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Towards a REgulatory FRamework for the usE of Structural new materials in

railway passenger and freight Bodyshells

Grant Agreement no.: 605632

WP 6.4
Joint acceptance criteria
Deliverable:

D6.4

Due date of deliverable:

M27

Submission date:

26 02 2016

Version:

Final

Project co-funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework


Programme

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

REFRESCO Deliverable D6.4 was produced by BT and received contributions


from the following members of the consortium:
-

CAF

DLR

UNEW

This document should be referenced as:


REFRESCO- Joint behaviour, Deliverable 6.3, version 01
QUALITY CONTROL INFORMATION
Issue

Date

Description

Revising Authorship

Draft 1

06.11.2015

Draft version of REFRESCO Jan PROCKAT


D6.4 for TMT COMMENT

Final

26.11.2015

(BOMBARDIER)

Submission of REFRESCO D6.4 Hendrik SEIDLER


final version to the EC

(BOMBARDIER)

DOCUMENT HISTORY
Issue

Date

Pages

Comment

19.06.2015

All

Initial issue (Draft 1)

06.11.2015

All

Draft 1

26.11.2015

All

Final

15.12.2015

13/15/16/19/29 Rev_1

DISSEMINATION LEVEL
PU
PP

RE

CO

Public
Restricted

[X]
to

other

programme

participants

(including

the

Commission Services)
Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the
Commission Services)
Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the
Commission Services)

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Work Package 6.4 deals with acceptance criteria for joints used for new
materials.

Destructive and Non- destructive test measures have been investigated


to become able to have acceptance criteria in manufacturing

This measures have been clustered to the three most relevant joining
principles

Gaps in the Regulatory framework have been highlighted

A recommendation for the use of the different norms in relation to the


material has been given

A recommendation for the structure of a future framework for joining


principles has been made

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

Table of Contents
1

INTRODUCTION INTO OJECTIVE OF WP 6.4 .................................................... 6

TESTING PROCESSES ........................................................................................ 7


2.1 GENERAL .......................................................................................................... 7
2.2 DESTRUCTIVE TESTING ................................................................................. 8
2.3 NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING ...................................................................... 16
2.4 RECOMMENDATION FOR THE RAIL INDUSTRY ......................................... 24

REGULATIVE FRAMEWORK PROPOSAL/ APPROACH ................................ 25

SUMMARY .......................................................................................................... 31

APPENDIX .......................................................................................................... 32
5.1 APPENDIX A ....................................................................................................... 32

REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 34

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

List of tables
TABLE 1 SHORTLIST OF MATERIALS CONSIDERED FOR PROCESS DETERMINATION ............................ 8
TABLE 2 ALLOWABLE TOLERANCES FOR WELDING ....................................................................... 17
TABLE 3 COMPARISON OF WALL THICKNESS VS. VOLTAGE ............................................................ 18
TABLE 4 RECOMMENDED FRAMEWORKS ..................................................................................... 30

List of figures
FIGURE 1 BENDING TEST PRINCIPLE ............................................................................................. 9
FIGURE 2 TENSILE TEST SPECIMEN ............................................................................................. 10
FIGURE 3 CREEP TENSILE TEST EXPERIMENTAL SET UP............................................................ 10
FIGURE 4 PEEL TEST SET UP EXAMPLE ................................................................................... 11
FIGURE 5 TENSILE TEST FOR LOW TEMPERATURES - SPECIMEN ................................................... 11
FIGURE 6 TENSILE TEST FOR SPECIMEN WITH ROUNDED NOTCH - SPECIMEN ................................ 12
FIGURE 7 SCHEMATIC FOR TENSILE TEST................................................................................... 13
FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC FOR COMPRESSION SHEAR TEST.............................................................. 13
FIGURE 9 SCHEMATIC FOR TENSILE SHEAR TEST ....................................................................... 14
FIGURE 10 SCHEMATIC FOR TORSION SHEAR TEST .................................................................... 14
FIGURE 11 SCHEMATIC FOR PEEL TEST ..................................................................................... 14
FIGURE 12 PRINCIPLE OF ULTRA SONIC TESTING FOR WELDS ..................................................... 18
FIGURE 13 PRINCIPLE OF ULTRA SONIC TESTING ....................................................................... 20
FIGURE 14 PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRICAL METHOD ......................................................................... 21
FIGURE 15 PRINCIPLE OF THERMAL METHOD .............................................................................. 21
FIGURE 16 PRINCIPLE OF X-RAY TESTING ................................................................................... 22
FIGURE 17 PRINCIPLE OF ACTOR-SENSOR SYSTEM ..................................................................... 23
FIGURE 18 FREQUENCY SHIFT IN A LOCK BOLT JOINT BETWEEN 1 AND 10KN ................................ 23
FIGURE 19 SCREENSHOT FROM EN15085 REGARDING STRESS CATEGORIES............................... 28

