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It is the discovering of potential of applicants for actual or anticipated organizational

vacancies. It actually links together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.

“It is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and

encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.”

Thus the purpose of recruitment is to locate sources of manpower to meet job

requirements and job specifications.

Factors affecting Recruitment:

1. The size of the organization.

2. The employment conditions in the community where the organization is located.

3. The effects of past recruiting efforts which show the organization’s ability to locate
and retain the good performing people.

4. Working conditions, salary and benefit packages offered by the organization.

5. Rate of growth of the organization.

6. The future expansion and production programs.

7. Cultural, economic and legal factors.

However these factors may be divided specifically as Internal and External factors.

Internal Factors:

1. Recruitment policy of the organization

2. Human resource planning strategy of the company

3. Size of the organization and number of people employed

4. Cost involved in recruiting employees

5. Growth and expansion plans of the organization

External Factors:

1. Supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market.

2. Political and legal factors like reservations of jobs for specific sections of society etc

3. The job seekers image perception of the company.

Steps of a Recruitment Process:

Personnel recruitment process involves five elements:

1. A recruitment policy

2. A recruitment organization

3. A forecast of manpower

4. The development of sources of recruitment

5. Different techniques used for utilizing these sources & a method of assessing the
recruitment program

These five elements are further elaborated below:

1. Recruitment Policy: It defines the objective of the recruitment and also provides a
framework for the implementation of the recruitment program. The policy should be
based upon corporate goals and needs. The criteria for selection and preferences should
include merit and suitability.

2. Recruitment organization: It is necessary to centralize the recruitment and selection

function in a single office. This will bring about maximum efficiency and success in
hiring. This centralized office is known as the Employee Office or the Recruitment

3. Forecast of Manpower: This usually specifies:

a. Jobs or Operations for which the person should be available.

b. Duration of their employment.

c. Salary to be offered & terms of the employment

d. Necessary qualification and experience

4. Sources of Recruitment: There can be two kinds of sources for recruitment:

a. Internal – This includes personnel already on the payroll of an organization. Whenever

there is a vacancy, somebody within the organization fills in or is upgraded.
b. External – These sources lie outside the organization.

5. Methods of Recruitment: The possible recruiting methods can be divided into three

a. Direct – In this method, recruiters visit colleges and technical schools, e.g. Infosys, the
Tata Group, Accenture, IBM, Siemens and several other companies maintain continuous
relationship with institutions to hire students for responsible positions.

b. Indirect – This involves advertising in newspaper, radio, T.V., journals etc.

Advertising can be very effective if its media is properly chosen.

c. Third Party methods – This include use of commercial or private employment

agencies, placement officials of schools, recruitment firms etc. Friends and relatives of
present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn as part of
the “Buddy Referral” programs.

Thus broadly the Personnel Recruitment Process can be mapped in a Flowchart as below:

Personnel/Human Resource Planning -> Locating needed Personnel -> Selecting

Qualified Personnel -> Placing New Employees on the Job


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performance appraisals purpose - and how to make it

Performance appraisals are essential for the effective management and evaluation of staff.
Appraisals help develop individuals, improve organizational performance, and feed into
business planning. Formal performance appraisals are generally conducted annually for
all staff in the organization. Each staff member is appraised by their line manager.
Directors are appraised by the CEO, who is appraised by the chairman or company
owners, depending on the size and structure of the organization.

Annual performance appraisals enable management and monitoring of standards,

agreeing expectations and objectives, and delegation of responsibilities and tasks. Staff
performance appraisals also establish individual training needs and enable organizational
training needs analysis and planning.
Performance appraisals also typically feed into organizational annual pay and grading
reviews, which commonly also coincides with the business planning for the next trading

Performance appraisals generally review each individual's performance against objectives

and standards for the trading year, agreed at the previous appraisal meeting.

Performance appraisals are also essential for career and succession planning - for
individuals, crucial jobs, and for the organization as a whole.

Performance appraisals are important for staff motivation, attitude and behaviour
development, communicating and aligning individual and organizational aims, and
fostering positive relationships between management and staff.

Performance appraisals provide a formal, recorded, regular review of an individual's

performance, and a plan for future development.

Job performance appraisals - in whatever form they take - are therefore vital for
managing the performance of people and organizations.

Managers and appraisees commonly dislike appraisals and try to avoid them. To these
people the appraisal is daunting and time-consuming. The process is seen as a difficult
administrative chore and emotionally challenging. The annual appraisal is maybe the only
time since last year that the two people have sat down together for a meaningful one-to-
one discussion. No wonder then that appraisals are stressful - which then defeats the
whole purpose.

There lies the main problem - and the remedy.

