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SECTION 11 - PILING WORKS

11.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PILING WORK

11.1.1

Definitions And Standards

11.1.1.1

Definitions

In this specification the terms ‘approved,' ‘approval’ and ‘required’ mean ‘approved by the Engineer.’ ‘approval of the Engineer.’ and ‘required by the Engineer’ respectively.

11.1.1.2

British Standards And Other Codes Of Practice

All materials and workmanship shall be in accordance with the appropriate British Standards, codes of practice and other approved standards current at the date of tender except where the requirements of these standards or codes of practice are in conflict with this Specification in which case the requirements of this Specification shall take precedence.

11.1.2

General Contract Requirements

11.1.2.1

Contractor To Work To Other Contractors’ Drawings

The contractor, where so directed by the Engineer, shall be required to work to other contractors’ drawings when drawings for works not included in the contract are related to particular details of the works.

11.1.2.2

Progress Report

The contractor shall submit to the Engineer on the first day of each week, or at such longer periods as the Engineer may from time to time direct, a progress report showing the current rate of progress and progress during the previous period on all important items of each section of the works.

11.1.3

Materials

11.1.3.1

Sources of Supply

The sources of supply of materials shall not be changed without prior approval.

11.1.3.2

Rejected Materials

Rejected materials are to be removed promptly from the site.

S11/1

11.1.4

Safety

11.1.4.1

Standards

Safety precautions throughout the piling operations shall comply with the requirements of the various Acts, Orders, Regulations and other Statutory instruments for the provision and maintenance of safe working conditions, and with BS 557.73 and BS 8004.

11.1.4.2

Life-Saving Appliances

The contractor shall provide and maintain on the site sufficient proper and efficient life-saving appliances to the approval of the Engineer. The appliances must be conspicuous and available for use at all times.

Site operatives shall be conversant with the use of safety equipment and drills shall be carried out sufficiently frequently to ensure that all necessary procedures can be correctly observed.

11.1.4.3

Diving

Diving operations shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the relevant Acts, Orders, Regulations and other statutory instruments.

Before any diving is undertaken the contractor shall supply the Engineer with two copies of the code of signals to be employed, and shall have a copy of the code prominently displayed adjacent to the diving control station on the craft or structure from which any diving operation takes place.

11.1.5

Ground Conditions

11.1.5.1

Ground Investigation Reports

Factual information and reports on site investigations for the works and on the previous known uses of the site will be provided to tenderers. However, in the event that a full report is given, including interpretations, opinions or conclusions, no responsibility is accepted by the Employer for any opinions or conclusions which may be given in the reports.

Before the start of work the contractor shall be given a copy of any subsequent information which may have been obtained relating to the ground conditions and previous uses of the site.

11.1.5.2

Unexpected Ground Conditions

S11/2

The contractor shall report immediately to the Engineer any circumstance which indicates that in the contractor’s opinion the ground conditions differ from those reported in or which could have been inferred from the site investigation reports or trial pile results.

11.1.6

Tolerances

11.1.6.1

Setting Out

Setting out of the main grid lines shall be carried out by the contractor. The installation of marker pins at pile positions as required by the contract shall be carried out from the main grid lines of the proposed structure by the contractor. Prior to installation of the pile, the pile position relative to the main grid lines shall be checked.

11.1.6.2

Position

For a pile cut off at or above ground level the maximum permitted deviation of the pile centre from the centre-point shown on the setting drawing shall be 75mm in any direction. An additional tolerance for a pile head cut off below ground level will be permitted in accordance with Clauses 11.1.6.3 and/or 11.1.6.4.

11.1.6.3

Verticality

At the commencement of installation, the pile, or pile-forming equipment in the case of a driven pile, or the relevant equipment, governing alignment in the case of the bored pile, shall be made vertical to a tolerance of within 1 in 100. The maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical is 1 in 75.

11.1.6.4

Rake

As in Clause 11.1.6.3 the pile, or driving or other equipment governing the direction and angle of rake shall be set to give the correct alignment of the pile to within a tolerance of 1 in 50. The piling rig shall be set and maintained to attain the required rake. The maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the specified rake is 1 in 25 for piles raking up to 1:6 and 1 in 15 for piles raking more than 1:6.

11.1.6.5

Tolerance Variations

In exceptional circumstances where these tolerances are difficult to achieve, the tolerances of Clauses 11-1.6.3 and/or 11-1.6.4 may be relaxed by the Engineer, subject to consideration of the implications of such action.

11.1.6.6

Forcible Corrections To Piles

S11/3

Forcible corrections to concrete piles to overcome errors of position or alignment shall not be made. Forcible corrections may be made to other piles only if approved and where the pile shaft is not fully embedded in the soil.

11.1.7

Piling Method

The contractor shall supply for approval all relevant details of the method of piling and the plant he proposes to use. Any alternative method to that specified shall be subjected to approval.

11.1.8

Piling Programme

The contractor shall inform the Engineer each day of the intended programme of piling for the following day and shall give adequate notice of his intention to work outside normal hours and at weekends.

11.1.9

Records

The contractor shall keep at least records as indicated by an asterisk in Table 11.1.1 of the installation of each pile and any other information the Engineer may require and shall submit two signed copies of these records to the Engineer not later than noon of the next working day after the pile was installed. The signed records will form a record of the work.

Any unexpected driving or boring conditions reported in accordance with other clauses of this Section of the Specifications shall be noted briefly in the records.

11.1.10

Nuisance and Damage

11.1.10.1

Noise and Disturbance

The contractor shall carry out the work in such a manner and at such times as to minimise noise, vibration and other disturbance in order to comply with current environmental legislation.

11.1.10.2

Damage To Adjacent Structures

If in the opinion of the contractor damage will be, or is likely to be, caused to mains, services or adjacent structures, he shall submit to the Engineer his proposals for making surveys, monitoring movements or vibrations, and minimising or avoiding such damage.

11.1.10.3

Damage To Piles

S11/4

The contractor shall ensure that during the course of the work, displacement or damage which would impair either performance or durability does not occur to completed piles.

The contractor shall submit to the Engineer his proposed sequence and timing for driving or boring piles, having regard to the avoidance of damage to adjacent piles.

11.1.10.4 Temporary Support

The contractor shall ensure that where required, any permanently free- standing piles are temporarily braced or stayed immediately after driving to prevent loosening of the piles in the ground and to ensure that no damage resulting from oscillation, vibration or movement can occur.

