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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 SOIL WATER MANAGEMENT-NEED FOR STUDY


Automatic irrigation is the use of a device to operate irrigation structures so the
change of flow of water from one bay, or set of bays, to another can occur in the
absence of the irrigator.
Automation can be used in a number of ways:
1. To start and stop irrigation through supply channel outlets,
2. To start and stop pumps,
3. To cut off the flow of water from one irrigation area either a bay or a
section of channel and directing the water to another area.
These changes occur automatically without any direct manual effort, but the
irrigator may need to spend time preparing the system at the start of the irrigation
and maintaining the components so it works properly.
Reduced labour:
As the irrigator is not required to constantly monitor the
progress of an irrigation, the irrigator is available to perform other tasks
uninterrupted.
Improved lifestyle:
The irrigator is not required to constantly check the progress of water down the
bays being irrigated. The irrigator is able to be away from the property, relax with
the family and sleep through the night.
More timely irrigation: Irrigators with automation are more inclined to irrigate
when the plants need water, not when it suits the irrigator.

Assists in the management of higher flow rates: Many irrigators are looking to
increase the irrigation flow rates they receive through installing bigger channels
and bay outlets. Such flow rates generally require an increase in labour as the time
taken to irrigate a bay is reduced thus requiring more frequent change over.
Automation allows for these higher flows to be managed without an increase in the
amount of labour.
More accurate cut-off: Automation of the irrigation system allows cut-off of
water at the appropriate point in the bay. This is usually more accurate than manual
checking because mistakes can occur if the operator is too late or too early in
making a change of water flow.
Reduced runoff of water and nutrients: Automation can help keep fertiliser on
farm by effectively reducing run off from the property. Retaining fertiliser on farm
has both economic and environmental benefits.
Reduced costs for vehicles used for irrigation: As the irrigator is not required to
constantly check progress of an irrigation, motor bikes, four wheelers and other
vehicles are used less. This reduces the running costs of these vehicles and they
require less frequent replacement.
Pneumatic system:
A pneumatic system is a permanent system activated by a bay sensor located at the
cut-off point. When water enters the sensor, it pressurises the air, which is piped to
a mechanism that activates the opening and closing of irrigation structures.
Portable timer system:
A portable timer system is a temporary system which uses electronic clocks to
activate the opening and closing of the irrigation structures. Because of its portable
nature, landowners usually buy 4 or 5 units to move around the whole property.
Timer/ Sensor Hybrid:
As the name suggests, this system is a hybrid of portable timer and sensor systems.
Like a portable timer, it uses an electronic device to activate the opening and
closing of the irrigation structures. However, this system has an additional feature
of the irrigator being able to place a moveable sensor down the bay, which when
comes in contact with water, transmits radio signals to the timer devices at the
outlets to open or close the structures and sends a radio message to a receiver .
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1.2 PROJECT OVERVIEW:


The project is designed to develop an automatic irrigation system which
switches the pump motor ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content of the soil. In
the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important. The
advantage of using this method is to reduce human intervention and still ensure
proper irrigation.
The project uses an 8051 series microcontroller which is programmed to
receive the input signal of varying moisture condition of the soil through the
sensing arrangement. This is achieved by using an op-amp as comparator which
acts as interface between the sensing arrangement and the microcontroller.
Once the controller receives this signal, it generates an output that drives a
relay for operating the water pump. An LCD display is also interfaced to the
microcontroller to display status of the soil and water pump. The sensing
arrangement is made by using two stiff metallic rods inserted into the field at a
distance. Connections from the metallic rods are interfaced to the control unit.
The concept in future can be enhanced by integrating GSM technology, such
that whenever the water pump switches ON/OFF, an SMS is delivered to the
concerned person regarding the status of the pump. We can also control the pump
through SMS.

CHAPTER 2

SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR

2.1 DESCRIPTION
Soil moisture sensors measure the volumetric water content in soil. Since
the direct gravimetric measurement of free soil moisture requires removing,
drying, and weighting of a sample, soil moisture sensors measure the
volumetric water content indirectly by using some other property of the soil,
such as electrical resistance, dielectric constant, or interaction with neutrons, as
a proxy for the moisture content. The relation between the measured property
and soil moisture must be calibrated and may vary depending on environmental
factors such as soil type, temperature, or electric conductivity.
Reflected microwave radiation is affected by the soil moisture and is used
for remote sensing in hydrology and agriculture. Portable probe instruments can
be used by farmers or gardeners.

