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Unlicensed frequencies

WLANs and the SSID

When building a wireless network, it is important that the wireless components connect to the
appropriate WLAN. This is done using a Service Set Identifier (SSID).

The SSID is a case-sensitive, alpha-numeric string that is up to 32-characters. It is sent in the

header of all frames transmitted over the WLAN. The SSID is used to tell wireless devices which
WLAN they belong to and with which other devices they can communicate.
Regardless of the type of WLAN installation, all wireless devices in a WLAN must be configured
with the same SSID in order to communicate.
There are two basic forms of WLAN installations: Ad-hoc and infrastructure mode.

The simplest form of a wireless network is created by connecting two or more wireless clients
together in a peer-to-peer network. A wireless network established in this manner is known as an
ad-hoc network and does not include an AP. All clients within an ad-hoc network are equal. The
area covered by this network is known as an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). A simple ad-
hoc network can be used to exchange files and information between devices without the expense
and complexity of purchasing and configuring an AP.

Infrastructure Mode
Although an ad-hoc arrangement may be good for small networks, larger networks require a
single device that controls communications in the wireless cell. If present, an AP will take over
this role and control who can talk and when. This is known as infrastructure mode and is the
mode of wireless communication most often used in the home and business environment. In this
form of WLAN, individual STAs can not communicate directly with each other. To communicate,
each device must obtain permission from the AP. The AP controls all communications and
ensures that all STAs have equal access to the medium. The area covered by a single AP is
known as a Basic Service Set (BSS) or cell.

The Basic Service Set (BSS) is the smallest building block of a WLAN. The area of coverage of a
single AP is limited. To expand the coverage area, it is possible to connect multiple BSSs through
a Distribution System (DS). This forms an Extended Service Set (ESS). An ESS uses multiple
APs. Each AP is in a separate BSS.
In order to allow movement between the cells without the loss of signal, BSSs must overlap by
approximately 10%. This allows the client to connect to the second AP before disconnecting from
the first AP.

Most home and small business environments consist of a single BSS. However, as the required
coverage area and number hosts needing to connect increases it becomes necessary to create
an ESS.
Wireless Channels
Regardless if the wireless clients are communicating within an IBSS, BSS or ESS the
conversation between sender and receiver must be controlled. One way this is accomplished is
through the use of Channels.

Channels are created by dividing up the available RF spectrum. Each channel is capable of
carrying a different conversation. This is similar to the way that multiple television channels are
transmitted across a single medium. Multiple APs can function in close proximity to one another
as long as they use different channels for communication.

Unfortunately it is possible for the frequencies used by some channels to overlap with those used
by others. Different conversations must be carried on non-overlapping channels. The number and
distribution of channels vary by region and technology. The selection of channel used for a
specific conversation can be set manually or automatically, based on factors such as current
usage and available throughput.

Normally each wireless conversation makes use of a separate channel. Some of the newer
technologies combine the channels to create a single wide channel, which provides more
bandwidth and increases the data rate.

Within a WLAN, the lack of well-defined boundaries makes it impossible to detect if collisions
occur during transmission. Therefore, it is necessary to use an access method on a wireless
network that ensures collisions do not occur.

Wireless technology uses an access method called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Avoidance (CSMA/CA). CSMA/CA creates a reservation on the channel for use by a specific
conversation. While a reservation is in place, no other device may transmit on the channel thus
possible collisions are avoided.

How does this reservation process work? If a device requires use of a specific communication
channel in a BSS, it must ask permission from the AP. This is known as a Request to Send
(RTS). If the channel is available, the AP will respond to the device with a Clear to Send (CTS)
message indicating that the device may transmit on the channel. A CTS is broadcast to all
devices within the BSS. Therefore, all devices in the BSS know that the requested channel is now
in use.

Once the conversation is complete, the device that requested the channel sends another
message to the AP known as an Acknowledgement (ACK). The ACK indicates to the AP that the
channel can be released. This message is also broadcast to all devices on the WLAN. All devices
within the BSS receive the ACK and know that the channel is once again available.
Exam Questions


Answer B, E

The network diagram represents an extended service set.

The two APs should be configured to operate on different channels.
The Extended Service Set (ESS) uses multiple APs with overlapping microcells to cover all
clients. Microcells should overlap by 10–15 percent for data, and 15–20 percent for voice traffic.
Each AP should use a different

Which spread spectrum technology does the 802.11b standard define for operation?


Answer B

802.11b is a widely adopted standard that operates in the 2.4 GHz
range and uses Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS).

What is the maximum data rate specified for IEEE 802.11b WLANs?

A. 10 Mbps
B. 11 Mbps
C. 54 Mbps
D. 100 Mbps

Answer B

802.11b supports four data rates: 1, 2, 5.5, and 11 Mbps.

Which two statements best describe the wireless security standard that is defined by WPA?
(Choose two.)

A. It specifies use of a static encryption key that must be changed frequently to enhance
B. It requires use of an open authentication method.
C. It specifies the use of dynamic encryption keys that change each time a client establishes a
D. It requires that all access points and wireless devices use the same encryption key.
E. It includes authentication by PSK.

Answer C, E

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a Wi-Fi Alliance standard.
Uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) for encryption,
dynamic keys, and 802.1x user authentication.

WPA-PSK (Pre shared Key) is a special mode of WPA for home users without an enterprise
authentication server and provides the same strong encryption protection.

Which additional configuration step is necessary in order to connect to an access point that has
SSID broadcasting disabled?

A. Set the SSID value in the client software to public.

B. Configure open authentication on the AP and the client.
C. Set the SSID value on the client to the SSID configured on the AP.
D. Configure MAC address filtering to permit the client to connect to the AP.

Answer C
Since access point has SSID broadcasting disabled here we need to manually configure client
the same SSID value configured on AP so that client can associate with the AP.

You and a co-worker have established wireless communication directly between your wireless
laptops. What type of wireless topology has been created?


Answer C

Ad-hoc mode or Independent Basic Service Set [IBSS] is simply a group of computers talking
wirelessly to each other with no access point (AP).

What is one reason that WPA encryption is preferred over WEP?

A. A WPA key is longer and requires more special characters than the WEP key.
B. The access point and the client are manually configured with different WPA key values.
C. WPA key values remain the same until the client configuration is changed.
D. The values of WPA keys can change dynamically while the system is used.

Answer D

WPA uses dynamic keys, WEP uses static keys.

Which two devices can interfere with the operation of a wireless network because they operate on
similar frequencies? (Choose two.)

A. copier
B. microwave oven
C. toaster
D. cordless phone
E. IP phone
F. AM radio

Answer B, D

Which encryption type does WPA 2 use?

B. PPK via IV
Answer A

WPA 2 uses AES-CCMP encryption. AES-CCMP incorporates two sophisticated cryptographic
techniques (counter mode and CBC-MAC) and adapts them to Ethernet frames to provide a
robust security protocol between the mobile client and the access point

A single 802.11g access point has been configured and installed in the center of a square office.
A few wireless users are experiencing slow performance and drops while most users are
operating at peak efficiency. What are three likely causes of this problem? (Choose three.)

A. mismatched TKIP encryption

B. null SSID
C. cordless phones
D. mismatched SSID
E. metal file cabinets
F. antenna type or direction

Answer C, E, F

Cordless phones also work on RF so they conflict with WLAN RF and reduce the performance.
metal file cabinets also act as obstacles for Radio waves in WLAN results in performance loss.
Antenna adds power gain for radio waves if Antenna selected is not correct type or direction is
not exact then performance will effect.