S11/5

Data

Driven

Driven

Driven

Driven

Bored

Continuou

Micro-

Precast

Segmental

Segmental

Cast-In-

Cast-In-

s

piles

Concrete,

Concrete

Prestressed

Place

Place

Flight

Steel and

Piles

Precast

Concrete

Concrete

Auger

Timber

Piles

Piles

Piles

Concrete

Piles

or Grout

Piles

Contract

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Pile reference

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

number

(location)

Pile type

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Nominal cross-

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

section

dimensions or

diameter

Nominal

-

-

-

*

*

*

-

diameter

of

under ream/base

Length of

*

*

*

-

-

-

-

preformed pile

Standing

-

-

-

*

*

*

*

groundwater

level from

direct

observation or

given site

investigation

data

Date and time of driving, redriving or boring

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Date of

-

-

-

*

*

*

*

concreting

Ground level at pile position at commencement of installation of pile (commencing surface)

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Working

level

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

on

which piling

base machine

stands

TABLE 11.1.1 Records to be kept (Indicated by an Asterisk) - Continued next page

S11/6

Data

Driven

Driven

Driven

Driven

Bored

Continuou

Micro-

Precast

Segmental

Segmental

Cast-In-

Cast-In-

s

piles

Concrete,

Concrete

Prestressed

Place

Place

Flight

Steel and

Piles

Precast

Concrete

Concrete

Auger

Timber

Piles

Piles

Piles

Concrete

Piles

or Grout

Piles

Depth from ground level at pile position to pile toe

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Toe level

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Pile head level as constructed

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Pile cut-off

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

level

Length of

-

-

-

*

*

-

*

temporary casing

Length of

-

-

-

*

*

-

*

permanent

casing

Type, weight.

*

*

*

*

-

-

-

drop and

mechanical

condition of

hammer and

equivalent

information for

other equipment

Number and type of packing used and type and condition of dolly used during driving of the pile

*

*

*

*

-

-

 

Set of pile or pile tube in millimetres per 3 blows or number of blows per 25mm of penetration

*

*

*

*

-

-

-

TABLE 11.1.1 Records to be kept (Indicated by an Asterisk) - Continued next page

S11/7

Data

Driven

Driven

Driven

Driven

Bored

Continuou

Micro-

Precast

Segmental

Segmental

Cast-In-

Cast-In-

s

piles

Concrete,

Concrete

Prestressed

Place

Place

Flight

Steel and

Piles

Precast

Concrete

Concrete

Auger

Timber

Piles

Piles

Piles

Concrete

Piles

or Grout

Piles

If required, the sets taken at intervals during the last 3m of driving

* *

 

*

*

-

-

-

If required, temporary compression of ground and pile from time of a marked increase in driving resistance until pile reached its final level

* *

 

*

*

-

-

-

If required, driving resistance taken at regular intervals over the last 3m of driving

* *

 

*

*

-

-

-

Soil samples taken and in situ tests carried out during pile formation or adjacent to pile position

* *

 

*

*

*

*

*

Length and

- -

 

-

*

*

*

*

details of

reinforcement

Concrete mix

- -

 

-

*

*

*

*

TABLE 11.1.1 Records to be kept (Indicated by an Asterisk) - Continued next page

 

Data

Driven

Driven

Driven

Driven

Bored

Continuou

Micro-

Precast

Segmental

Segmental

Cast-In-

Cast-In-

s

piles

S11/8

 

Concrete,

Concrete

Prestressed

Place

Place

Flight

 

Steel and

Piles

Precast

Concrete

Concrete

Auger

Timber

Piles

Piles

Piles

Concrete

Piles

or Grout

Piles

Volume of concrete supplied to pile where this can be measured in practice

-

-

-

*

*

*

*

All information regarding obstructions delays and other interruption to the sequence of work

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

TABLE 11.1.1 Records to be kept (Indicated by an Asterisk)

11.2

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE PILES

11.2.1

General

S11/9

All materials shall be in accordance with Section 11.1 of this specification, the Particular Specification and this section, except where there may be conflict of requirements, in which case those in the Particular Specification and this section shall take precedence.

11.2.2

Cement

11.2.2.1

Type of Cement

Cement shall be ordinary Portland, sulphate-resisting Portland, Portland blast-furnace cement or rapid-hardening Portland cement unless otherwise specified or approved. When forwarding his piling method statement and programme to the Engineer, the contractor shall submit for approval the type of cement, other than ordinary Portland cement, he proposes to use. High alumina cement shall not be used.

11.2.2.2

Cement Replacement Materials

The use of cement replacement materials will be permitted subject to the approval of the Engineer and provided that they can be shown to have beneficial effects on concrete impermeability, heat generation during setting and general durability. The mix proportions of use shall be approved.

11.2.2.3

Storage of Cement and Cement Replacement Materials

All cement and cement replacement materials shall be stored in separate containers according to type in waterproof stores or silos.

11.2.3

Aggregate

11.2.3.1

Type of Aggregate

Aggregates shall consist of approved naturally occurring material unless otherwise specified or ordered. The contractor shall inform the Engineer of the source of supply of the aggregates before the commencement of work and, at the request of the Engineer, provide evidence regarding their properties and consistency.

Where shell is present in the aggregate, the content shall be limited as shown in Table 11.2.1.

The total equivalent anhydrous sodium chloride content of the mix used in steel-reinforced concrete whether arising from aggregates, water, admixtures or any other source, shall not exceed 0.5% of the mass of

S11/10

cement used (inclusive of any cement replacement material) where the cement is in accordance with BS 12, BS 146, BS 1370 or BS 4246 (0.3% chloride ion content is equivalent). Where sulphate-resisting Portland cement to BS 4027 is used, the permitted chloride content shall be reduced to half the amount stated above.

The content of chloride salt in the aggregate used in pre-tensioned prestressed concrete work, expressed as the equivalent anhydrous sodium chloride percentage by weight of the cement to be used in the concrete, shall be less than 0.1%. The limit of 0.1% shall also apply to the main concrete of post-tensioned prestressed concrete work unless there is an impermeable and durable barrier, in additional to any grout, between the main concrete and the tendons.

Marine aggregates will not normally be approved for use in prestressed concrete work.

Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate

Maximum Shell Content as Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ), Percentage by Weight of Dry Aggregates

Over 10mm

8

3mm and below

20

TABLE

11.2.1

11.2.3.2

Storage of Aggregates

All aggregates brought to the site shall be free and kept free from deleterious matter. Aggregates of different types and sizes shall be stored separately in different hoppers or different stockpiles.

11.2.4

Water

11.2.4.1

Availability

If water for the works is not available from a public supply, approval shall be obtained regarding the source of water.

11.2.4.2

Tests

When required by the Engineer, the contractor shall arrange for tests of the water for the works to be carried out in accordance with BS 3148 before and during the progress of work.

11.2.5

Admixtures

Admixtures complying with BS 5075 may be used if approved and shall be used as and when required.

S11/11

No admixtures will be permitted which contain more than the equivalent of 0.02% of anhydrous calcium chloride by weight of the cement in the final mix.

11.2.6

Concrete Mixes

11.2.6.1

Grade Designation

Grades of concrete shall be denoted by the characteristic 28 days test cube strength in Newton’s per square millimetre.

11.2.6.2

Mix

Concrete mixes shall be in accordance with Clause 11.2.6.3 (designed mix) or Clause 11.2.6.4 (prescribed mix) and of grades 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, or 60 or BS 5328 or other grades approved appropriate to the work.