Soil moisture sensors typically refer to sensors that estimate volumetric


water content. Another class of sensors measure another property of moisture in
soils called water potential; these sensors are usually referred to as soil water
potential sensors and include tensiometers and gypsum blocks. Soil moisture
plays a key role in the life of the plant. Nutrients in the soil solution provide the
plant with the food it needs to grow. Water is also essential for regulating plant
temperature through the process of transpiration. Plant root systems are better
developed when growing in moist soil. Excessive levels of soil moisture,
however, can lead to anaerobic conditions that can promote the growth of plant
and soil pathogens.

Water is required for the basic growth and maintenance of turfgrass and
other landscape plants. When a sufficient amount of water is not present for
plant needs, then stress can occur and ultimately lead to reduced quality or
death. Irrigation is common in Florida landscapes because of sporadic rainfall
and the low water holding capacity of sandy soil. This inability of many of
Florida soils to hold substantial water can lead to plant stress after only a few
days without rainfall or irrigation. Water conservation is a growing issue in
Florida due to increased demands from a growing population. One of the areas
with the largest potential for reducing water consumption is residential outdoor
water use, which accounts for up to half of publicly supplied drinking water.
Most new homes built in Florida have automated irrigation systems. These
irrigation systems use an irrigation timer to schedule irrigation. These
automated irrigation systems have been shown to use 47% more water on
average than sprinkler systems that are not automated (i.e. hose and sprinkler),
which can be attributed largely to the tendency to set irrigation controllers and
not readjust for varying weather conditions. Irrigation control technology that
improves water application efficiency is now available. In particular, soil
moisture sensors (SMS) can reduce the number of unnecessary irrigation
events.

TECHNOLOGIES
Technologies commonly used to indirectly measure volumetric water content
(soil moisture) include)
1. Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR): The dielectric constant of a
certain volume element around the sensor is obtained by measuring the
operating frequency of an oscillating circuit.
2. Time Domain Transmission (TDT) and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR):
The dielectric constant of a certain volume element around the sensor is
obtained by measuring the speed of propagation along a buried transmission
line

3. Neutron moisture gauges: The moderator properties of water for neutrons


are utilized to estimate soil moisture content between a source and detector
probe.
4. Soil resistivity: Measuring how strongly the soil resists the flow of
electricity between two electrodes can be used to determine the soil moisture
content.
5. Galvanic cell: The amount of water present can be determined based on the
voltage the soil produces because water acts as an electrolyte and produces
electricity. The technology behind this concept is the galvanic cell.

Working:
Most soil moisture sensors are designed to estimate soil volumetric water
content based on the dielectric constant (soil bulk permittivity) of the soil. The
dielectric constant can be thought of as the soil's ability to transmit electricity. The
dielectric constant of soil increases as the water content of the soil increases. This
response is due to the fact that the dielectric constant of water is much larger than
the other soil components, including air. Thus, measurement of the dielectric
constant gives a predictable estimation of water content. For more information on
soil moisture sensors see, Field Devices for Monitoring Soil Water.
Bypass type soil moisture irrigation controllers use water content
information from the sensor to either allow or bypass scheduled irrigation cycles
on the irrigation timer (Figures 1 and 2). The SMS controller has an adjustable
threshold setting and, if the soil water content exceeds that setting, the event is
bypassed. The. soil water content threshold is set by the user. Another type of
control technique with SMS devices is on-demand where the controller initiates
irrigation at a low threshold and terminates irrigation at a high threshold.
Diagram showing how a soil moisture sensor (SMS) is typically connected
to an automated irrigation system. The irrigation timer is connected to a solenoid
valve through a hot and a common wire. The common wire is spliced with the
SMS system (a controller that acts as a switch, and a sensor buried in the root zone
that estimates the soil water content). The SMS takes a reading of the amount of
water in the soil and the SMS controller uses that information to open or close the
switch. If the soil water content is below the threshold established by the user, the
controller will close the switch, allowing power from the timer to reach the
irrigation valve and trigger irrigation. In this example the controller opens the
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switch, bypassing irrigation, because of rainfall wetting the soil around the soil
moisture sensor.

