,Aircraftcarriers:agraphichistoryofcarrieraviationanditsinfluenceonworldevents(1969).
42.KimColeman,Ahistoryofchemicalwarfare(PalgraveMacmillan,2005).
43.RyanJenkins,WorldWar2:NewTechnologies(2014)
44.PaulP.CraigandJohnA.Jungerman,TheNuclearArmsRace:TechnologyandSociety(1990)
45.JeremyBlack,TheColdWar:AMilitaryHistory(2015)
46.SurenPahlavS.,GeneralSurenaTheHeroofCarrhae
47.s:GreatBattlesofBulgaria
48."MorioriTheimpactofnewarrivals"(http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/Moriori/4/en)
TeAraEncyclopediaofNewZealand
49."ChathamIslands"(http://www.newzealandatoz.com/index.php?pageid=607&PHPSESSID=1c2fab7979e45ccc7c3e733
6e8636142)NewZealandAtoZ

Furtherreading
Archer,I.JohnR.Ferris,HolgerH.Herwig,andTimothyH.E.Travers.WorldHistoryofWarfare(2nded.2008)
638pp
Black,Jeremy.WarfareintheWesternWorld,17751882(2001)240pp.
Black,Jeremy.WarfareintheWesternWorld,18821975(2002),256pp.
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Chambers,JohnWhiteclay,ed.TheOxfordCompaniontoAmericanMilitaryHistory(2000)onlineatOUP
Cowley,Robert,andGeoffreyParker,eds.TheReader'sCompaniontoMilitaryHistory(2001)excellentcoverageby
scholars.Completetextonlinefreeof1996edition(https://web.archive.org/web/20040807042512/college.hmco.com/hi
story/readerscomp/mil/html/mh_000105_entries.htm)
Dear,I.C.B.,andM.R.D.Foot,eds.OxfordCompaniontoWorldWarII(20052nded.2010)onlineatOUP
Doughty,Robert,IraGruber,RoyFlint,andMarkGrimsley.WarfareInTheWesternWorld(2vol1996),
comprehensivetextbook
Dupuy,R.ErnestandTrevorN.Dupuy.TheEncyclopediaofMilitaryHistory:From3500B.C.tothePresent(1977),
1465ppcomprehensivediscussionfocusedonwarsandbattles
Echevarria,AntulioJ.ImaginingFutureWar:TheWest'sTechnologicalRevolutionandVisionsofWarstoCome,1880
1914(2007)
Holmes,Richard,ed.TheOxfordCompaniontoMilitaryHistory(2001)1071pponlineatOUP
Jones,Archer,2001,TheArtofWarintheWesternWorld,UniversityofIllinoisPress.ISBN9780252069666
Keegan,John(1999).TheFirstWorldWar(9thed.).NewYork:RandomHouse.ISBN0375400524.
Kohn,GeorgeC.DictionaryofWars(3rded.2006)704ppveryusefulsummaryacrossworldhistory
Karsten,Peter.ed.,EncyclopediaofWarandAmericanSociety(3vols.,2005).
Lynn,JohnA.Battle:ACulturalHistoryofCombatandCulture(2003).
Parker,Geoffrey,ed.TheCambridgeIllustratedHistoryofWarfare(2008),goodoverview