The free alkali content of the concrete mix shall be less than 3kg per cubic metre of concrete and the alkali content shall be calculated from the formula A = Ca/100, where “A” is the alkali content of the concrete (kg/m 3 ), “C” is the maximum expected Portland cement content of the concrete (kg/m 3 ), and “a” is the alkali content of Portland cement (%). The latter percentage is to be the declared monthly mean alkali content

+0.1%.

Where low alkali sulphate-resisting cement to BS 4027 is specified, the alkali content (equivalent sodium oxide) of the cement shall not exceed 0.6% by weight.

The contractor shall submit the slump factor he proposes for approval before work commences. Neither trial mixes nor strength tests are required for prescribed mixes.

The concrete shall have sufficient workability to enable it to be placed and compacted by the methods used in forming the piles.

11.2.6.3

Designed Mix

When a designed mix is specified the contractor shall be responsible for selecting the mix proportions to achieve the required strength and workability, but the Engineer will be responsible for specifying the minimum cement content and any other properties required to ensure durability.

Designed mixes shall be in accordance with grades 20, 25 or 30 (for cast-in-place piles) or grades, 40, 50 or 60 (for precast piles) of BS 5328. Other grades may be approved if appropriate to the work. Complete information on the mix and sources of aggregate for each grade of

S11/12

concrete and the water/cement ratio and the proposed degree of workability shall be approved before work commences.

Concrete

Piling Mix

 

Slump

 

Prescribed Mix

grade

Workability

Limits

 
 

mm

 

Cement

Total

Percentage Sand in Total Aggregate

Aggregate

kg/m 3

kg/m 3

 

Grading C

Grading M

20

A

75

-150

320

1840

37

35

B

30

-200

350

1790

40

38

C

150

or over

400

1790

40

38

25

A

75

-150

360

1790

37

35

B

30

-200

400

1740

40

38

C

150

or over

460

1680

40

38

30

A

75

-150

410

1750

37

35

B

100-200

460

1680

40

38

C

150

or over

520

1600

40

38

TABLE 11.2.2 Prescribed Mixes for Cast-in-Place Piling Using Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size 20mm

NOTES for Table 11.2.2 :

1. If the gravity of either the coarse or the fine aggregate differs significantly from 2.6, the weight of each type of aggregate shall be adjusted in proportion to the specified gravity of the materials.

2. The cement shall be ordinary Portland cement of sulphate-resisting Portland cement. Where other cements in Clause 11.2.2.1 are used, special consideration shall be given to the design of the mix.

3. The weight of cement and dry aggregates are those which will produce approximately one cubic metre of compacted concrete.

4. Fine aggregates which consist mainly of angular particles are to be avoided.

5. The sand aggregate gradings given above are as specified in BS 882. The mixes described may require some adjustment on inspection where the gradings, although within the specified limits, are near the limits of the grading zone. Once a satisfactory prescribed mix has been adopted, the sources of aggregate shall not be changed without the approval of the Engineer, even if the gradings of aggregate remain within the specified requirements.

6. The concrete produced should be cohesive and in a slump test should not shear, fragment or segregate easily.

S11/13

7.

The use of a flow table may be adopted in place of slump tests, subject to the approval of the Engineer.

11.2.6.4

Prescribed Mix

When a prescribed mix is specified, the Engineer will specify the mix proportions and the Contractor shall undertake to provide a properly mixed concrete containing the constituents in the specified proportions.

Prescribed mixes for cast-in-place piling shall be in accordance with Table 11.2.2. This table is applicable to concrete for use in cast-in-place piling, where high workability is essential and where the use of internal vibrators is precluded.

11.2.6.5

Durability

The piles exposed to potentially aggressive ground or groundwater, approved measures shall be taken to ensure durability. Reference should be made to Building Research Establishment Digest 250 relating to sulphate attack.

11.2.6.6

Minimum Cement Content

The cement content in any mix shall be not less than 300kg/m 3 . Where concrete is to be placed under water or drilling mud by tremie the cement content shall be not less than 380kg/m 3 , or where the pile will be exposed to sea water 400kg/m 3 .

11.2.7

Trial Mixes

11.2.7.1

General

When designed mixes are specified, trial mixes shall be prepared for each grade of concrete in accordance with BS 1881, unless there are existing data acceptable to the Engineer showing that the proposed mix proportions and manufacture will produce a concrete of the strength and quality required, having adequate workability for compaction by the method to be used in placing.

11.2.7.2

Preliminary Trial Mixes

When required in accordance with Clause 11-2.7.1 the contractor shall, before the commencement of concreting, have preliminary trial mixes prepared, preferably under full-scale production conditions or, if this is not possible, in an approved laboratory using a sufficient number of samples to be representative of the aggregates and cement to be used.

S11/14

Unless otherwise approved, for grade of each grade of concrete a set of eight cubes shall be tested at an age of 7 days and four at 28 days.

When accelerated testing is proposed for works cubes, an additional four cubes from each batch shall be made, cured and tested in accordance with the accelerated regime.

11.2.7.3

Trial Mixes During The Work

Where a trial mix is required after commencement of the work, the

procedure in Clause 11.2.7.2 shall be adopted for full-scale production conditions as approved. The strength requirement shall be as in Clause

11.2.6.3.

11.2.7.4

Workability

The workability of each batch of the trial mixes shall be determined by the slump test as described in BS 1881 or by an alternative approved method.

11.2.7.5

Standard of Acceptance

Unless other acceptance criteria are specified or approved, the trial mix proportions will be regarded as satisfactory if the compliance requirements of BS 5328 are met in relation to characteristic strength.

11.2.7.6

Variations In Approved Mix

When a mix has been approved, no variations shall be made in the proportions, the original source of the cement and aggregates, or their type, size or grading zone without the consent of the Engineer. Further tests may be required before any such variations are approved.

11.2.8

Testing Works Concrete

11.2.8.1

Sampling

Concrete of the piles shall be sampled in accordance with BS 1881.

11.2.8.2

Workability

The workability of concrete shall be determined by the slump test as described in BS 1881 or by an alternative approved method.

11.2.8.3

Works Cube Tests

S11/15

For each grade of concrete four cubes shall be made from a single batch when required for each 50m 3 of concrete or part thereof in each day’s work. The cubes shall be made, cured and tested in accordance with BS 1881 or as otherwise approved. Testing shall be carried out by an independent and approved laboratory. One cube shall be tested at an age of 7 days, two at 28 days, and one cube shall be held in reserve for further testing if required. Alternatively, cubes may be tested in accordance with an approved accelerated testing regime. The contractor shall submit certified copies of the results of all tests to the Engineer.

11.2.8.4

Standard Of Acceptance

The standard of acceptance of the works cubes shall be in accordance with BS 5328 or as otherwise approved. Where the contract is a small one and of short duration (less than 28 days) the contractor shall submit for approval an alternative standard of acceptance before the commencement of work.