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

INTRODUCTION INTO OJECTIVE OF WP 6.4


The WP 6.4 - Joint acceptance criteria is part of the REFRESCO WP 6 - Joint
and Manufacturing. Work package WP 6 is structured into the following sub packages:

WP 6.1 Materials manufacturing and processes,

WP 6.2 Manufacturing acceptance criteria

WP 6.3 Joint behaviour

WP 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

WP 6.1 and WP 6.2 are dealing with the material and related manufacturing. WP
6.3 combines materials with joints and gives an overview about influencing process
parameters.

WP 6.4 aims to give an overview about the different testing possibilities to be


able to check if the expected and needed property of a joint connection inside of or
between components/ assemblies has been reached.

It is clustered into destructive and non-destructive testing related to the fact that
different testing processes will be used to validate different kinds of requirements.

WP 6.3 has shown in its chapter 4 that there is no rail specific regulation
framework existing for the different joining processes. To satisfy the needs of
REFRESCO the WP 6.4 will try to outline which topics such a framework should cover.
Therefore it will partly refer on existing norms which are already in use or preparation
and which can be used in one or the other way to contribute to this framework.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

TESTING PROCESSES
2.1

GENERAL
This chapter will summarise which testing processes are available to prove that

the properties of a joint is as expected and needed to fulfil the given/ expected
specification/ requirements.

The focus is to show opportunities for testing after/ during serial production as
well for the incoming and outgoing good control.

Consequently this will be non- destructive measures with the objective to


compare their test results with the acceptance criteria to show/ document the stability
of a serial manufacturing and to support the QA process.
The acceptance criteria need to be defined in advance for each specific
connection by a combination of non-destructive and destructive methods.

To gain very specific information about the properties of joints also destructive
measures are needed. To be complete the basic tests will be mentioned too.

Therefore it will be differentiated between the three joining principles worked out
in WP 6.3.

Welding

Bonding

Mechanical fastened (Bolted/ Riveted)

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

The principles can be applied in connection with the following basic materials as
agreed for the project and its combinations.

TOP

Monolithic
CFRP
Resin: Epoxy
UD

GFRP
Resin: Epoxy
quasi-isotropic

Sandwich
CFRP Toplayer
Resin: Epoxy
top-layers: UD or quasi-isotropic
Foam: Airex T90
Honeycomb: Aramid (alternative: Aluminium*)
GFRP Toplayer
Resin: Epoxy
top-layers: quasi-isotropic
Foam: Airex T90
Honeycomb: Aluminium (alternative: Aramid)
*) No direct combinaton of carbon fibres and Aluminium due to
galvanic corrosion issues. But it is possible by using at least one layer
of GFRP (100g/m dry fabric) between Aluminium HC core and CFRP.
Therefore this option is still possible as "Hybrid".

Table 1 Shortlist of materials considered for process determination


In addition a recommendation for a structure of a future regulatory framework in
connection with the use of new materials will be proposed.
2.2

DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
In the following destructive static tests for the different joining principles are

shown.
To get information about the fatigue behaviour of a joint it is recommended to
test the specific geometries under relevant loads and cycles for the specific situation.