Historiography
Barnett,Correlli,ShelfordBidwell,BrianBond,andJohnTerraine.OldBattlesandNewDefences:CanWeLearnfrom
MilitaryHistory?(1986).onlineedition(http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15086871#)
Black,Jeremy."DeterminismsandOtherIssues",JournalofMilitaryHistory,68(Oct.2004),121732.inProject
MUSE
Black,Jeremy.RethinkingMilitaryHistory(2004)onlineedition(http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108014389)
Bucholz,Arden."HansDelbruckandModernMilitaryHistory."TheHistorianvol55#3(1993)pp517+.
ChambersII,JohnWhiteclay."TheNewMilitaryHistory:MythandReality",JournalofMilitaryHistory,55(July
1991),395406
Charters,DavidA.,MarcMilner,andJ.BrentWilson.eds.MilitaryHistoryandtheMilitaryProfession,(1992)
Citino,RobertM."MilitaryHistoriesOldandNew:AReintroduction",TheAmericanHistoricalReviewVol.112,no.4
(October2007),pp.10701090onlineversion(http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgibin/resolve?AHRahr.112.4.1070P
DF)
Grimsley,Mark."WhyMilitaryHistorySucks",Nov.1996,WarHistorian.org,onlineat[1](http://www.warhistorian.o
rg/why_military_history_sucks.php)
Karsten,Peter."The'New'AmericanMilitaryHistory:AMapoftheTerritory,ExploredandUnexplored",American
Quarterly,36#3,(1984),389418inJSTOR(http://www.jstor.org/stable/1988340)
Kohn,RichardH."TheSocialHistoryoftheAmericanSoldier:AReviewandProspectusforResearch",American
HistoricalReview,86(June1981),55367.inJSTOR(http://www.jstor.org/stable/1860370)
Lee,WayneE."MindandMatterCulturalAnalysisinAmericanMilitaryHistory:ALookattheStateoftheField",
JournalofAmericanHistory,93(March2007),111642.Fulltext:HistoryCooperativeandEbsco
Lynn,JohnA."RallyOnceAgain:TheEmbattledFutureofAcademicMilitaryHistory",JournalofMilitaryHistory,61
(Oct.1997),77789.
Mearsheimer,JohnJ.LiddellHartandtheWeightofHistory.(1988).234pp.
Messenger,Charles,ed.Reader'sGuidetoMilitaryHistory(Routledge,2001),948ppdetailedguidetothe
historiographyof500topicsexcerptandtextsearch(http://www.amazon.com/ReadersGuideMilitaryHistoryguiides/
dp/1579582419/)
Morillo,Stephen.WhatisMilitaryHistory(2006)
Moyar,Mark."TheCurrentStateofMilitaryHistory",TheHistoricalJournal(2007),50:225240onlineatCJO
Murray,WilliamsonandRichardHartSinnreich,eds.ThePastasPrologue:TheImportanceofHistorytotheMilitary
Profession(2006).
Noe,KennethW.,GeorgeC.RableandCarolReardon."BattleHistories:ReflectionsonCivilWarMilitaryStudies"Civil
WarHistory53#32007.pp229+.onlineedition(http://www.questia.com/read/5022722823?title=Battle%20Histories%3
a%20Reflections%20on%20Civil%20War%20Military%20Studies)
Porch,Douglas."WritingHistoryinthe'EndofHistory'Era:ReflectionsonHistoriansandtheGWOT"Journalof
MilitaryHistory200670(4):10651079.onwaronterror,2001present
Reardon,Carol.SoldiersandScholars:TheU.S.ArmyandtheUsesofMilitaryHistory,18651920.U.Pressof
Kansas1990.270pp.ISBN9780700604661.
Reid,BrianHolden."AmericanMilitaryHistory:theNeedforComparativeAnalysis."JournalofAmericanHistory2007
93(4):11541157.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history

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Reid,BrianHolden,andJosephG.DawsonIII,eds.,"SpecialIssue:TheVistasofAmericanMilitaryHistory,1800
1898",AmericanNineteenthCenturyHistory,7(June2006),139321.
Riseman,Noah."TheRiseofIndigenousMilitaryHistory."HistoryCompass(2014)12#12pp901911.cover20th
century.DOI:10.1111/hic3.12205.
Spector,RonaldH."TeeteringontheBrinkofRespectability."JournalofAmericanHistory200793(4):11581160.
online
Spiller,Roger."MilitaryHistoryanditsFictions."JournalofMilitaryHistory200670(4):10811097.online

Externallinks
InternationalBibliographyofMilitaryHistory(http://www.brill.nl/ib
WikimediaCommonshas
mh)oftheInternationalCommissionofMilitaryHistoryfromBrill.nl
mediarelatedtoMilitary
JournalofChineseMilitaryHistory(http://www.brill.nl/jcmh)from
history.
Brill.nl
MilitaryHistoryEncyclopedia(http://HistoryOfWar.org)attheUK'sHistoryOfWar.org
HWAR,dailydiscussiongroupforhistorians(https://networks.hnet.org/hwar)fromMichiganState
UniversityDepartmentofHistory,HNetHumanities&SocialSciencesOnline
WarHistoryOnline.com(http://www.WarHistoryOnline.com)
AmericanSocietyforMilitaryHistory(http://www.smhhq.org)
JournalofMilitaryHistory(http://www.smhhq.org/jmh.html),thequarterlyjournaloftheSocietyfor
MilitaryHistory
WebSourcesforMilitaryHistory(http://americanhistoryprojects.com/downloads/mil2012.html)from
AmericanHistoryProjects.com
OnlineExhibitionsTheCanadianWarMuseum(https://web.archive.org/web/20160315142653/http://www.w
armuseum.ca/exhibitions/onlineexhibitions/)
USArmyNonCommissionedOfficerhistory(http://www.ncohistory.com)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Military_history&oldid=753141918"
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