11.2.8.5

Records Of Tests

The contractor shall keep a detailed record of the results of all tests on concrete and concrete materials. Each test shall be clearly identified with the piles to which it relates.

11.2.9

Batching Concrete

11.2.9.1

General

Facilities shall be provided for the Engineer to inspect the concrete mixing plant or plants when requested.

Unless otherwise specified the requirements in Clauses 11.2.9.2, 11.2.9.3 and 11.2.9.4 shall be met.

11-2.9.2

Accuracy of Weighing And Measuring Equipment

The weighing and water-dispensing mechanisms shall be maintained at all times to within the limits of accuracy described in BS 1305.

11.2.9.3

Tolerance In Weights

The weights of the quantities of each size of aggregate and of cement shall be within 2% of the respective weights per batch after due allowance has been made for the presence of free water in the aggregates, which shall be determined by the contractor by an approved method.

S11/16

11.2.9.4

Moisture Content Of Aggregates

The moisture content of aggregates shall be measured immediately before mixing and as frequently thereafter as is necessary to maintain consistency of mix.

11.2.10

Mixing Concrete

11.2.10.1

Type Of Mixer

The mixer shall be of the batch type, unless otherwise approved, and shall have been manufactured in accordance with BS 1305 or shown by tests in accordance with BS 3963 to have mixing performance within the limits of Table 6 of BS 1305.

11.2.10.2

Tolerance Of Mixer Blades

The mixing blades of pan mixers shall be maintained within the tolerance specified by the manufacturers of the mixers, and the blades shall be replaced when it is no longer possible to maintain the tolerances by adjustment.

11.2.10.3

Cleaning Of Mixers

Mixers which have been out of use more than 30 minutes shall be thoroughly cleaned before another batch of concrete is mixed. Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer, the first batch of concrete through a mixer shall contain the normal batch quantity of cement and sand, but only two thirds of the normal quantity of coarse aggregate. Mixing plant shall be cleaned thoroughly between the mixing of different types of cement.

11.2.10.4

Minimum Temperature

The temperature of fresh concrete shall not be allowed to fall below 3 o C. No frozen material or materials containing ice shall be used. In cold weather when the ambient air temperature is less than 5 o C, the heads of newly cast piles are to be covered to protect them against freezing unless the final cut-off level is least 0.25m below the final head level as cast. Where a pile is cast in frozen ground, appropriate precautions shall be taken to protect any section of the pile in contact with the frozen soil where this occurs below the cut-off level. In the construction of precast piles the requirements of BS 5328 shall be observed.

11.2.11

Transporting Concrete

11.2.11.1

Method Of Transporting

S11/17

The method of transporting concrete shall be submitted for approval. Concrete shall be transported in uncontaminated watertight containers in such a manner that loss of material and segregation are prevented.

11.2.11.2

Pumping Concrete

Pumped concrete complying with this Specification may be used. The methods employed in its use shall be subject to approval.

11.2.12

Ready-Mixed Concrete

11.2.12.1

Conditions Of Use

Subject to approval the contractor may use ready-mixed concrete in accordance with BS 5328. Approval shall be obtained for each proposed use of ready-mixed concrete in different sections of the works and for each different mix, which shall comply with this specification.

11.2.12.2

Mixing Plant

Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer, truck mixer units and their mixing and discharge performance shall comply with the requirements of BS 4251.

11.2.13

Steel Reinforcement

11.2.13.1

Condition

Steel reinforcement shall be stored in clean conditions. It shall be clean, and free from loose rust and loose mill scale at the time of fixing in position and subsequent concreting.

11.2.13.2

Grade

The grade of steel shall be as specified.

11.2.13.3

Bending Of Reinforcement

No reinforcement shall be bent at a temperature lower than 5 o C without prior approval. Before bending, reinforcement may be warmed to a temperature not exceeding 100 o C. If reinforcement already cast into concrete has to be bent, the internal radius of the bend shall be not less than twice the diameter of bars of mild steel or three times the diameter of bars of high-yield steel.

S11/18

11.2.13.4

Placing Of Reinforcement

Reinforcement in the form of a cage shall be assembled with additional support, such as spreader forks and lacings, necessary to form a cage which can be lifted and placed without permanent distortion. Intersecting bars shall be fixed together by approved means. Hoops, links or helical reinforcement shall fit closely around the main longitudinal bars and be bound to them by approved wire, the ends of which shall be turned into the interior of the pile. Reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in position to provide the specified projection of reinforcement above the final cut-off level.

The cover to all reinforcement in cast-in-place piles shall be not less than 40mm unless otherwise approved. Spacers shall be designed and manufactured using durable materials which will not lead to corrosion of the reinforcement or spalling of the concrete cover. For precast piles, cover shall be in accordance with BS 8110.

11.2.13.5

Welding Of Reinforcement

Welded joints and welding procedures shall be carried out in accordance with BS 5135

11.3

PRECAST REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES

11.3.1

General

All materials and work shall be in accordance with Sections 11.1 and

11.2

of this specification, the Particular Specification and this section,

except where there may be conflict of requirements, in which case those in the Particular Specification and this section shall take precedence.

11.3.2

Ordering Of Piles

The contractor shall order the piles to suit the construction programme and seek the Engineer’s approval before placing the order. When preliminary piles are specified the approval for the piles for the main work will not necessarily be given until the results of the driving and tests on preliminary piles have been received and evaluated.

11.3.3

Particular Specification

11.3.3.1

Concrete

The type of cement, type of aggregate and mixer shall be as per Section

11.2 - General Requirements for Concrete Piles.

The grade of concrete shall be as shown in the drawings.

S11/19

11.3.3.2

Grade and Type of Reinforcements

The grades and types of reinforcements shall be as shown in the drawings and in accordance with the requirements of Section 11.2 - General Requirements for Concrete Piles.

11.3.3.3 Types Of Prestressing Tendon

The types of prestressing tendon shall be as shown in the drawings.

11.3.3.4 Driving Resistance

Unless otherwise specified in the contract piles shall be driven to achieve an ultimate static resistance not less than twice the working load shown in the contract.

Before commencement of pile driving the contractor shall submit pile driving methodology, equipment and details to the Engineer for his approval.

11.3.3.5 Depth of Penetration

If the Engineer is not satisfied with the depth of penetration irrespective of the driving resistance being attained, the Engineer shall specify the penetration and the contractor shall carry on driving by increasing the driving resistance which may include a change to a heavier hammer. Driving shall be continued until the desired depth of penetration has been attained.

11.3.3.6 Pile Acceptance Criteria

Notwithstanding the Engineer’s approval and acceptance of the contractor’s pile driving equipment or system, driving and work methodology, when static pile load tests as described in Section 22 the pile so tested shall be deemed to have failed if:-

EITHER

(i)

After removal of the test load, the residual settlement under the working load and under twice the working load exceeds 6mm and 3mm respectively;

OR

(ii)

The total settlement under the working load exceeds 3mm;

OR

S11/20

(iii)

The total settlement under twice the working load exceeds 30mm, or exceeds 0.25mm per 10kN of test load, whichever is the lower value;

OR

(iv) The settlement under the working load exceeds 10% of the least width of the pile.