Appraisals are much easier, and especially more relaxed, if the boss meets each of
the team members individually and regularly for one-to-one discussion throughout
the year.

Meaningful regular discussion about work, career, aims, progress, development, hopes
and dreams, life, the universe, the TV, common interests, etc., whatever, makes
appraisals so much easier because people then know and trust each other - which reduces
all the stress and the uncertainty.

Put off discussions and of course they loom very large.

So don't wait for the annual appraisal to sit down and talk.

The boss or or the appraisee can instigate this.

If you are an employee with a shy boss, then take the lead.
If you are a boss who rarely sits down and talks with people - or whose people are not
used to talking with their boss - then set about relaxing the atmosphere and improving
relationships. Appraisals (and work) all tend to be easier when people communicate well
and know each other.

So sit down together and talk as often as you can, and then when the actual formal
appraisals are due everyone will find the whole process to be far more natural, quick, and
easy - and a lot more productive too.

appraisals, social responsibility and whole-person

There is increasingly a need for performance appraisals of staff and especially managers,
directors and CEO's, to include accountabilities relating to corporate responsibility,
represented by various converging corporate responsibility concepts including: the 'Triple
Bottom Line' ('profit people planet'); corporate social responsibility (CSR);
Sustainability; corporate integrity and ethics; Fair Trade, etc. The organisation must
decide the extent to which these accountabilities are reflected in job responsibilities,
which would then naturally feature accordingly in performance appraisals. More about
this aspect of responsibility is in the directors job descriptions section.

Significantly also, while this appraisal outline is necessarily a formal structure this does
not mean that the development discussed with the appraisee must be formal and
constrained. In fact the opposite applies. Appraisals must address 'whole person'
development - not just job skills or the skills required for the next promotion.

Appraisals must not discriminate against anyone on the grounds of age, gender, sexual
orientation, race, religion, disability, etc.

The UK Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006, (consistent with Europe),

effective from 1st October 2006, make it particularly important to avoid any comments,
judgements, suggestions, questions or decisions which might be perceived by the
appraisee to be based on age. This means people who are young as well as old. Age,
along with other characteristics stated above, is not a lawful basis for assessing and
managing people, unless proper 'objective justification' can be proven. See the Age
Diversity information.

When designing or planning and conducting appraisals, seek to help the 'whole-person' to
grow in whatever direction they want, not just to identify obviously relevant work skills
training. Increasingly, the best employers recognise that growing the 'whole person'
promotes positive attitudes, advancement, motivation, and also develops lots of new
skills that can be surprisingly relevant to working productively and effectively in any sort
of organisation.
Developing the whole-person is also an important aspect of modern corporate
responsibility, and separately (if you needed a purely business-driven incentive for
adopting these principles), whole-person development is a crucial advantage in the
employment market, in which all employers compete to attract the best recruits, and to
retain the best staff.

Therefore in appraisals, be creative and imaginative in discussing, discovering and

agreeing 'whole-person' development that people will respond to, beyond the usual job
skill-set, and incorporate this sort of development into the appraisal process. Abraham
Maslow recognised this over fifty years ago.

If you are an employee and your employer has yet to embrace or even acknowledge these
concepts, do them a favour at your own appraisal and suggest they look at these ideas, or
maybe mention it at your exit interview prior to joining a better employer who cares
about the people, not just the work.

Incidentally the Multiple Intelligences test and VAK Learning Styles test are extremely
useful tools for appraisals, before or after, to help people understand their natural
potential and strengths and to help managers understand this about their people too. There
are a lot of people out there who are in jobs which don't allow them to use and develop
their greatest strengths; so the more we can help folk understand their own special
potential, and find roles that really fit well, the happier we shall all be.

are performance appraisals still beneficial and

It is sometimes fashionable in the 'modern age' to dismiss traditional processes such as
performance appraisals as being irrelevant or unhelpful. Be very wary however if
considering removing appraisals from your own organisational practices. It is likely that
the critics of the appraisal process are the people who can't conduct them very well. It's a
common human response to want to jettison something that one finds difficult.
Appraisals - in whatever form, and there are various - have been a mainstay of
management for decades, for good reasons.

Think about everything that performance appraisals can achieve and contribute to when
they are properly managed, for example:

• performance measurement - transparent, short, medium and long term

• clarifying, defining, redefining priorities and objectives
• motivation through agreeing helpful aims and targets
• motivation though achievement and feedback
• training needs and learning desires - assessment and agreement
• identification of personal strengths and direction - including unused hidden
• career and succession planning - personal and organisational
• team roles clarification and team building
• organisational training needs assessment and analysis
• appraisee and manager mutual awareness, understanding and relationship
• resolving confusions and misunderstandings
• reinforcing and cascading organisational philosophies, values, aims, strategies,
priorities, etc
• delegation, additional responsibilities, employee growth and development
• counselling and feedback
• manager development - all good managers should be able to conduct appraisals
well - it's a fundamental process
• the list goes on..