FIG 2.1 SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR INSTALLATION

2.1.1 Sensor Installation


A single sensor can be used to control the irrigation for many zones (where
an irrigation zone is defined by a solenoid valve) or multiple sensors can be used to
irrigate individual zones. In the case of one sensor for several zones, the zone that
is normally the driest, or most in need of irrigation, is selected for placement of the
sensor in order to ensure adequate irrigation in all zones.
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Some general rules for the burial of the soil moisture sensor are:

Soil in the area of burial should be representative of the entire irrigated area.

Sensors should be buried in the root zone of the plants to be irrigated,


because this is where plants will extract water. Burial in the root zone will help
ensure adequate turf or landscape quality. For turfgrass, the sensor should
typically be buried at about three inches deep.

Sensors need to be in good contact with the soil after burial; there should be
no air gaps surrounding the sensor. Soil should be packed firmly but not
excessively around the sensor.

If one sensor is used to control the entire irrigation system, it should be


buried in the zone that requires water first, to ensure that all zones get adequate
irrigation. Typically, this will be an area with full sun or the area with the most
sun exposure.

Sensors should be placed at least 5 feet from the home, property line, or an
impervious surface (such as a driveway) and 3 feet from a planted bed area.

Sensors should also be located at least 5 feet from irrigation heads and
toward the center of an irrigation zone.

Sensors should not be buried in high traffic areas to prevent excess


compaction of the soil around the sensor.

2.1.2 Setting the Sensor Threshold


Once the sensor has been buried and the SMS controller has been connected
to the irrigation system, the sensor needs to be calibrated and/or the soil water
content threshold needs to be selected.
Based on the sandy soils in much of Florida, the following steps should be
followed to calibrate or select a threshold for the soil moisture sensor controller:
Step 1. Apply water to the area where the sensor is buried. Either set the
i0rrigation zone to apply at least 1 inch of water or use a 5-gallon bucket to apply
directly over the buried sensor.
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Step 2. Leave the area alone for 24 hours, and do not apply more water. If it rains
during the 24 hours, the process should be started over.
Step 3. The water content after 24 hours is now the sensor threshold used to allow
or bypass scheduled irrigation events. This threshold may be decreased slightly
(~20%) to allow more storage for rainfall; however, the landscape will still need to
be carefully monitored to ensure that adequate irrigation is being supplied.
2.1.3Programming the Irrigation Timer with a Soil Moisture Sensor
System
Soil moisture control devices can reduce water use on the lawn by bypassing
scheduled irrigation events, but it is important to make sure the irrigation schedule
is programmed into the irrigation timer correctly. Programming the irrigation timer
correctly for the area to be irrigated can make the use of irrigation water more
efficient. Before setting the irrigation schedule it is important to determine when
the water will be applied and how much to apply with each irrigation event. In
most areas of Florida the days per week in which irrigation is allowed is already
limited by water restrictions.

2.1.4 Application:
Agriculture
Measuring soil moisture is important for agricultural applications to help
farmers manage their irrigation systems more efficiently. Knowing the exact soil
moisture conditions on their fields, not only are farmers able to generally use less
water to grow a crop, they are also able to increase yields and the quality of the
crop by improved management of soil moisture during critical plant growth stages.

Landscape irrigation
In urban and suburban areas, landscapes and residential lawns are using soil
moisture sensors to interface with an irrigation controller. Connecting a soil
moisture sensor to a simple irrigation clock will convert it into a "smart" irrigation
controller that prevents irrigation cycles when the soil is already wet, e.g.
following a recent rainfall event.
Golf courses are using soil moisture sensors to increase the efficiency of
their irrigation systems to prevent over-watering and leaching of fertilizers and
other chemicals into the ground.[

Research
Soil moisture sensors are used in numerous research applications e.g.
in agricultural science and horticulture including irrigation planning, climate
research, or environmental scienceincluding solute transport studies and as
auxiliary sensors for soil respiration measurements.
Simple sensors for gardeners
Relatively cheap and simple devices that do not require a power source are
available for checking whether plants have sufficient moisture to thrive. After
inserting a probe into the soil for approximately 60 seconds, a meter indicates if the
soil is too dry, moist or wet for plants.