11.3.3.7

Pile Shoes

Pile shoes shall be as shown in the drawings and shall comply with the following as relevant :-

(i)

Chilled - hardened cast iron shoes as used for making grey iron casting to BS 1452, Grade 10;

(ii)

Mild steel to BS 4360, Grade 50B; or

(iii)

Cast steel to BS 3100, Grade A.

Mild steel straps cast into the shoes shall be as shown in the drawings. Rock shoes where required shall consist of wrought iron shoes and mild steel straps cast into “chilled - hardened” cast iron blocks, as shown in the drawings.

11.3.3.8

Removal of Surplus Lengths

Any length of pile surplus to that required for incorporation in the substructure shall be cut and removed to the contractor’s own disposal areas off site.

11.3.4

Materials and Components

11.3.4.1

British Standards

In the manufacture of jointed precast concrete segmental piles, fabricated steel components shall comply with BS 3100 grade A, and ductile iron components with BS 2789.

11.3.4.2

Pile Joints

The joints shall be close-fitting face to face and the locking method shall be such as to hold the faces in intimate contact. The design and

S11/21

manufacture of the jointing system shall be approved by the Engineer prior to the commencement of the contract.

A jointed pile shall be capable of withstanding the same driving stresses

as a single unjointed pile of the same cross-sectional dimensions and materials.

The welding of a joint to main reinforcement in lieu of a lapped

 

connection

with

projecting

bars

affixed

to

the

joint

shall

not

be

permitted.

 

11.3.4.3

Pile Toes

Pile toes shall be constructed so as to ensure that damage is not caused to the pile during installations. Where positional fixity is required on an inclined rock surface or in other circumstances, an approved shoe may be required (see Clause 11.4.3.)

11.3.4.4

Pile Head Reinforcement

 

Where the pile head is not furnished with a joint, it shall be so reinforced

or

banded as to prevent bursting of the pile under driving conditions.

 

11.3.5

Tolerances In Pile Dimensions

 

The cross-sectional dimensions of the pile shall be not less than those specified.

The head of a pile element or the end of the pile upon which the hammer acts shall be square to the pile axis within a tolerance of 1 in 50.

Each pile joint shall be square to the axis of the pile within a tolerance of 1 in 150. The centroid of the pile joint shall lie within 5mm of the true axis of the pile element.

Each face of a pile element shall not deviate by more than 6mm from any straight line 3m long joining two points on that face, nor shall the

centre of area of the pile at any cross-section along it’s length deviate by more than 1/500 of the pile length from a line joining the centres of area

at

the ends of the elements. Where a pile element is less than 3m long

the permitted deviation from straightness shall be reduced below 6mm on a pro rata basis in accordance with actual length.

11.3.6

Reinforcement

 

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars shall be in one continuous length. Splicing of bars will not be permitted except at element ends.

S11/22

Concrete cover to steel reinforcement shall be in accordance with the requirements of BS 8110.

In very aggressive ground or exposure conditions, cover greater than 25mm may be required, but alternative protection methods may be approved.

11.3.7

Formwork

If a pile is constructed with a shaped point or shoe, then the end of the pile shall be symmetrical about the longitudinal axis of the pile.

Holes for handling or pitching, where provided in the pile, shall be lined with steel tubes; alternatively, approved inserts may be cast in.

Formwork shall be robust, clean and so constructed as to prevent loss of grout or aggregate from the wet concrete and ensure the production of uniform pile sections. The piles are to be removed from the formwork carefully so as to prevent damage.

11-3.8

Pile Quality

If the piles are manufactured at a precasting works away from the site, a certificate of quality from the pile manufacturer shall be provided to the Engineer when required stating that the requirements of this specification have been fulfilled during manufacture.

11.3.8.1

Concrete

11.3.8.1.1

Compacting concrete

Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer, concrete shall be compacted with the assistance of vibrators. Internal vibrators shall be capable of producing not less than 150Hz and external vibrators not less than 50Hz. Internal vibrators shall operate not closer than 75mm to shuttering.

Vibrators shall be operated in such a manner that neither segregation of the concrete mix constituents nor displacement of reinforcement occurs.

11.3.8.1.2

Protecting and curing concrete

Immediately after compaction, concrete shall be adequately protected from the harmful effects of the weather, including wind, rain, rapid temperature changes and frost. It shall be protected from drying out by an approved method of curing.

S11/23

Piles shall not be removed from formwork until a sufficient pile concrete strength has been achieved to allow the pile to be handled without damage.

The period of curing at an ambient temperature of 3 o C shall not be less than that shown in Table 11-3.1. If the temperature is greater or less than 10 o C, the periods given shall be adjusted accordingly and shall be approved.

Type Of Cement

Wet Curing Time After Completion of Placing Concrete

Ordinary Portland

4

days

Sulphate-resisting Portland

4

days

Portland blast-furnace

4

days

Super-sulphated

4

days

Rapid hardening Portland

4

days

Table 11-3.1

When accelerated curing is used the curing procedure shall be approved. Four hours must elapse from the completion of placing concrete before the temperature is raised. The rise in temperature within any per load of 30 minutes shall not exceed 10 o C and the maximum temperature attained shall not exceed 70 o C. The rate of subsequent cooling shall not exceed the rate of heating.

11.3.8.2

Prestressing

11.3.8.2.1

General

Tensioning shall be carried out only when the Engineer is present, unless otherwise approved. In cases where piles are manufactured off the site, the contractor shall ensure that the Engineer is given adequate notice and every facility for inspecting the manufacturing process.

Prestressing operations shall be carried out only under the direction of an experienced and competent supervisor. All personnel operating the stressing equipment shall have been trained in its use.

S11/24

The calculated extensions and total forces, including allowance for losses, shall be agreed with the Engineer before stressing is commenced.

Stressing of tendons and transfer of prestress shall be carried out at a gradual and steady rate. The force in the tendons shall be obtained from readings on a recently calibrated load cell or pressure gauge incorporated in the equipment. The extension of the tendons under the agreed total forces shall be within 5% of the agreed calculated extension.

11.3.8.2.2 Concrete strength

The contractor shall cast sufficient cubes, cured in the same manner as the piles, to be able to demonstrate by testing two cubes at a time, with approved intervals between pairs of cubes, that the specified transfer strength of the concrete has been reached.

Unless otherwise permitted, concrete shall not be stressed until two test cubes attain the specified transfer strength.

11.3.8.2.3 Records

The contractor shall keep detailed records of times of tensioning, measured extensions, pressure gauge readings or load cell readings and the amount of pull-in at each anchorage. Copies of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within such reasonable time from completion of each tensioning operation as may be required, and in any case not later than noon on the following working day.

11.3.8.2.4 Post-tensioned piles

Ducts and vents in post-tensioned piles shall be grouted after the transfer of prestress.