People have less and less face-to-face time together these days. Performance appraisals
offer a way to protect and manage these valuable face-to-face opportunities. My advice is
to hold on to and nurture these situations, and if you are under pressure to replace
performance appraisals with some sort of (apparently) more efficient and cost effective
methods, be very sure that you can safely cover all the aspects of performance and
attitudinal development that a well-run performance appraisals system is naturally
designed to achieve.

There are various ways of conducting performance appraisals, and ideas change over
time as to what are the most effective appraisals methods and systems. Some people
advocate traditional appraisals and forms; others prefer 360-degree-type appraisals;
others suggest using little more than a blank sheet of paper.

In fact performance appraisals of all types are effective if they are conducted
properly, and better still if the appraisal process is clearly explained to, agreed by, the
people involved.

Managers need guidance, training and encouragement in how to conduct appraisals

properly. Especially the detractors and the critics. Help anxious managers (and directors)
develop and adapt appraisals methods that work for them. Be flexible. There are lots of
ways to conduct appraisals, and particularly lots of ways to diffuse apprehension and fear
- for managers and appraisees alike. Particularly - encourage people to sit down together
and review informally and often - this removes much of the pressure for managers and
appraisees at formal appraisals times. Leaving everything to a single make-or-break
discussion once a year is asking for trouble and trepidation.

Look out especially for the warning signs of 'negative cascaded attitudes' towards
appraisals. This is most often found where a senior manager or director hates conducting
appraisals, usually because they are uncomfortable and inexperienced in conducting
them. The senior manager/director typically will be heard to say that appraisals don't
work and are a waste of time, which for them becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. This
attitude and behaviour then cascades down to their appraisees (all the people in their
team) who then not surprisingly also apply the same 'no good - not doing it' negative
attitude to their own appraisals responsibilities (teams). And so it goes. A 'no good - not
doing it' attitude in the middle ranks is almost invariably traceable back to a senior
manager or director who holds the same view. As with anything, where people need help
doing the right thing, help them.

All that said, performance appraisals that are administered without training (for those
who need it), without explanation or consultation, and conducted poorly will be
counter-productive and are a waste of everyone's time.

Well-prepared and well-conducted performance appraisals provide unique

opportunities to help appraisees and managers improve and develop, and thereby
also the organisations for whom they work.

Just like any other process, if performance appraisals aren't working, don't blame the
process, ask yourself whether it is being properly trained, explained, agreed and

effective performance appraisals

Aside from formal traditional (annual, six-monthly, quarterly, or monthly) performance
appraisals, there are many different methods of performance evaluation. The use of any
of these methods depends on the purpose of the evaluation, the individual, the assessor,
and the environment.

The formal annual performance appraisal is generally the over-riding instrument which
gathers together and reviews all other performance data for the previous year.

Performance appraisals should be positive experiences. The appraisals process provides

the platform for development and motivation, so organizations should foster a feeling that
performance appraisals are positive opportunities, in order to get the best out of the
people and the process. In certain organizations, performance appraisals are widely
regarded as something rather less welcoming ('bollocking sessions' is not an unusual
description), which provides a basis only on which to develop fear and resentment, so
never, never, never use a staff performance appraisal to handle matters of discipline or
admonishment, which should instead be handled via separately arranged meetings.

types of performance and aptitude assessments, including formal

performance appraisals

• Formal annual performance appraisals

• Probationary reviews
• Informal one-to-one review discussions
• Counselling meetings
• Observation on the job
• Skill- or job-related tests
• Assignment or task followed by review, including secondments (temporary job
cover or transfer)
• Assessment centres, including observed group exercises, tests presentations, etc.
• Survey of opinion of others who have dealings with the individual
• Psychometric tests and other behavioural assessments
• Graphology (handwriting analysis)

None of these methods is mutually exclusive. All of these performance assessment

methods can be used in conjunction with others in the list, depending on situation and
organizational policy. Where any of these processes is used, the manager must keep a
written record, and must ensure agreed actions are followed up. The notes of all review
situations can then be referred to at the formal appraisal.