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2.2 L293D Motor Driver IC


2.2.1 L293D Description
L293D is a typical Motor driver or Motor Driver IC which allows DC motor
to drive on either direction. L293D is a 16-pin IC which can control a set of two
DC motors simultaneously in any direction. It means that you can control two DC
motor with a single L293D IC. Dual H-bridge Motor Driver integrated circuit (IC)
This is a motor driver ICthat can drive two motor simultaneously. L293D IC is a
dual H-bridge motor driver IC. One H-bridge is capable to drive a dc motor in
bidirectional. L293D IC is a current enhancing IC as the output from the sensor is
not able to drive motors itself so L293D is used for this purpose. L293D is a 16 pin
IC having two enables pins which should always be remain high to enable both the
H-bridges.
L293B
is
another
IC
of
L29serieshaving
Supply voltage (Vss) is the Voltage atwhich we wish to drive the motor.
Generallywe prefer 6V for dc motor and 6 to 12V for gear motor, depending
upon the rating of the motor.
Logical Supply Voltage will decide what value of input voltage should becon
sidered as high or low .

2.2.2 Working of L293D


There are 4 input pins for l293d, pin 2,7 on the left and pin 15 ,10 on the
right as shown on the pin diagram. Left input pins will regulate the rotation of
motor connected across left side and right input for motor on the right hand side.
The motors are rotated on the basis of the inputs provided across the input pins as
LOGIC 0 or LOGIC 1.
In simple you need to provide Logic 0 or 1 across the input pins for rotating the
motor.

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2.2.3 L293D Logic Table.


Lets consider a Motor connected on left side output pins (pin 3,6). For
rotating the motor in clockwise direction the input pins has to be provided with
Logic 1 and Logic 0.
Pin
2 = Logic
1 and Pin
7 = Logic
0|
Clockwise
Direction
Pin
2 = Logic
0 and Pin
7 = Logic
1 | Anticlockwise
Direction
Pin 2 = Logic 0 and Pin 7 = Logic 0 | Idle [No rotation] [Hi-Impedance state]
Pin 2 = Logic 1 and Pin 7 = Logic 1 | Idle [No rotation]
In a very similar way the motor can also operate across input pin 15,10 for motor
on the right hand side.

2.2.4 Voltage Specification


VCC is the voltage that it needs for its own internal operation 5v; L293D
will not use this voltage for driving the motor. For driving the motors it has a
separate provision to provide motor supply VSS (V supply). L293d will use this to
drive the motor. It means if you want to operate a motor at 9V then you need to
provide a Supply of 9V across VSS Motor supply.
The maximum voltage for VSS motor supply is 36V. It can supply a max current of
600mA per channel.Since it can drive motors Up to 36v hence you can drive pretty
big motors with this l293d.

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Fig 2.2 Basic installation using ic:

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2.2.5 Pin diagram and circuit diagram:


Fig 2.3 Pin diagram of L293d:

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Fig 2.4 Circuit diagram of L293d:

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CHAPTER 3

ARDUINO UNO:

3.1 DESCRIPTION

Arduino is a computer hardware and software company, project, and user


community that designs and manufactures microcontroller-based kits for building
digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the
physical world. The project is based on open-source hardware and software, under
the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) or GNU General Public
License (GPL).
The project is based on microcontroller board designs, manufactured by
several vendors, using various microcontrollers. These systems provide sets of
digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that can be interfaced to various
expansion boards ("shields") and other circuits. The boards feature serial
communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models,
for loading programs from personal computers. The microcontrollers are mainly
programmed using a dialect of features from the programming languages C and C+
+. In addition to using traditional compiler toolchains, the Arduino project provides
an integrated development environment (IDE) based on the Processing language
project.
The Arduino project started in 2005 as a program for students at
the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Ivrea, Italy, aiming to provide a low-cost
and easy way for novices and professionals to create devices that interact with their
environment using sensors and actuators. Common examples of such devices
intended for beginner hobbyists include simple robots, thermostats, and motion
detectors.