WELDING

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

According to the findings in the report for WP6.3, this chapter limits on
composites with thermoplastic resins.
For destructive testing the following two international/ national standards have
been found:
EN 12814

Testing of welded connections at thermoplastic material

DVS 2203

Testing of welded connections at thermoplastic material

EN 12814 consists of the following parts:


EN 12814 1 Bending Test
EN 12814 2 Tensile Test
EN 12814 3 Creep Tensile Test
EN 12814 4 Peel Test
EN 12814 5 Macroscopic investigation
EN 12814 6 Tensile Test for low temperatures
EN 12814 7 Tensile Test for specimen with rounded notch
EN 12814 8 General requirements

In the following the different geometries of test specimen or the layouts for the
related tests are shown.

BENDING TEST
Bending angle and bending distance will be investigated.

Figure 1 Bending Test principle

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

TENSILE TEST
Load until failure will be investigated.

Figure 2 Tensile Test specimen

CREEP TENSILE TEST


Constant load will be applied. Time until failure of specimen will be measured.

Figure 3 Creep Tensile Test Experimental set up

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

PEEL TEST
The specimen will be tested with constant feed rate until failure.

Figure 4 Peel Test Set up example

TENSILE TEST FOR LOW TEMPERATURES


Same as normal tensile test but under low temperature conditions.

Figure 5 Tensile Test for low temperatures - specimen

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

TENSILE TEST FOR SPECIMEN WITH ROUNDED NOTCH


Load until failure will be investigated.

Figure 6 Tensile Test for specimen with rounded notch - specimen

The standards are not explicitly made for composite materials but it is assessed
that they can be used for thermoplastic composites too.

BONDING

In connection with bonded joints DT measures are useful for random tests.
DT measures deliver information about:

Aging

Adhesion

Cohesion.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

They are used to determine characteristic values for bonded joints under static,
dynamic and chemical load.
They are relatively good regulated in different ISO, ASTM or DIN standards.
To judge a serial production these measures are typically used in connection
with specific test pieces in parallel to the real product.
Typical destructive tests for bonded connections are mentioned in the following.
All tests need to be adjusted to the real demands of a joint.

TENSILE TEST
This test is used to assess tensile strength, tear strength and elongation of a
bonded joint.
The test is standardised e.g. in the German DIN 53288 in which the typical
dimensions as material thickness, width and overlap of a specimen are
regulated.

Figure 7 Schematic for Tensile Test

COMPRESSION/ TENSILE SHEAR TEST


With the compression shear test the pure shear strength of a joint will be
identified.
The test is standardised e.g. in the German DIN 54452.

Figure 8 Schematic for Compression Shear Test

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

The tensile shear test gives information about the strength of the adhesion of a
bonded joint.
It is standardised e.g. in the German DIN 53283.

Figure 9 Schematic for Tensile Shear Test

TORSION SHEAR TEST


In this test the torque until failure will be measured.
It is standardised e.g. in the German DIN 54452.

Figure 10 Schematic for Torsion Shear Test

PEEL TEST
In the peel test the stresses longitudinal and rectangular to the glue joint until
failure will be evaluated.
The test is standardised e.g. in the German DIN 53282.

Figure 11 Schematic for Peel Test

BENDING TEST
Bonded joints show a specific sensibility against bending.
To judge the bending strength of a joint the test will be applied.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

It is standardised e.g. in the US standard ASTM 1184-55.

Beside static tests also dynamic test as:

Creep rupture test and

Fatigue tests are in use.

Test/ Standards like

Pre-treatment of specimen for bonded joints

DIN 53281

Fabrication of specimen for bonded joints

DIN 53281

Conditions for temperature tests

DIN 53286

Durability of adhesives

DIN 53287

Tensile strength of overlap joints

EN 1465

Shear testing for thick material

EN 14869

Tensile testing for double shear joints

ASTM D 3528

Fatigue properties for tensile loads

EN ISO 9664

Ageing with thermal and humidity cycle

EN ISO 9142

Shear impact test for adhesive joints

EN ISO 9653

are available too.

