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ASIA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION

Analogue Electronics
Tutorial Questions
Tutorial 4 The Operational Amplifier
.

The op-amp circuit shown in Figure is excited by a sinusoidal voltage source


cos t. Find the output voltage vo(t).
(Hint: Convert the circuit to its frequency-domain representation.)

Figure

The circuit in Figure shows an op-amp configured as an ideal integrator. The


capacitor C accumulates the charge flowing through R, thereby giving rise to
an integral effect on the input voltage.
a)

Show that the given operational amplifier circuit is an integrator,


i.e., vo(t) vs(t) dt.

b)

Why wont the circuit work as a practical integrator as given?


How might this problem be overcome?
(Hint: Consider what would happen if a small component was present
in the input voltage.)

Figure 2

The circuit in Figure is a model of an op-amp stage in which the offset voltage
and current are shown.
a)

Determine the signal component Vo in terms of the difference signal


V1 V2, assuming that the op-amp is ideal (IB1, IB2, Iio and Vio are zero).

b)

Determine the component of Vo caused by

c)

Determine the component of Vo caused by Vio only.

d)

For V1 = V2 = , find the worse-case offset voltage at the output.


Given that Vio = mV; Iio = . A; IB = . A; R1 = k; R2 = k.

I io
only.
2

R2

V1

R1
IB1

V2

R1

R2

_Vio +

_
Vo

Iio
2
+
IB2

Figure 3

Consider the op-amp in Figure , where we assume Vio = and Ro = . (Note


that the diagram on the right shows the internals of the op-amp shown in the
diagram on the left.)
a)

Show that the output voltage Vo2 due to IB2 only is


RRRi Av
Vo 2 =
I
(Ri + R1 )(R + R ) + RR Av RRi B2

b)

Show that the output voltage Vo1 due to IB1 only is


R1Ri (R + R )Av
Vo 2 =
I
(Ri + R1 )(R + R ) + RR Av RRi B1

c)

Show that if IB2 IB1, then Vo1 + Vo2 is minimised by taking R1 =

Figure

RR
.
R + R

An instrumentation amplifier is often used to amplify the output from a


transducer bridge as shown in Figure . For example, in a strain gauge, the
resistance R1 are precision fixed resistors. The resistance R2 + R is the
transducer attached to the structural member under test. Because of the load on
the structure, the resistance changes. The resistance R2 in the remaining arm of
the bridge is a dummy gauge (unloaded) and is used to balance out resistance
variations caused by variations in temperature and other parameters.
a)

Assuming that the gain of the instrumentation amplifier is AD,


show that for

R
<< 1
R2

Vo =

ADVR
4

b)

Consider the instrumentation amplifier to have a and AD.


Express Vo in terms of AD, , VR and .

c)

Let R1 = R2, AD = and VR = V. What must the be if the


differential component of the output is to be times the common-mode
output component for = 10-4? Is this value realistic?

Figure 5

a)

An operational amplifier has an input offset current of nA. It is to be


used in an inverting-amplifier application where the output offset voltage
due to bias currents cannot exceed mV. If the amplifier must provide
an impedance of at least k to the signal source driving it, what is the
maximum possible closed-loop gain of the amplifier?

b)

An operational amplifier has an input offset voltage of . mV. It is to be


used in a non-inverting amplifier application where the output offset due
to Vio cannot exceed mV. If the feedback resistor is k, what is the
minimum permissible R1, connected between the negative input terminal
and ground.

Calculate the worst-case output offset voltage |Vos| for the non-inverting opamp in Figure whose |IB| = nA, |Iio| = nA and |Vio| = mV.

Vin

+
Vo
_
90K ohm
10K ohm

Figure