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August 11 September 2015, Del6, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium


- Professional Programme -

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


Approaches for Decreasing Environmental and Health Impacts
of E-wastes Handling in Developing Countries

Aura Maria Mar(nez, Colombia - Kreshny Guriah, MauriRus - Gayleg Zangmo, Bhutan -
Mehran Kha8ak, Pakistan - Rotchana Intharathirat, Thailand

8 September 2015

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Bhutan
Pakistan
Thailand
Colombia
MauriRus

Aura Maria Mar(nez, Colombia - Kreshny Guriah, MauriRus - Gayleg Zangmo, Bhutan -
Mehran Kha8ak, Pakistan - Rotchana Intharathirat, Thailand

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

E-waste: Bridging the digital divide or enlarging the


environmental and health gulf?
u
u
u
u

About 50-80%a of e-wastes exported to Africa and Asia from


developed countries
25-75%b are non-working and labelled as secondhand products
Adds to domes(c e-waste genera(on
Condi(ons of towns in Africa, Thailand, China and Pakistan where
e-wastes are being handled

Ghana, Africac

Thailandd

Chinae

Pakistanf

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

E-Goods Flow

Consumers
of E-Goods

E-Goods Flow

Repair/
Refurbishment
Facilities
Recovery
Facilities
Export to
Recovery/
Recycling
Facilities

Formal
Collectors/
Dismantlers

Importers
Traders

Informal
Collectors/
Dismantlers

Complexity of E-Waste Flow Inside Developing Countries

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Sourceg

Current PracRces

Cherry Picking
Breaking and removal of frames and
casings
Major parts dismantling and breaking
Open burning of cables and equipment
to extract metals (copper)
Acid baths
Open dumping

Sourcei

Source h

Source jSourcej

Sourcek

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Story of Bad Governance


Uncontrolled imports
Unregulated recycling
UNREGULATED WORKING CONDITIONS
Unregulated disposal
Lack of capacity
Lack of separate e-waste regula(ons
and guidelines

Sourcel

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Informal Sector: A health and environment dilemma with opportuniRes


Informal sector hotspots of environmentally unfriendly,
UNHEALTHY EXPLOITATIVE prac(ces
L a r g e e m p l o y m e n t
opportuni(es
Lack of government capacity to
regulate economy and provide
alterna(ve jobs.
High-tech solu(ons for capital
rich, technically advanced and
expensive labour economies
AND RISKS INVOLVED
Sourcem

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Informal Sector: Encourage and discourage


Discourage:
u Processing-based recovery opera(ons
u Cables burning
u Inecient and low prots opera(ons

which are hazardous to health and


environment

u Consequence: Cut in prots,

improvement of health and environment


Sourcen

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Encourage
u

Best-of-2-Worlds Approach: Dismantling and pre-


processing in developing countries and further recovery and
recycling in developed countries for higher eciencies

Providing tools and safety equipment and clothing

Skill enhancement, capacity development

Sourcep

Sourceo

Concre(ng the workplace

Shared mechanised tools for eg. copper


extrac(on from cables

Consequence: Improved eciency, less


hazardous waste generated, less health and
environment hazards, improvement in prots

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Money MaZers
u Forming coopera(ves (village or street or

families level)

u Bypassing traders: Striking be8er bargain

for circuit boards, recyclables and


processable e-waste

u Monthly one day free labour to the

coopera(ve

u Access to capital (self support, civil society

and environmental protec(on


organiza(ons)

Sourceq

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Can the Government help?


YES
Restric(ons on imports of very old e-products
Capacity development
Import du(es with posi(ve incen(ve for less
hazardous products (Funds going to
coopera(ves development and support)
Replica(ng or following global guidlines and
restric(ons
Safe disposal

Sourcer

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Conclusions
u Informal sector hotspots of unhealthy and environmentally

unfriendly prac(ces, beyond the government policy inuence


and reach

u Promote ecient dismantling, easily accessible material

recovery within informal sector

u Allowing formal/semi formal industry to recover material by

processing which is more easy to regulate and inuence

u Forming coopera(ves

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Sources
u

u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u

u
u

a:

Puckett, J. et al., 2002. Exporting harm, the high-tech trashing of Asia. The Basel
Action Network (BAN) and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC), Seattle, USA
b: Green Peace, Report August 2008, Poisoning the poor Electronic waste in Ghana
c: http://www.dancingturtle.org/2015/04/23/global-e-waste-mountain-costing-economy-52bn-a-year/
d: http://www.thaivisa.com/forum/topic/734717-isaan-villages-face-threat-of-e-waste/
e: http://www.ipsnews.net/2010/05/china-e-waste-processing-poisons-health-environment/
f: http://ecowatch.com/2015/04/14/bellini-electronic-waste/
g: http://thetechnologicalcitizen.com/?p=2991
h: http://enews.toxicslink.org/feature-view.php?id=1
i:http://stephenleahy.net/2008/11/17/is-your-old-tv-poisoning-a-child-in-china-where-your-e-waste-goes/
j:http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/e-waste-china-toxic-pollution-230707/
k: http://www.silverleafcs.com/2013/12/agbogbloshie-a-toxic-e-wasteland
l: http://indiatogether.org/unewaste-environment
m: http://modifylifestyle.com/e-waste-e-cycle/
n: http://illumination.missouri.edu/s12/beautiful_fragile_world_presentation
o:http://ch3.sanook.com/18061/%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%9A
%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%82%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A7%E0%B9%80%E
0%B8%8A%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%B2-%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%94%E0%B9%87%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%8D
p:https://www.google.co.th/search?q=e-waste&hl=en-TU6uuM

%3AH&biw=1366&bih=599&site=webhp&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAWoVChMIuceawvXexwIVRn8aCh0Js
QHQ#imgrc=4ZZJyTqpP
q: http://www.use-it.co.za/?p=493
r:http://www.dpafrica.com/index.php/services/e-waste-management

Professional Programme HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


31 August11 September 2015, Delft, Netherlands / Antwerp, Belgium

Thank you