MECHANICAL FASTENED

In general testing procedures for mechanical joints are summarised in ISO


13469.
The following DT measures are mentioned in this standard:

Macro section

Tensile shear test

Cross tension test

Mechanized peel test

Fatigue and endurance tests

The Macro-section test is shown in the ISO 13469.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

It describes where the section has to be taken from and clarifies some terms.
The tensile shear test is further specified in ISO 12996.

The Cross tension test is specified in ISO 16237.


The Mechanised peel test has to be carried out according to ISO 14270.

Fatigue and endurance tests have to follow ISO 18592 and ISO 14324.

The following additional norms are available for mechanical joints:

Test of properties of a combination of bonding and mech. joining


DVS/ EFB 3480

2.3

Lock bolt systems mech. properties

DVS/ EFB 3435

Mech. testing of blind rivets

EN ISO 14589

Torque/ preload test

EN ISO 16047

NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING


Facing the growing quality requirements for structural joints compared with non-

structural, there is a need for informative and reproducible test measures.


Since destructive test measures are valid to get e.g. mechanical strength
properties under specific conditions only but without the chance to further use the
tested specimen for a product, non- destructive measures are required.
In the following NDT measures are proposed for the specific types of joints.
In connection with welding and bonding the measures need to be validated by
tests in regard to the influence of the fibre on the quality of the evaluation.

WELDING

As for the destructive testing and according to the findings in the report for
WP6.3, this chapter limits on composites with thermoplastic resins.

Therefore the two most relevant testing processes are:


-

Ultrasonic Testing and

High Voltage Testing

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

Also X- ray testing can be used to investigate irregularities but in connection with
this optical method the influence of the fibres need to be considered.
The German DVS 2206 gives a good bundle of information and shows
references to other international and national norms.

The three most relevant parts of the DVS 2206 are:


DVS 2206-1 Check of dimensions and visual testing
DVS 2206-3 Ultrasonic Testing
DVS 2206-4 High Voltage Testing

DVS 2206 part 1


This part gives an overview of allowable tolerances in relation to length and heat
introduction coming from the related welding process.
See following table:

Table 2 Allowable tolerances for welding


There is a reference also to EN ISO 13920.

DVS 2206 part 3


This part describes necessary equipment, test principles and boundary
conditions for Ultrasonic Testing (US testing).
See two examples for testing principles:

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

Figure 12 Principle of Ultra Sonic Testing for welds

There are references to the following international standards:


-

EN ISO 17025 Form sheet for testing

EN ISO Qualification of welders

EN ISO 583 Principles

EN ISO 1330 Terms and conditions

EN ISO 13100 US testing

EN ISO 12668 Equipment

DVS 2206 part 4


This part describes necessary equipment, test principles and boundary
conditions for High Voltage Testing (HV testing).

Table 3 Comparison of wall thickness vs. voltage

There is a reference to the DVS 2202 Irregularities.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

BONDING

NDT for bonded joints primarily delivers information about/ recognises the
following defects in the adhesive layer and its boundary layers:

Porosities

Cavities

Insufficient wetting

Delamination (kissing bonds) etc.

NDT measures cant deliver a related factor for a remaining mechanical strength
facing a specific defect.
They give only a YES or NO statement if there is a failure or not. The result of
this measures need to be assessed by QA and Engineering.
Thats why a combination of trained staff, save and repeatable processes, stable
environmental conditions in manufacturing, destructive and non-destructive testing
measures always in relation to the safety needs is needed for quality assurance in
companies dealing with structural bonding.
To document the results of such a process often specific test pieces will be
manufactures in parallel to the serial production under exactly the same conditions/
parameters as the serial product.
This test pieces can destructively be tested parallel to the running production to
recognise problems.