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Arduino boards are available commercially in preassembled form, or as doit-yourself kits. The hardware design specifications are openly available, allowing
the Arduino boards to be manufactured by anyone. Adafruit Industries estimated in
mid-2011 that over 300,000 official Arduinos had been commercially produced,
and in 2013 that 700,000 official boards were in users' hands. Arduino is opensource hardware. The hardware reference designs are distributed under a Creative
Commons Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 license and are available on the Arduino
website. Layout and production files for some versions of the hardware are also
available. The source code for the IDE is released under the GNU General Public
License, version 2. Nevertheless an official Bill of Materials of Arduino boards has
never been released by the staff of Arduino.
Although the hardware and software designs are freely available
under copyleft licenses, the developers have requested that the name "Arduino"
be exclusive to the official product and not be used for derived works without
permission. The official policy document on use of the Arduino name emphasizes
that the project is open to incorporating work by others into the official product.
Several Arduino-compatible products commercially released have avoided
the Arduino name by using -duino name variants.
Many Arduino-compatible and Arduino-derived boards exist. Some are
functionally equivalent to an Arduino and can be used interchangeably. Many
enhance the basic Arduino by adding output drivers, often for use in school-level
education, to simplify making buggies and small robots. Others are electrically
equivalent but change the form factor, sometimes retaining compatibility with
shields, sometimes not. Some variants use different processors, of varying
compatibility.

3.2 SUMMARY
Microcontroller ATmega328

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Operating Voltage 5V
Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V
Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V
Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) Analog Input Pins 6
DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA
Flash Memory 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
SRAM 2 KB EEPROM 1 KB
Clock Speed 16 MHz

3.3 POWER:
The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an
external power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (nonUSB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.
The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the
board's power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin
headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate on an external supply of
6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less
than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage
regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12
volts. The power pins are as follows:
VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power
source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power
source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the
power jack, access it through this pin
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. 5V. The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other
components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board
regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply.
3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current
draw is 50 mA.
GND. Ground pins.

3.4 MEMORY AND I/O PORT:


The Atmega328 has 32 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which
0,5 KB is used for the bootloader); It has also 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of
EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library). Each of the
14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output, using pinMode(),
digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can
provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor
(disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized
functions:
Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial
data. TThese pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2
USB-to-TTL Serial chip .
External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt
on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the
attachInterrupt() function for details.
PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite()
function.

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SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI


communication, which, although provided by the underlying hardware, is not
currently included in the Arduino language.
LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is
HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it's off. The Uno has 6 analog
inputs, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By
default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the
upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analogReference() function.
Additionally, some pins have specialized functionality:
I 2C: 4 (SDA) and 5 (SCL). Support I2C (TWI) communication using the Wire
library. There are a couple of other pins on the board:
AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference().
Reset. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a
reset button to shields which block the one on the board. See also the mapping
between Arduino pins and Atmega328 ports.

3.5 COMMUNICATION:
The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Arduino software
(download). Select "Arduino Uno w/ ATmega328" from the Tools > Board menu
(according to the microcontroller on your board). For details, see the reference and
tutorials. The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno comes preburned with a bootloader
that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware
programmer. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol (reference, C
header files). You can also bypass the bootloader and program the microcontroller
through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header; see these instructions
for details. The ATmega8U2 firmware source code is available . The ATmega8U2
is loaded with a DFU bootloader, which can be activated by connecting the solder
jumper on the back of the board (near the map of Italy) and then resetting the 8U2.
You can then use Atmel's FLIP software (Windows) or the DFU programmer (Mac
OS X and Linux) to load a new firmware. Or you can use the ISP header with an
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external programmer (overwriting the DFU bootloader). Rather than requiring a


physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Arduino Uno is designed in
a way that allows it to be reset by software.

CHAPTER 4

SERVOMOTOR

4.1 DESCRIPTION
A servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise
control of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a
suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires a
relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically
for use with servomotors. Servomotors are not a specific class of motor although
the term servomotor is often used to refer to a motor suitable for use in a closedloop control system. Servomotors are used in applications such
as robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.