11.3.8.2.5 Grouting procedure

Grout shall be mixed for a minimum of 2 minutes and until a uniform consistency is obtained.

Ducts shall not be grouted when the air temperature in the shade is lower than 3 o C.

Before grouting is started all ducts shall be thoroughly cleaned by means of compressed air.

Grout shall be injected near the lowest point in the duct in one continuous operation and allowed to flow from the outlet until the consistency is equivalent to that of the grout being injected.

S11/25

Vents in ducts shall be provided in accordance with Clause 11-9.2 of BS 8110.

11.3.8.2.6

Grout

Unless otherwise directed or agreed by the Engineer.

(a)

The grout shall consist only of ordinary Portland cement, water and approved admixtures; admixtures containing chlorides or nitrates shall not be used;

(b)

The grout shall have a water/cement ratio as low as possible consistent with the necessary workability, and the water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0.45 unless an approved mix containing an expanding agent is used;

(c)

The grout shall not be subject to bleeding in excess of 2% after 3 hours, or in excess of 4% maximum, when measured at 18 o C in a covered glass cylinder approximately 100mm in diameter with a height of grout of approximately 100mm, and the water shall be re-absorbed after 24 hours.

11.3.8.3

Records

The contractor shall keep records of grouting, including the date, the proportions of the grout and any admixtures used, the pressure, details of interruption and topping up required. Copies of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within such reasonable time after completion of each grouting operation as may be required, and in any case not later than noon on the following working day.

11.3.9

Marking Of Piles

(a)

Piles manufactured at a precasting works away from the site.

Each pile element shall be marked in such a manner that it can be identified with the records of manufacture, which shall state the date of casting, the cement type, concrete grade, element length and any other relevant data. On delivery the pile elements shall be accompanied by records of manufacture.

(b)

Piles cast at site

After a pile has been cast, the date of casting, reference number, length and, where appropriate, the prestressing force shall be clearly inscribed on the top surface of the pile and also clearly

S11/26

and indelibly marked on the head of the pile. Lifting positions shall be marked on each pile in accordance with the requirements of design.

11.3.10

Handling, Transporting, Storage And Acceptance Of Piles

The method and sequence of lifting, handling, transporting and storing piles shall be such as to avoid shock loading and to ensure that the piles are not damaged. Only designed lifting and support points shall be used. During transport and storage, piles shall be appropriately supported under the marked lifting points or fully supported along their length.

All pile elements within a stack shall be in groups of the same length. Packing of uniform thickness shall be provided between piles at the lifting points.

Concrete shall at no time be subjected to loading, including its own weight, which will induce a compressive stress in it exceeding 0.33 of its strength at the time of loading or of the specified strength, whichever is the less. For this purpose the assessment of the strength of the concrete and of the stresses produced by the loads shall be subject to the agreement of the Engineer.

A pile element shall be rejected when the width of any transverse crack exceeds 0.3mm. The measurement shall be made with the pile in its working position.

11.3.11

Driving Piles

11.3.11.1

Strength of piles

Piles shall not be driven until the concrete has achieved the specified characteristic strength.

11.3.11.2

Leaders and trestles

At all stages during driving and until incorporation into the superstructure, the pile shall be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders, trestles, temporary supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment and to prevent buckling. These arrangements shall be such that damage to the pile does not occur.

S11/27

11.3.11.3

Performance Of Driving Equipment

The contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and energy of the driving equipment. Where required in Clause 11.4.3, dynamic evaluation and analysis shall be provided.

Where a drop hammer is used, the mass of the hammer shall be at least half that of the pile at the moment of driving unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. For other types of hammer the energy delivered to the pile per blow shall be at least equivalent to that of a drop hammer of the stated mass. Drop hammers shall not be used from floating craft in such a manner as to cause instability of the craft or damage to the pile.

11.3.11.4 Length Of Piles

The length of pile supplied to be driven in any position and any additional lengths to be added during driving shall be approved prior to the commencement of pile-driving. During the execution of the works any changes to the supplied lengths shall be approved.

11.3.11.5 Driving Procedure And Redrive Checks

The driving of each pile shall be continuous until the specified depth and/or resistance or set has been reached. In the event of unavoidable interruption to driving, the pile will be accepted provided it can subsequently be driven to the specified depth and/or resistance or set without damage. A follower shall only be used when approved, in which case the Engineer will require the set where applicable to be revised in order to take into account reduction in the effectiveness of the hammer blow.

The contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay if an unexpected change in driving characteristics is noted. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full length of the nearest available pile shall be taken if required.

At the start of the work in a new area or section a detailed driving record shall be made over the full length of the first pile and during the last 3m of subsequent piles until consistency of behaviour is established. Where required, detailed driving records shall also be made for the piles driven, the positions of such piles being specified by the Engineer.

The contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all necessary facilities to enable the Engineer to check driving resistances. A set or resistance measurement shall be taken only in the presence of the Engineer unless otherwise approved.

S11/28

Redrive checks, if required, shall be carried out to an approved procedure.

11.3.11.6 Final Set

When driving to a set criterion, the final set of each pile shall be recorded either as the penetration in millimetres per 10 blows or as the number of blows required to produce a penetration of 25mm (see Table

11-1.1.).

When a final set is being measured, the following requirements shall be

met:-

i)

The exposed part of the pile shall be in good condition, without damage or distortion;

ii)

The helmet, dolly and any packing shall be in sound condition;

iii)

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis;

iv)

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow, and operating correctly;

v)

The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded if required.

11.3.11.7 Driving Sequence And risen Piles

Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground.

When required, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of the ground or of any pile resulting from the driving process.

When a pile has risen as a result of adjacent piles being driven, the Engineer may call for redriving or other testing to demonstrate that the performance of the pile is unimpaired. If required, the contractor shall made proposals for correcting piles detrimentally affected and for avoidance or control of heave effects in subsequent work.

11.3.11.8 Preboring

S11/29

If preboring is specified, the diameter and depth of prebore shall be as shown on the drawings or stipulated in the Particular Specification.

11.3.11.9

Jetting

Jetting shall be carried out only when the contractor’s detailed proposals have been approved.

11.3.12

Repair And Lengthening Of Piles

11.3.12.1

Repair Of Damaged Pile Heads

If it is necessary to repair the head of a pile driving, the contractor shall carry out such repair in an approved way which allows the pile driving to be completed without further damage. If the driving of a pile has been accepted but sound concrete of the pile is below the required cut- off-level, the pile shall be made good to the cut-off level, using an approved method so that it will safely withstand the imposed design load.

11.3.12.2

Lengthening Of Piles

Where piles are required to be driven to depths exceeding those expected, leaving insufficient projection for bonding into the following works, the piles shall be extended or replaced as required by the Engineer using approved materials and methods.

11.3.13

Cutting Off Pile Heads

Unless otherwise specified, when the driving of a pile has been approved the concrete of the head of the pile shall be cut off to the level specified or shown on the drawings. The length of splice reinforcing bars projecting above this level shall be as specified or shown on the drawings.