Holding regular informal one-to-one review meetings greatly reduces the pressure and
time required for the annual formal appraisal meeting. Holding informal reviews every
month is ideal all staff. There are several benefits of reviewing frequently and informally:

• The manager is better informed and more up-to-date with his or her people's
activities (and more in touch with what lies beyond, e.g., customers, suppliers,
competitors, markets, etc)
• Difficult issues can be identified, discussed and resolved quickly, before they
become more serious.
• Help can be given more readily - people rarely ask unless they see a good
opportunity to do so - the regular informal review provides just this.
• Assignments, tasks and objectives can be agreed completed and reviewed quickly
- leaving actions more than a few weeks reduces completion rates significantly for
all but the most senior and experienced people.
• Objectives, direction, and purpose is more up-to-date - modern organizations
demand more flexibility than a single annual review allows - priorities often
change through the year, so people need to be re-directed and re-focused.
• Training and development actions can be broken down into smaller more
digestible chunks, increasing success rates and motivational effect as a result.
• The 'fear factor', often associated by many with formal appraisals, is greatly
reduced because people become more comfortable with the review process.
• Relationships and mutual understanding develops more quickly with greater
frequency of meetings between manager and staff member.
• Staff members can be better prepared for the formal appraisal, giving better
results, and saving management time.
• Much of the review has already been covered throughout the year by the time
comes for the formal appraisal.
• Frequent review meetings increase the reliability of notes and performance data,
and reduces the chances of overlooking things at the formal appraisal.
performance appraisals process

• Prepare - prepare all materials, notes agreed tasks and records of performance,
achievements, incidents, reports etc - anything pertaining to performance and
achievement - obviously include the previous performance appraisal documents
and a current job description. A good appraisal form will provide a good natural
order for proceedings, so use one. If your organization doesn't have a standard
appraisal form then locate one, or use the template below to create one, or
download and/or adapt the appraisal forms from this page. Whatever you use,
ensure you have the necessary approval from your organization, and understand
how it works. Organize your paperwork to reflect the order of the appraisal and
write down the sequence of items to be covered. If the appraisal form includes a
self assessment section and/or feedback section (good ones do) ensure this is
passed to the appraisee suitably in advance of the appraisal with relevant guidance
for completion. A sample performance appraisal template is available free below,
which you can adapt and use to create your own form. Part of your preparation
should also consider 'whole-person' development - beyond and outside of the job
skill-set - as might inspire and appeal to the appraisees. Many people are not
particularly interested in job skills training, but will be very interested, stimulated
and motivated by other learning and development experiences. Get to know what
your people are good at outside of their work. People's natural talents and
passions often contain significant overlaps with the attributes, behaviours and
maturity that are required and valued in the workplace. Use your imagination in
identifying these opportunities to encourage 'whole-person' development and you
will find appraisals can become very positive and enjoyable activities. Appraisals
are not just about job performance and job skills training. Appraisals should focus
on helping the 'whole person' to grow and attain fulfilment.
• Inform - inform the appraisee - ensure the appraisee is informed of a suitable
time and place (change it if necessary), and clarify purpose and type of appraisal -
give the appraisee the chance to assemble data and relevant performance and
achievement records and materials. If the appraisal form does not imply a natural
order for the discussion then provide an agenda of items to be covered.
• Venue - ensure a suitable venue is planned and available - private and free from
interruptions - observe the same rules as with recruitment interviewing - avoid
hotel lobbies, public lounges, canteens - privacy is absolutely essential (it follows
also that planes, trains and automobiles are entirely unsuitable venues for
performance appraisals......)
• Layout - room layout and and seating are important elements to prepare also -
don't simply accept whatever layout happens to exist in a borrowed or hired room
- layout has a huge influence on atmosphere and mood - irrespective of content,
the atmosphere and mood must be relaxed and informal - remove barriers - don't
sit in the boss's chair with the other person positioned humbly on the other side of
the desk; you must create a relaxed situation, preferably at a meeting table or in
easy chairs - sit at an angle to each other, 90 degrees ideally - avoid face to face,
it's confrontational.
• Introduction - relax the appraisee - open with a positive statement, smile, be
warm and friendly - the appraisee may well be terrified; it's your responsibility to
create a calm and non-threatening atmosphere. Set the scene - simply explain
what will happen - encourage a discussion and as much input as possible from the
appraisee - tell them it's their meeting not yours. Confirm the timings, especially
finishing time. If helpful and appropriate begin with some general discussion
about how things have been going, but avoid getting into specifics, which are
covered next (and you can say so). Ask if there are any additional points to cover
and note them down so as to include them when appropriate.
• Review and measure - review the activities, tasks, objectives and achievements
one by one, keeping to distinct separate items one by one - avoid going off on
tangents or vague unspecific views. If you've done your preparation correctly you
will have an order to follow. If something off-subject comes up then note it down
and say you'll return to it later (and ensure you do). Concentrate on hard facts and
figures, solid evidence - avoid conjecture, anecdotal or non-specific opinions,
especially about the appraisee. Being objective is one of the greatest challenges
for the appraiser - as with interviewing, resist judging the appraisee in your own
image, according to your own style and approach - facts and figures are the acid
test and provide a good neutral basis for the discussion, free of bias and personal
views. For each item agree a measure of competence or achievement as relevant,
and according to whatever measure or scoring system is built into the appraisal
system. This might be simply a yes or no, or it might be a percentage or a mark
out of ten, or an A, B, C. Reliable review and measurement requires reliable data -
if you don't have the reliable data you can't review and you might as well re-
arrange the appraisal meeting. If a point of dispute arises, you must get the facts
straightened out before making an important decision or judgement, and if
necessary defer to a later date.
• Agree an action plan - An overall plan should be agreed with the appraisee,
which should take account of the job responsibilities, the appraisee's career
aspirations, the departmental and whole organization's priorities, and the reviewed
strengths and weaknesses. The plan can be staged if necessary with short, medium
and long term aspects, but importantly it must be agreed and realistic.
• Agree specific objectives - These are the specific actions and targets that together
form the action plan. As with any delegated task or agreed objective these must
adhere to the SMARTER rules - specific, measurable, agreed, realistic, time-
bound, enjoyable, recorded. If not, don't bother. The objectives can be anything
that will benefit the individual, and that the person is happy to commit to. When
helping people to develop, you are not restricted to job-related objectives,
although typically most objectives will be.
• Agree necessary support - This is the support required for the appraisee to
achieve the objectives, and can include training of various sorts (external courses
and seminars, internal courses, coaching, mentoring, secondment, shadowing,
distance-learning, reading, watching videos, attending meetings and workshops,
workbooks, manuals and guides; anything relevant and helpful that will help the
person develop towards the standard and agreed task. Also consider training and
development that relates to 'whole-person development' outside of job skills.
This might be a hobby or a talent that the person wants to develop.
Developing the whole person in this way will bring benefits to their role, and
will increase motivation and loyalty. The best employers understand the
value of helping the whole person to develop. Be careful to avoid committing to
training expenditure before suitable approval, permission or availability has been
confirmed - if necessary discuss likely training requirements with the relevant
authority before the appraisal to check. Raising false hopes is not helpful to the
• Invite any other points or questions - make sure you capture any other
• Close positively - Thank the appraisee for their contribution to the meeting and
their effort through the year, and commit to helping in any way you can.
• Record main points, agreed actions and follow-up - Swiftly follow-up the
meeting with all necessary copies and confirmations, and ensure documents are
filed and copied to relevant departments, (HR, and your own line manager