The following topics cannot be detected with NDT for bonding:

Aging effects

Long term statements

Overall qualification of a bonded connection

Differences in adhesion coming from failures in manufacturing

According to the NMAB of the American Society for Non-destructive Testing


these measures can be structured into the following categories (Classification of NDTMethods 2002):

Mechanical Vibration

Electro- Mechanical

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

Thermal

Penetrative Radiation

Visual

Chemical- Electro- Chemical

This measures need to be applied at the end of the manufacturing process.


The visual measure is meaningful only for the control of the application of the
adhesive.
Chemical- Electro- Chemical measures are not applicable for bonded joints.

Techniques based on mechanical vibration are typically using ultrasonic


vibrations.
Electrical frequencies will be changed into mechanical frequencies and reverse.
Typical frequencies are between 1 and 5 MHz. If the induced wave meets a defect it
will be reflected. So the position of a defect can be determined.

Figure 13 Principle of Ultra Sonic Testing

Variations of techniques based on mechanical vibrations are:

Resonant Method

Puls- Ecco Method

Impact- Resonance Method

Spectral Analysis Method

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

Electrical Methods are not reasonable for industrial bonding processes and
non- conductive material like composite.
They are based on a measurement of the electrical capacity of a bonded joint of
two metals and an adhesive which are forming a kind of a condenser.

Figure 14 Principle of Electrical Method

The thermal method is using the different heat conduction through a


homogenous joints and a joint with defects. For the evaluation infrared cameras are
used.

Figure 15 Principle of thermal method

The penetrative radiation methods are clustered in the following methods:

X Ray Testing

Neutron Radiography

Holographic Method

X ray testing can be used to visualise inner structures like honeycomb structures
in sandwich panels. The thin adhesive layer cannot be checked with this method.
Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

The Neutron radiography gives very precise information about the geometry of
defects but is extremely expensive and thats why not eligible for a serial production.
Holographic methods are based on interference pattern in deformed bonded
panels. This method is used in the aerospace industry for thin bonding partners with
large surfaces.

Figure 16 Principle of X-ray testing

MECHANICAL FASTENED

The classic NDT approach to test a mechanical joint is the visual method as in
ISO 13469.
Therefore qualified staff in connection with specific tooling like templates is
required.
The following parameters will be checked prior to joining:
-

Misalignment of holes

Misalignment of rivet head and rivet end

Damages on rivet or collar

After joining will be checked:


-

deformation of shaft or collar

gap between part and rivet.

In addition more precise methods are in use.


Since they are partly sensible regarding the environment for its application their use is
more or less limited to laboratories.
This methods are:
-

photo elastic study of stresses

strain gauges

optical templates

Vibro-acoustic with Laser Vibrometer.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

For the use in an industrial environment additional systems are in development.


As an example the piezo-electrical actor-sensor system developed by Fraunhofer
Institute can be mentioned. With the help of this system it is possible to check the pre
load of a mechanical joint. The system uses frequency shifts in relation to inner load
conditions.
The following picture shows the use of such a system.

Figure 17 Principle of actor-sensor system

Figure 18 Frequency shift in a lock bolt joint between 1 and 10kN

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

2.4

RECOMMENDATION FOR THE RAIL INDUSTRY

The main objectives of testing measures for joints are the following:
-

Gain

parameters

for

validation

and

verification

(material

characterisation)
-

Ensure the required quality in the manufacturing process and in


purchasing

Therefore different international and national norms and standards are available.
They can be used also for the rail industry.

Specifically for the DT measures it should be possible to find an application


related approach.

For the NDT measures it is more difficult since there are very less norms
available which directly refer to composite material.
Solutions can be derived from existing standards for related material types but
will have to be validated by testing regarding the obtained information (e.g. influence
of fibres for the NDT results for bonding and welding).
At least individual NDT solutions for the manufacturing process control need to
be developed.
The most important factor is the process stability.