Care shall be taken to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner to provide a full and sound section to cut-off level.

11.4

INDIRECT METHODS FOR TESTING PILES

11.4.1

Integrity-Testing Of Piles

S11/30

11.4.1.1

General

Integrity-testing of piles is designed to give information about the physical dimensions, continuity and consistency of materials used in piles, and not to give direct information about the performance of piles under the conditions of loading. The methods available are normally applied to preformed concrete piles made in a single length, to steel piles and to cast-in-place concrete piles. The constituent material of any pile should have a large differential modulus of elasticity compared with the ground in which it is embedded.

This type of testing will not be regarded as a replacement for static load testing, but as a source of supplementary information.

There is normally a limit to the length/diameter ratio of pile which can be successfully and fully investigated in this way, depending on the ground conditions.

In the event that any anomaly is found in the results of such testing, the Engineer may call for further testing to be carried out or for the relevant part of the pile to be exposed where practicable for inspection, in order to investigate the cause, nature and extent of the anomaly and whether the pile is satisfactory for its intended use.

11.4.1.2 Particular specification

The

Particular Specification:-

following

matters

are,

where

appropriate,

described

in

the

a) The type or method of test to be carried out;

b) The number and location of piles to be tested;

c) The stage in the programme of works when integrity-testing is to be carried out;

d) The number and location of piles in which ducts are to be placed if appropriate to the method specified;

e) Preparation of pile head for testing where appropriate.

11.4.1.3 Method of testing

Where integrity-testing is called for but the method is not specified, the method to be adopted shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be one of the following:-

a) The sonic method;

b) The vibration method;

c) The sonic logging method.

Other methods may be adopted subject to the approval of the Engineer and subject to satisfactory evidence of performance.

S11/31

11.4.1.4

Age of piles at time of testing

In the case of cast-in-place concrete piles, integrity tests shall not be carried out until 7 days or more have elapsed since pile-testing unless otherwise approved.

11.4.1.5

Preparation of pile heads

Where the method of testing requires the positioned of sensing equipment on the pile head, the head shall be clean, free from water, laitence, loose concrete, over-spilled concrete and blinding concrete, and readily accessible of the purpose of testing.

11.4.1.6

Specialist testing contractor

The testing shall be carried out by an approved specialist firm.

11.4.1.7

Interpretation of tests

The interpretation of tests shall be carried out by competent persons and the full test results and findings shall normally be given to the Engineer within 3 days of the completion of each phase of testing.

Full details of the ground conditions, pile dimensions and construction method shall be made available to the specialist firm when required in order to facilitate interpretation of the tests.

11.4.2

Dynamic Pile-Testing

11.4.2.1

General

Dynamic load test for the preliminary test pile shall include:-

(i)

Monitoring of pile response when the pile is subjected to an impact provided by the pile driving hammer. Monitoring shall be continuous with time and shall be carried out for each hammer blow until satisfactory completion of pile installation;

(ii)

Signal matching using TNOWAVE or CAPWAP techniques to match the measured response with an approved pile-soil model to determine the static pile resistance, the distribution of shaft resistance, and the base resistance. Signal matching shall be carried out for each hammer impact to enable determination of the pile resistance with depth.

Dynamic load test for a specified no. of working piles shall include monitoring of pile response when the pile is subjected to an impact provided by the pile driving hammer after completion of driving.

S11/32

11.4.2.2

Measurements

Measurements of strain, force and acceleration shall be carried out close to the pile head, such parameters shall be measured continuously with time and stored on electronic data capture units with the capability of producing graphs of measured:-

(i)

Force - time;

(ii)

Acceleration - time;

(iii)

Velocity - time;

(iv)

Displacement - time;

during and after pile installation.

The permanent penetration per blow and the temporary compression of the pile and soil system shall be measured independently of the instrument being used to record the dynamic test data.

11.4.2.3 Field data processing

Immediate field data processing shall be carried out to identify malfunctions. The following computations shall be carried out during pile installation:-

(i)

The force measurement shall be continuously balanced except during the impact event;

(ii)

The acceleration must be integrated or the displacement must be differentiated over time to obtain velocity. The resulting velocity shall be continuously zeroed except during impact;

(iii)

The force and velocity shall be output on a display unit during measurements;

(iv)

The product of force and velocity shall be integrated over time to obtain the energy transferred to the top of the pile. The energy shall be continuously zeroed except during impact;

(v)

The maximum values of force, acceleration, displacement, velocity, energy, force at maximum velocity and minimum force shall be determined.

11.4.2.4 Measurement devices

All instruments for measurements and all equipment for receiving and processing data shall be suitable for the purpose and to the Engineer’s approval. Equipment required to be attached to the pile shall be appropriately positioned and fixed to the approval of the Engineer. No

S11/33

optical measuring device either for strain or velocity measurement shall be permitted.

(i)

Acceleration shall be measured by suitable transducers attached to the pile at a distance not less than 1 pile diameter below the top of the pile. At least two accelerometers shall be used at the pile surface and so arranged to cancel the effects of bending;

(ii)

Accelerometers

used

shall

be

linear

to

at

least

300xg

and

3,000Hz;

(iii)

In the event force measurements are made using strain transducers, such transducers shall be securely attached on the pile such that no slippage shall occur. Bolt-on or glue-on transducers may be acceptable for use;

The strain transducers shall be linear over the entire range of pile strains. The natural frequency when attached to the pile shall be in excess of 3kHz.

(iv)

Force transducers shall have an impedance of between 50% and 30% of the impedance of the pile near the top. The output signal shall be linear up to the maximum axial pile force at the top of the pile. The connection between the force transducers and the pile top shall have the smallest possible additional mass.

11.4.2.5

Hammer

The hammer and all site equipment shall be capable of delivering an impact force sufficient to mobilise the equivalent specified test load without injury to the pile.

11.4.2-6

Preparation of pile head

The preparation of the pile head for the application of the dynamic load test shall involve, where appropriate, trimming the head, cleaning and building up the pile using materials which will at the time of testing safely withstand the impact stresses. The impact surface shall be flat and at right angles to the pile axis. The pile head shall be exposed for a minimum length of 3 times the pile diameter below the pile top. The sides of the pile head must be easily accessible for the installation of gauges or transducers.

11.4.2.7

Personnel

All personnel involved in Dynamic Load Testing shall be persons experienced in the task.

11.4.2.8

Preliminary results

S11/34

The following preliminary results shall be provided to the Engineer

within 24 hours of the completion of test.

following:-

These shall include the

(i)

The assumed damping factor;

(ii)

The assumed wave speed;

(iii)

The maximum force applied to the pile head;

(iv)

The maximum pile head velocity;

(v)

The maximum energy impacted to the pile;

(vi)

The maximum tension experience by the pile;

(vii)

The field estimated static resistance;

(viii)

The maximum driving resistance.