performance appraisal form template guide and process

This performance appraisal template and process guide has been created to support the
downloadable appraisal forms available from this page, but the process and the forms can
be adapted to suit your own situation.

Here is a free performance appraisal form in pdf format, and here is the same
performance appraisal form in MSWord format. Both versions of the appraisal form were
revised August 2006. These free forms are based on the template and process below,
which also act as instructions and guidelines for the form.

The structure is formal but the process and content does not have to be constrained by
work and job issues. Always be looking for opportunities to help the person develop
beyond their formal work responsibilities. Not everyone is interested in promotion, and
lots of people find job-skills training less than riveting, but nearly everyone has
something in them that they want to pursue and develop. When appraising someone if
you can tap into these desires and help the other person to achieve their own personal
aims, then everyone wins. If the connection with work don't seem obvious at first, the
benefits from personal growth generally produce dramatic and positive benefits for
employers and work performance.

Obviously a certain amount of work-related training is necessary for good work

performance and advancement, but the biggest advantages accrue to the employing
organisation when people grow as people, outside of their job skills sets. In fact most of
the really important attributes for work are distinctly outside of the typical job skills:
factors relating to emotional maturity, self-esteem, relationships, self-awareness,
understanding others, commitment, enthusiasm, resoluteness, etc., are typically
developed far more effectively in people when they follow their own paths and fulfil their
own natural desires, rather than on endless (and for many people somewhat meaningless)
job-skills courses.

So be imaginative and creative. Use the template and process as a structure for the
appraisal process, but don't constrain the areas of personal development to those only
related to the job and work standards and organisational objectives. Be led by the people
about what they love and enjoy, and what they want to develop and experience in their
lives. And then look for ways to help them achieve these things. This is the true way to
develop people.

performance appraisal form template/sample

Remember this is just a structure for the process - the content and the direction of
personal development is as flexible as your organisation allows, or can be persuaded to
allow. Use your imagination to develop people in the way they want to go, not just the
way the organisation thinks it needs people to be.