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4.2 MECHANISM:
A servomotor is a closed-loop servomechanism that uses position feedback
to control its motion and final position. The input to its control is a signal, either
analogue or digital, representing the position commanded for the output shaft.
The motor is paired with some type of encoder to provide position and speed
feedback. In the simplest case, only the position is measured. The measured
position of the output is compared to the command position, the external input to
the controller. If the output position differs from that required, an error signalis
generated which then causes the motor to rotate in either direction, as needed to
bring the output shaft to the appropriate position. As the positions approach, the
error signal reduces to zero and the motor stops.

The very simplest servomotors use position-only sensing via


a potentiometer and bang-bang control of their motor; the motor always rotates at
full speed (or is stopped). This type of servomotor is not widely used in
industrial motion control, but it forms the basis of the simple and
cheap servos used for radio-controlled models.
More sophisticated servomotors use optical rotary encoders to measure the
speed of the output shaft and a variable-speed drive to control the motor
speed.Both of these enhancements, usually in combination with a PID
control algorithm, allow the servomotor to be brought to its commanded position
more quickly and more precisely, with less overshooting. A servomotor consumes
power as it rotates to the commanded position but then the servomotor
rests. Stepper motors continue to consume power to lock in and hold the
commanded position.
Servomotors are generally used as a high-performance alternative to the
stepper motor. Stepper motors have some inherent ability to control position, as
they have built-in output steps. This often allows them to be used as an open-loop
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position control, without any feedback encoder, as their drive signal specifies the
number of steps of movement to rotate, but for this the controller needs to 'know'
the position of the stepper motor on power up. Therefore, on first power up, the
controller will have to activate the stepper motor and turn it to a known position,
e.g. until it activates an end limit switch. This can be observed when switching on
an inkjet printer; the controller will move the ink jet carrier to the extreme left and
right to establish the end positions. A servomotor will immediately turn to
whatever angle the controller instructs it to, regardless of the initial position at
power up.
4.2.1 ENCODERS:
The first servomotors were developed with synchros as their
encoders. Much work was done with these systems in the development
of radar and anti-aircraft artillery during World War II.
Simple servomotors may use resistive potentiometers as their position
encoder. These are only used at the very simplest and cheapest level, and are in
close competition with stepper motors. They suffer from wear and electrical noise
in the potentiometer track. Although it would be possible to electrically
differentiate their position signal to obtain a speed signal, PID controllers that can
make use of such a speed signal generally warrant a more precise encoder.
Modern servomotors use rotary encoders, either absolute or incremental.
Absolute encoders can determine their position at power-on, but are more
complicated and expensive. Incremental encoders are simpler, cheaper and work at
faster speeds. Incremental systems, like stepper motors, often combine their
inherent ability to measure intervals of rotation with a simple zero-position sensor
to set their position at start-up. Instead of servomotors, sometimes a motor with a
separate, external linear encoder is used. These motor + linear encoder systems
avoid inaccuracies in the drivetrain between the motor and linear carriage, but their
design is made more complicated as they are no longer a pre-packaged factorymade system.
4.3 MOTORS:

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The type of motor is not critical to a servomotor and different types may
be used. At the simplest, brushed permanent magnet DC motors are used, owing to
their simplicity and low cost. Small industrial servomotors are typically
electronically commutated brushless motors. For large industrial servomotors, AC
induction motors are typically used, often with variable frequency drives to allow
control of their speed. For ultimate performance in a compact package, brushless
AC motors with permanent magnet fields are used, effectively large versions
of Brushless DC electric motors.
Drive modules for servomotors are a standard industrial component. Their
design is a branch of power electronics, usually based on a three-phase MOSFET
or IGBT H bridge. These standard modules accept a single direction and pulse
count (rotation distance) as input. They may also include over-temperature
monitoring, over-torque and stall detection features. As the encoder type, gearhead
ratio and overall system dynamics are application specific, it is more difficult to
produce the overall controller as an off-the-shelf module and so these are often
implemented as part of the main controller.
CONTROL:
Most modern servomotors are designed and supplied around a dedicated
controller module from the same manufacturer. Controllers may also be developed
around microcontrollers in order to reduce cost for large-volume applications.
4.4 Integrated servo motors:
Integrated servomotors are designed so as to include the motor, driver,
encoder and associated electronics into a single package.