The development of such DT/ NDT solutions need to be supported by the


generation of a homologation approach which clarifies which properties and
manufacturing related information for the parts of the bodyshell structure are needed
to get the homologation for a vehicle.
Such an approach need to be worked out inside FP7 e.g. in Shift2Rail.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

REGULATIVE FRAMEWORK PROPOSAL/ APPROACH


To reach a common regulatory framework for the European rail industry it is

necessary to have a system of norms and standards which covers a whole range of
building blocks (BB).

BUILDING BLOCKS

Can be nominated as follows:

BB 1 - Concept and design


BB 2 - Safety needs for:
Supplier selection
Requirements to the manufacturing facility
Requirements to the workers in manufacturing
BB 3 - Generic QA requirements
BB 4 - Static and fatigue evaluation

BB 1) The concept and design chapter should contain:


-

General accepted GO/ NO GO principles for the design of a specific


joint connection

Definition of terms

BB 2) The safety need chapter should contain:


-

Safety categories to cluster the safety need

Related performance and inspection classes

BB 3) The generic QA requirements chapter should contain:


-

Define rules for planning (min. needed documents in manufacturing, to


be documented)

Defines rules for documentation of product

Defines rules for documentation of repairs

BB 4) The static and fatigue evaluation chapter should contain:


-

Generic rules for meshing and evaluation

Safety factors

Number and range of needed test to validate the FE analysis

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

COMPETITIVE CONTENT

Information like
-

Real numbers for allowable stresses of specific material combinations

Processes for FAIs

Detailed QA measures during manufacturing

Incoming/ outgoing goods control processes

are to be seen as competitive processes which not need to be part of a


European framework.

SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS

Norms which are defining specific requirements for rail vehicles like the EN
45545 for Fire and Smoke or the EN 12663 for Structural requirements are
not recommended to be part of the framework.
They represent requirements which have to be fulfilled for each rail vehicle,
independent from the material of the Bodyshell but it need to be discussed if
they need to be adopted to fit for composites.

EXPECTED FRAMEWORKS

Facing the principally different requirements for the different joint systems we
recommend creating a number of three of such frameworks.

for welded connections with new materials

for bolted/ riveted hybrid and single material solutions with involved new
materials

for bonded hybrid and single material solutions with involved new
materials

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

EXISTING NORMS/ FRAMEWORKS

EN 15085

In front of the above mentioned background the existing EN 15085


gives an excellent example for a regulatory framework for welded
connections in metallic structures. The idea of the framework is to cover all
requirements for design, layout, assessment and quality assurance approach
based on the same philosophy.

This gives a clear guideline which enables supplier and customer to reach a
stable quality. It makes results and requirements transparent and secures the
comparability of welding manufacturers. It leads to the possibility of objective
cost evaluations and clear responsibilities.

The EN 15085 consists of different parts which are dealing with different
topics.

They are:

Part 1 General
Defines Terms and gives general comments

Part 2 Quality requirements and certification of welding manufacturers


Defines certification levels for the product and relates them to
Qualification needs to the manufacturers

Part 3 Design requirements


Creates a relation of safety categories (LOW/ MEDIUM/ HIGH)
and stress category (Fatigue utilisation). This is related to
performance classes (CP A to CP D) for the welding seam
which are related to inspection classes (T 1 to 4).
The inspection class defines the necessary effort for testing.
Gives advises for the design engineer regarding the
arrangement of welding seams.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

Figure 19 Screenshot from EN15085 regarding stress categories

Part 4 Production requirements


Defines steps for the manufacturing of a welded connection.
Mentions documents for planning and exceptions for testing.
Defines rules for repairs.

Part 5 Inspection, testing and documentation


It defines rules for planning and documentation of QA
measures in the manufacturing.

The EN 15085 explicitly excludes methodologies, boundaries and values for


static and fatigue analysis.