A free sample appraisal document in this format is available from this site in MSWord or
pdf (acrobat) versions:

performance appraisal form (pdf) sample/template - downloadable pdf (revised August


performance appraisal form (MSWord) sample/template - downloadable MSWord file

(revised August 2006)

Obviously the first part of a formal document like this needs to contain essential
identifying data:

• organization, division and department

• year or period covered
• name
• position
• location/site/based at/contact details (e.g., email)
• months in present position
• length of service

N.B. The UK (consistent with Europe) Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006,
effective from 1st October 2006, make it unlawful to discriminate against anyone on the
grounds of age. As such, while not unlawful, the inclusion of age and date-of-birth
sections on appraisal forms is not recommended (along with all other documentation used
in assessing people). See the Age Diversity information for more details.
Part A (to be completed by the appraisee before the interview and sent to the appraiser x
days before the appraisal)

A1 State your understanding of your duties and responsibilities.

A2 Discussion points: (not exhaustive or definitive - for more ideas look at the
interviews questions)

1. Has the past year been good/bad/satisfactory or otherwise for you, and why?
2. What do you consider to be your most important achievements of the past year?
3. What do you like and dislike about working for this organization?
4. What elements of your job do you find most difficult?
5. What elements of your job interest you the most, and least?
6. What do you consider to be your most important tasks in the next year?
7. What action could be taken to improve your performance in your current position
by you, and your boss?
8. What kind of work or job would you like to be doing in one/two/five years time?
9. What sort of training/experience would benefit you in the next year? Broaden
this question to include 'whole-person development' beyond job skills - for
example: What do you have a personal passion for that we might help you to
pursue? (It's a fact that when person develops interests, talents and experiences
that they truly love and enjoy - even if the area seems completely unrelated to
work - then the person becomes more valuable, mature, and motivated at work
too, because they have grown as a person. Within reason, employers can and
should help people to develop in any way they wish, and often even the most
unconnected development or experiences hold much valuable learning that are
directly transferable and usable at work - all it takes is a bit of imagination.)

A3 List the objectives you set out to achieve in the past 12 months (or the period covered
by this appraisal) with the measures or standards agreed - against each comment on
achievement or otherwise, with reasons where appropriate. Score the performance against
each objective (1-3 = poor, 4-6 = satisfactory, 7-9 = good, 10 = excellent):

A4 Score your own capability or knowledge in the following areas in terms of your
current role requirements (1-3 = poor, 4-6 = satisfactory, 7-9 = good, 10 = excellent). If
appropriate bring evidence with you to the appraisal to support your assessment. (This
list is not exhaustive or definitive - the list should reflect the requirements of the job
and the career path.) See the skills and behaviours assessment tools for other aspects to
include in this list. Other roles in other industries, for example technical, engineering,
healthcare, legal, finance, leisure, transport, construction, etc, will require different skill
sets. These are examples of a typical commercial or management skill set.

1. commercial judgement
2. product/technical knowledge
3. time management
4. planning, budgeting and forecasting
5. reporting and administration
6. communication skills
7. delegation skills
8. IT/equipment/machinery skills
9. meeting expectations, deadlines and commitments
10. creativity
11. problem-solving and decision-making
12. team-working and developing/helping others
13. energy, determination and work-rate
14. steadiness under pressure
15. leadership and integrity
16. adaptability, flexibility, and mobility
17. personal appearance and image
18. appreciation and application of social responsibility, sustainability, and ethical

A5 In light of your current capabilities, your performance against past objectives, and
your future personal growth and/or job aspirations, what activities and tasks would you
like to focus on during the next year. Include in this any 'whole-person non-work-related
development that the person feels would help them to grow and become more fulfilled as
a person.

Part B (to be completed during the appraisal by the appraiser - where appropriate and
safe to do so, certain items can completed by the appraiser before the appraisal, and then
discussed and validated or amended in discussion with the appraisee during the

name of appraiser:


time managing appraisee:

B1 Describe the purpose of the appraisee's job. Discuss and compare with self-
appraisal entry in A1. Clarify job purpose and priorities where necessary.

B2 Review discussion points in A2, and note the points of interest and action.

B3 List the objectives that the appraisee set out to achieve in the past 12 months (or the
period covered by this appraisal - typically these objectives will have been carried
forward from the previous appraisal record) with the measures or standards agreed -
against each comment on achievement or otherwise, with reasons where appropriate.
Score the performance against each objective (1-3 = poor, 4-6 = satisfactory, 7-9 = good,
10 = excellent). Compare with the self-appraisal in B3. Discuss and note points of
interest and action, particularly training and development needs and wishes.
B4 Score the appraisee's capability or knowledge in the following areas in terms of their
current (and if known, next) role requirements (1-3 = poor, 4-6 = satisfactory, 7-9 = good,
10 = excellent). NB This competencies list is not exhaustive or definitive - the list should
reflect the requirements of the job and the career path. See also the skills and behaviours
assessment tools for other aspects to include in this list. Other roles in other industries,
for example technical, engineering, healthcare, legal, finance, leisure, transport,
construction, etc, will require different skill sets. These are examples of a typical
commercial or management skill set. Compare with the self-appraisal in B4. Discuss
and note points of interest and action, particularly training and development needs
and wishes.