4.5 Servomechanism
A servo system mainly consists of three basic components - a controlled
device, a output sensor, a feedback system. This is an automatic closed loop
control system. Here instead of controlling a device by applying the variable input
signal, the device is controlled by a feedback signal generated by comparing output
signal and reference input signal. When reference input signal or command signal
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is applied to the system, it is compared with output reference signal of the system
produced by output sensor, and a third signal produced by a feedback system. This
third signal acts as an input signal of controlled device.
This input signal to the device presents as long as there is a logical
difference between reference input signal and the output signal of the system. After
the device achieves its desired output, there will be no longer the logical difference
between reference input signal and reference output signal of the system. Then, the
third signal produced by comparing theses above said signals will not remain
enough to operate the device further and to produce a further output of the system
until the ne1xt reference input signal or command signal is applied to the system.
Hence, the primary task of a servomechanism is to maintain the output of a system
at the desired value in the presence of disturbances.
4.6 Working Principle of Servo Motor
A servo motor is basically a DC motor(in some special cases it is AC
motor) along with some other special purpose components that make a DC motor a
servo. In a servo unit, you will find a small DC motor, a potentiometer, gear
arrangement and an intelligent circuitry. The intelligent circuitry along with the
potentiometer makes the servo to rotate according to response.

CHAPTER 5

PUMP
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5.1 DESCRIPTION
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or
sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major
groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct
lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism
(typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical
work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including
manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from
microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps.
Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping
water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car
industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping
oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers. In the medical industry, pumps
are used for biochemical processes in developing and manufacturing medicine, and
as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile
prosthesis.
Single stage pump - When in a casing only one impeller is revolving then it is
called single stage pump.
Double/ Multi stage pump - When in a casing two or more than two impellers are
revolving then it is called double/ multi stage pump.
In biology, many different types of chemical and bio-mechanical pumps
have evolved, and biomimicry is sometimes used in developing new types of
mechanical pumps.

5.2 TYPES:

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Mechanical pumps may be submerged in the fluid they are pumping or be


placed external to the fluid. Pumps can be classified by their method of
displacement into positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity
pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps and valveless pumps. There are two basic
types of pumps: positive displacement and centrifugal. Although axial-flow pumps
are frequently classified as a separate type, they have essentially the same
operating principles as centrifugal pumps.

5.3 Positive displacement pumps


A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by
trapping a fixed amount and forcing (displacing) that trapped
volume into the discharge pipe.
Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction
side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as
the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as
the cavity collapses. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation.
Positive displacement pump behavior and safety
Positive displacement pumps, unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic
pumps, theoretically can produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter
what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow
machines. However, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases
prevents a truly constant flow rate.
A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the
discharge side of the pump, because it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps.
A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues
to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line
bursts, the pump is severely damaged, or both.
A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement
pump is therefore necessary. The relief valve can be internal or external. The pump
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manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves. The
internal valve is usually only used as a safety precaution. An external relief valve
in the discharge line, with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank
provides increased safety.
5.4 Positive displacement types:
A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the
mechanism used to move the fluid:

Rotary-type positive displacement: internal gear, screw, shuttle


block, flexible vane or sliding vane, circumferential piston, flexible impeller,
helical twisted roots (e.g. the Wendelkolben pump) or liquid-ring pumps

Reciprocating-type positive displacement: piston or diaphragm pumps

Linear-type positive displacement: rope pumps and chain pumps

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CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSI0N AND FUTURE SCOPE

6.1 REVIEW OF WORK DONE:


Thus automatic irrigation of plant using arduino uno to reduce manual
labour work.The system uses sensor circuit to determine the soil moisture
level.And based on the nessacity of water the arduino turns on the motor circuit
and the water is supplied to plants when needed.
6.2 FUTURE SCOPE:
The future scope of the project is using Ethernet or wifi shield and use of
twitter library which will makes the plant to tweet us when the water is
needed.And this can be controlled by the users using their smartphones.

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