DIN 6701

The DIN 6701 represents a national framework for bonded structures in the
rail industry.
It follows the same approach as the EN 15085.
This Regulation consists of the following parts:

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

Part 1 Basic terms


Defines Terms and gives general comments

Part 2 Qualification of manufacturer of adhesive bonded materials


Classifies bonded connections in relation to the qualification of
the manufacturers. Defines qualification needs for
manufacturers.

Part 3 Guideline for construction design and verification


Classifies bonded connections in relation to safety needs.
Gives advises for the design. Specifies testing and supports
dimensioning.

Part 4 Manufacturing controls and quality assurance


Defines steps for the manufacturing of a bonded connection.
Mentions documents for planning and exceptions for testing.
Defines rules for repairs.

Additional parts are in preparation for manufacturing planning and quality


assurance.
Part 3 could be used as a basis for a norm describing how to do the
dimensioning of bonded connections with mixed materials/ new materials.

DVS-EFB 3435-2

This is a code of practise for the dimensioning of Lock Bolt connections in the
rail industry.
It is related to steel/ stainless steel and aluminium.
This document gives general advises for the design.
It defines rules for the structural calculation and categorises Lock Bolt
connections.
Should be extended to have a norm describing how to do the dimensioning of
bolted connections with mixed materials/ new materials.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

CONCLUSION

The following table show the regulatory frameworks which are proposed to be
developed for new materials in structural approaches to get homologation in the rail
industry.

HEADLINE

EXAMPLE FOR
RECOMMENDED
FRAMEWORK
ARCHITECTURE
BB 1 to BB 3

FRAMEWORK 1

FRAMEWORK 2

FRAMEWORK 3

welded
connections with
new materials

bolted/ riveted
hybrid and single
material solutions
with involved new
materials

bonded
hybrid and single
material solutions
with involved new
materials

EN 15085

EN 15085

DIN 6701 Part 1 to 4

DVS-EFB 3435-2
(adopt and make
international)

DIN 6701 part 3


(adopt and make
international)

EXAMPLE FOR
NORM
BB 4

Table 4 Recommended frameworks

At least there are approaches available which are already in use in single
countries or for metallic structures or specific processes.

It will be the task of future regulation boards to use this approaches also for new
materials.
Therefore it is recommended to use the structure of the above mentioned regulations,
to adopt them as mentioned and to give them the status of a European Norm.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

SUMMARY
In this subtask an overview about the destructive and non- destructive testing

processes is given, based on existing norms and standards.


Some of the standards are made for similar or different base materials but the
principles should be able to be used for new materials/ composites too.
In any case it is recommended to validate this specifically for the NDT measures
by tests.
According to the agreements from the beginning of this projects tests have not
been performed.

The different testing measures have been clustered to the three essential joining
principles:
-

Welding

Bonding

Mechanically fastened.

Test Principles and standardised geometries of specimen have been shown


exemplary.

In the last chapter a recommendation for the structure of a regulatory framework


is given.
It refers to existing regulations.

For further activities in regard to such a framework, the introduction of the related
regulation boards is strongly recommended.

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

5
5.1

APPENDIX
Appendix A
Additional norms and standards

DOCUMENT

TITEL

DIN 27201-7

Zustand der Eisenbahnfahrzeuge - Grundlagen und


Fertigungstechnologien - Teil 7: Zerstrungsfreie Prfung

DIN 65151

Luft- und Raumfahrt - Dynamische Prfung des


Sicherungsverhaltens von Schraubverbindungen unter
Querbeanspruchung (Vibrationsprfung)

EN 1090-2

Ausfhrung von Stahltragwerken und Aluminiumtragwerken Teil 2: Technische Regeln fr die Ausfhrung von
Stahltragwerken; Deutsche Fassung EN 1090-2:2008+A1:2011

EN 1090-3

Ausfhrung von Stahltragwerken und Aluminiumtragwerken Teil 3: Technische Regeln fr die Ausfhrung von
Aluminiumtragwerken; Deutsche Fassung EN 1090-3:2008