1. commercial judgement
2. product/technical knowledge
3. time management
4. planning, budgeting and forecasting
5. reporting and administration
6. communication skills
7. delegation skills
8. IT/equipment/machinery skills
9. meeting expectations, deadlines and commitments
10. creativity
11. problem-solving and decision-making
12. team-working and developing/helping others
13. energy, determination and work-rate
14. steadiness under pressure
15. leadership and integrity
16. adaptability, flexibility, and mobility
17. personal appearance and image
18. appreciation and application of social responsibility, sustainability, and ethical

B5 Discuss and agree the appraisee's career direction options and wishes, and readiness
for promotion, and compare with and discuss the self-appraisal entry in A5. Some
people do not wish for promotion, but everyone is capable of, and generally benefits
from, personal development - development and growth should be available to all, not just
the ambitious. Again consider 'whole-person' development outside of obvious work-
related training.

B6 Discuss and agree the skills, capabilities and experience required for competence in
current role, and if appropriate for readiness to progress to the next role or roles. It is
usually helpful to refer to the skill-set or similar to that shown in A/B4, in order to
accurately identify all development areas, whether for competence at current level or
readiness to progress to next job level/type. Consider the connections between a person's
natural talents, personal interests, passions, etc., to their work roles and their work
aspirations. There are often huge overlaps between ' whole-person development'
outcomes (which might not obviously relate to work) and the person's job. A person who
becomes better at anything outside of their work almost always becomes better at their
work too. The big difference of course is that people want to pursue their own personal
passions and interests, whereas many are not so keen to attend job skills training courses
that to them are far less stimulating. Seek to help the person to grow in whatever
direction they want, not just to identify relevant work skills training.

B7 Discuss and agree the specific objectives that will enable the appraisee to reach
competence and to meet required performance in current job. These must adhere to the
SMARTER rules - specific, measurable, agreed, realistic, time-bound, enjoyable,

B8 Discuss and agree the specific objectives that will enable the appraisee to move
towards, or achieve readiness for, the next job level/type, or if no particular next role is
identified or sought, to achieve the desired personal growth or experience. Must also
adhere to SMARTER rules.

B9 Discuss and agree as far as is possible (given budgetary, availability and authorisation
considerations) the training and development support to be given to help the appraisee
meet the agree objectives.

NB Appraisers should note that personal development and support must be offered to all
employees, not just the ambitious. Job-skills training isn't restricted to sending someone
on an external course - it includes internal courses, coaching, mentoring (mentoring
someone else and well as being mentored), secondment to another role (eg, deputising for
someone while they are away on holiday), shadowing, distance-learning, reading books,
watching videos, attending meetings and workshops, workbooks, manuals and guides,
researching, giving presentations; anything relevant and helpful that will help the person
develop towards the standards and aims, and as a person. Training and development
should not be restricted to job-skills. Discuss ways to help the person achieve whatever
personal development and experiences that they feel passionate about, even if initially
there seems no relationship or benefit to the work and the job because almost certainly
there will be: often in the skills themselves, and if not, then almost always in the
increased wisdom and maturity that comes from any sort of personal growth.

Avoid giving commitment to an appraisee for any training expenditure before suitable
approval, permission or availability has been confirmed - discuss likely training and
development requirements with the relevant authority before the appraisal to check on
policies and options and approvals. Raising false hopes is not helpful to the appraisal

B10 Any other issues (it's important to offer the opportunity to the appraisee to raise any
other points, even if they need to be discussed at another meeting, outside of the appraisal
process, which would generally be the case.)

Signed and dated appraiser and appraisee:

(Finally it's advisable to show instructions as to the distribution of copies of the
completed form, a reminder of its confidential nature, and a statement as to the
individual's rights under the data protection laws applicable.)

tools for appraisals, assessments and individual/group

training needs analysis
The following are few examples of tools and materials that relate closely to the appraisals
process, and particularly for identifying and prioritising individual and collective group
training needs, all of which is commonly referred to Training Needs Analysis, or TNA.

Modern integrated computerised HR/training management systems will offer more

sophisticated functionality than these simple tools, however these templates and traning
needs analysis (TNA) spreadsheets can be useful for basic requirements, and also for
specifying and evolving more modern complex learning and development management

Bear in mind that these assessments and TNA tools are concerned principally with
conventional work skills and attributes, and how to identify and prioritise group
development needs. You should consider separately how best develop unique personal
potential in every person, since a person's unique personal potential is usually quite
different to the skills implied or required by their job role. See the 'Fantasticat' concept
for ideas about nurturing and encouraging development of unique personal potential.