EN 1999-1-1

Eurocode 9: Bemessung und Konstruktion von


Aluminiumtragwerken - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln;
Deutsche Fassung EN 1999-1-1:2007 + A1:2009 + A2:2013

EN 1999-1-3

Eurocode 9: Bemessung und Konstruktion von


Aluminiumtragwerken - Teil 1-3: Ermdungsbeanspruchte
Tragwerke; Deutsche Fassung EN 1999-1-3:2007 + A1:2011

EN ISO 12996

Mechanisches Fgen - Zerstrende Prfung von Verbindungen Probenmae und Prfverfahren fr die Scherzugprfung von
Einpunktproben (ISO 12996:2013); Deutsche Fassung EN ISO
12996:2013

DVS 2240-1
DVS 2241-1
DVS 2241-1
BEIBLATT 1

Gewindeeinstze zum Fgen von Formteilen aus Kunststoffen


Direktverschraubung von Formteilen aus Kunststoffen
Beispiele - Direktverschraubung von Formteilen aus Kunststoffen
und Zusatzelemente fr dnnwandige Bauteile

DVS-EFB 3410
DVS-EFB 3410-2
DVS-EFB 3420
DVS-EFB 3430
DVS-EFB 3435-1
DVS-EFB 3440-1
DVS-EFB 3440-2

Stanznieten - berblick
Stanznieten - Sonderverfahren
Clinchen - berblick - Clinching - basics
Blindnieten (blind rivets)
Schlieringbolzensysteme
Funktionselemente - berblick
Funktionselemente - Einstanz-, Einniet-, Einpresselemente
(pierce-, riveting- and pressform elements)

DVS-EFB 3440-3
DVS-EFB 3440-4

Funktionselemente - Blindnietelemente (blind rivet elements)


Funktionselemente - Loch- u. gewindeformende Schrauben
(hole- and threadforming screws)

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

DVS-EFB 3450-1
DVS-EFB 3460
DVS-EFB 3470
DVS-EFB 3480-1

Hybridfgen - Clinch Kleben - Stanznietkleben - berblick


Nacharbeit und Reparatur von unlsbar mechanisch gefgten
Verbindungen
Mechanisches Fgen - Konstruktion und Auslegung Grundlagen/berblick
Prfung von Verbindungseigenschaften - Prfung der
Eigenschaften mechanisch und kombiniert mittels Kleben
gefertigter Verbindungen

DVS-EFB 3480-1
BEIBLATT 1

Prfung von Verbindungseigenschaften - Prfung der


Eigenschaften mechanisch und kombiniert mittels Kleben
gefertigter Verbindungen - Steifigkeitsermittlung elementar
mechanisch gefgter Verbindungen

DVS-EFB 3490
ISO 13469

Anlagen zum Stanznieten


Mechanisches Fgen - Formschlssiges Blindniete und
Schlieringbolzen - Festlegungen und Bewertung von
Prfverfahren

VDI 2014 BLATT 3 Entwicklung von Bauteilen aus Faser-Kunststoff-Verbund Berechnungen


ISO 11003-1

Klebstoffe - Bestimmung des Scherverhaltens von


Strukturklebstoffen - Teil 1: Torsionsprfverfahren unter
Verwendung stumpfgeklebter Hohlzylinder

ISO 11003-2

Klebstoffe - Bestimmung des Scherverhaltens von


Strukturklebstoffen - Teil 2: Scherprfverfahren fr dicke
Fgeteile

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria

REFERENCES
[1] DAkkS Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle
[2] Fraunhofer Institute Anwendungszentrum Rostock

[3] Normmaster
[4] DVS Deutscher Verband fr Schweien und verwandte Verfahren
[5] Handbook DVS Merkbltter Kunststoffe, Schweien und Kleben

[6] M. Rasch; Handbuch Klebetechnik

[7] G. Habenicht; Grundlagen Kleben

Deliverable 6.4 Joint acceptance criteria