Various other templates and tools for learning and development which can be used
alongside appraisals processes are available from the free resources section.

The resources below are available as in different file formats including PDF's, MSWord
or Excel working tools.

Overview of Training and Development

Training and development -- or "learning and development" as many refer to it now -- is
one of the most important aspects to our lives and our work. In our culture, we highly
value learning. Yet, despite our having attended many years of schooling, many of us
have no idea how to carefully design an approach to training and development. This topic
in the Library provides an extensive range of information about training and
development, including to depict how that information is organized. So the goal of the
topic is not only to convey lots of information, but to help the reader gain a broad
understanding of how training and development can be designed to meet the nature and
needs of the reader.

Training & Development

Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. It improves the

employee’s performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job.

Development not only improves job performance but also brings about the growth of the
personality. Individuals not only mature regarding their potential capacities but also
become better individuals.

Difference between Training & Development:


1. It’s a short term process.

2. Refers to instruction in technical and mechanical problems
3. Targeted in most cases for non-managerial personnel
4. Specific job related purpose


1. It is a long term educational process.

2. Refers to philosophical and theoretical educational concepts
3. Managerial personnel
4. General knowledge purpose

Purpose of Training:

1. To improve Productivity: Training leads to increased operational productivity

and increased company profit.
2. To improve Quality: Better trained workers are less likely to make operational
3. To improve Organizational Climate: Training leads to improved production
and product quality which enhances financial incentives. This in turn increases the
overall morale of the organization.
4. To increase Health and Safety: Proper training prevents industrial accidents.
5. Personal Growth: Training gives employees a wider awareness, an enlarged skill
base and that leads to enhanced personal growth.

Steps in Training Process:

1. Discovering or Identifying Training needs: A training program is designed to
assist in providing solutions for specific operational problems or to improve
performance of a trainee.
o Organizational determination and Analysis: Allocation of resources
that relate to organizational goal.
o Operational Analysis: Determination of a specific employee behaviour
required for a particular task.
o Man Analysis: Knowledge, attitude and skill one must possess for
attainment of organizational objectives

2. Getting ready for the job: The trainer has to be prepared for the job. And also
who needs to be trained - the newcomer or the existing employee or the
supervisory staff.
3. Preparation of the learner:
o Putting the learner at ease
o Stating the importance and ingredients of the job
o Creating interest
o Placing the learner as close to his normal working position
o Familiarizing him with the equipment, materials and trade terms
4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge: The trainer should clearly tell,
show, illustrate and question in order to convey the new knowledge and
operations. The trainee should be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate
that he really knows and understands the job.
5. Performance Try out: The trainee is asked to go through the job several times.
This gradually builds up his skill, speed and confidence.
6. Follow-up: This evaluates the effectiveness of the entire training effort

The Sequence of Training Program can be put in a Flowchart as below:

Discovering or Identifying Training Needs -> Getting Ready for the job -> Preparation
of Learner (Creating desire) -> Presentation of Operation & Knowledge ->
Performance Try out -> Follow up and Evaluation

Training Techniques:

An effective training fulfills the following criteria:

1. Adaptation of the technique/method to the learner and the job

2. Provides motivation to the trainee to improve job performance
3. Creates trainee’s active participation in the learning process
4. Provide knowledge of results about attempts to improve

Management development attempts to improve managerial performance by imparting

1. Knowledge
2. Changing attitudes
3. Increasing skills

The major objective of development is managerial effectiveness through a planned and a

deliberate process of learning. This provides for a planned growth of managers to meet
the future organizational needs.

Development Process:

1. Setting Development Objectives: It develops a framework from which executive

need can be determined.
2. Ascertaining Development Needs: It aims at organizational planning & forecast
the present and future growth.
3. Determining Development Needs: This consists of
o Appraisal of present management talent
o Management Manpower Inventory

The above two processes will determine the skill deficiencies that are relative to the
future needs of the organization.

1. Conducting Development Programs: It is carried out on the basis of needs of

different individuals, differences in their attitudes and behaviour, also their
physical, intellectual and emotional qualities. Thus a comprehensive and well
conceived program is prepared depending on the organizational needs and the
time & cost involved.
2. Program Evaluation: It is an attempt to assess the value of training in order to
achieve organizational objectives.

The Development process can be pictorially represented in a Flowchart as below:

Setting Development Objectives -> Ascertaining Development Needs -> Determining

Development Needs -> Conducting Development Program -> Program Evaluation