11.4.2.9

Detailed Report

Subsequently a full detail report shall be given to the Engineer in triplicate within 3 days of the completion of testing for all the piles. These shall include the following:-

(i)

Report all information given in preliminary report;

(ii)

Information of pile size and working loads;

(iii)

Date of pile installation;

(iv)

Date of test;

(v)

Pile identification number and location;

(vi)

Length of pile below commencing surfacing;

(vii)

Total pile length, including projection above commencing surface at time of test;

(viii)

Length of pile from instrumentation position to pile toe;

(ix)

Hammer type, and other relevant details;

(x)

Blow selected for report;

(xi)

Estimate of static pile capacity including distribution of shaft resistance and base resistance;

(xii)

Pile integrity;

(xiii)

Force/velocity versus time trace;

(xiv)

Upward travelling wave versus time trace;

(xv)

Displacement versus time trace.

11.5

PILE TEST

11.5.1

Definition

11.5.1.1

Test Pile

Any pile to which a test is, or is to be, applied.

11.5.1.2

Types of Pile

 

S11/35

A compression pile is designed to resist further penetration into the

ground and a tension pile resists extraction from the ground when axial forces are applied.

11.5.1.3

Kentledge

 

The dead weight used in a loading test.

11.5.1.4

Maintained Load Test

A

loading test in which each increment of load is held constant either for a

defined period of time or until the rate of movement (settlement or uplift) falls to a specified value.

11.5.1.5

Constant Rate of Penetration Test

 

A

test in which the pile is made to penetrate the soil from its position as

installed at a constant speed while the force applied at the top of the pile

to

maintain the rate of penetration is continuously measured.

It will be

noted that the force/penetration relationship obtained in this test does not represent an equilibrium condition between load and settlement.

11.6

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS APPLICABLE TO PILE LOAD TESTING

 

When preparing for and conducting a pile load test the contractor shall carry out the requirements of the various Acts, orders, regulations and other statutory instruments that are applicable to the work for the provision and maintenance of safe working conditions, and shall in addition make such other provision as may be necessary to safeguard against any hazards that are involved in the testing or preparations for testing.

Where kentledge is used the contractor shall construct the foundations for the kentledge and any crib-work, beams or other supporting structure in such a manner that there shall not be differential settlement, bending or deflection of an amount that constitutes a safety hazard or impairs the efficiency of the operation. The kentledge shall be adequately bonded, tied, or otherwise held together to prevent it falling apart, or becoming unstable through deflection of the supports. The weight of kentledge shall be greater than the maximum test load and if the weight is estimated from the density and volume of the constituent materials an adequate factor of safety against error shall be allowed. The maximum test load for test pressure as a reading on the gauge in use shall be displayed and all operators shall be made aware of this limit.

S11/36

In all cases the contractor shall ensure that when the hydraulic jack and load measuring device are mounted on the plate the whole system will be stable up to the maximum load to be applied.

The hydraulic jack, pump, hoses, pipes, couplings and other apparatus to be operated under hydraulic pressure shall be capable of withstanding a test pressure of 1 1/2 times the maximum working pressure without leakage.

11.6

PILES AXIALLY LOADED IN COMPRESSION

11.6.1

General

Construction of a preliminary pile which is to be tested.

11.6.2

Notice Of Construction

The S.O. shall be

given in at least forty eight (48) hours notice of

commencement of construction of preliminary pile which is to be test

loaded.

11.6.3

Method Of Construction

Each preliminary test pile shall be constructed in a manner similar to that to be used for the construction of the working piles, by the use of similar equipment and materials. Any variation will only be permitted with the prior approval of the Engineer.

11.6.4

Boring Record

For each preliminary pile which is to be test loaded, a full record of the soils encountered during boring, or of the progress during boring shall be made and given to the Engineer as required.

In bored piles where the Engineer requires soil samples to be taken, or in situ tests to be made, the contractor shall give results of such tests to the Engineer without delay.

11.6.5

Pile Shaft Extension

The pile shaft shall be extended where necessary above the cut-off level of working pile so that gauges and other apparatus to be used in the testing process will not be damaged by water or in falling debris.

11.6.6

Pile Head

S11/37

The pile head or cap shall be formed to give a plane surface which is normal to the axis of the pile, sufficiently large to accommodate the load applying apparatus and settlement measuring equipment and shall be adequately reinforced or protected to prevent damage due to the concentrated application of load from the loading equipment.

The joint between a pile and pile cap shall be constructed in such a manner as to provide equal strength with the pile section. The pile cap shall be concentric with the test pile.

A sufficient clear space shall be made under any part of the cap projecting

beyond the section of the pile so that at the maximum anticipated settlement, load is not transmitted to the ground except through the pile.

11.6.7

Cut-Off Level

Where the pile cap is formed above the cut-off level of the working piles in soils which would influence the load bearing capacity of the pile, a sleeve shall be left in place during testing to eliminate friction which would not arise in working piles. Alternatively if the friction above the designed cut-off level can be calculated with reasonable accuracy, then with the approval of the Engineer a sleeve need not be used, but the calculated friction must be taken into account in assessing the load being applied to the pile.

11.7

PREPARATION OF WORKING PILE WHICH IS TO BE TESTED

Where a test is required on a working pile the contractor shall build up or cut down or otherwise prepare the pile for testing as required by the Engineer and shall form the head of the pile or cap in accordance with Clause (11.7.1) above.

Where a working pile is built up above cut-off level the provisions of Clause.11.6 shall apply.

11.8

CONCRETE TESTING

Three test cubes shall be made from the concrete or grout used in the preliminary test pile and from the concrete used for building up a working pile as in “Preparation of a Working Pile which is to be Tested” (Clause 11.4 above). If a concrete cap is cast separately from a preliminary pile or

a working pile or if concrete is used for building up a working pile a

further three cubes shall be made and tested in accordance with BS. 1881.

The pile test shall not be commenced until the strength of the cube taken from the pile exceeds twice the average direct stress in any pile section under the maximum required test load and the strength of the cubes taken

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from the cap exceeds twice the average stress at any point in the cap under the same load. Variation of procedure will only be permitted if expressly agreed by the Engineer.

11.9

REACTION SYSTEMS

11.9.1

Type of Reaction Systems

Alternative methods may only be used with the approval of the Engineer prior to the delivery of any testing equipment to the site or the installation of any components for the purpose of pile load testing.

11.9.2

Details of Loading Arrangement

The loading arrangement used shall be designed to transfer safely to the pile the maximum load required in testing. Full details shall be submitted to the Engineer prior to any work related to the testing process being carried out on the site.

11.9.3

Kentledge

Where kentledge is to be used, this shall be supported on cribwork disposed around the plate. The bearing pressure under supporting cribs shall be such as to ensure stability of the kentledge stack. This specification does not cover the use of kentledge carried directly on the pile, and this method of loading shall not be used except at the express direction of the Engineer.

11.10

EQUIPMENT FOR LOADING AND LOAD MEASUREMENT

11.10.1

Equipment For Applying Load

The equipment used for applying load shall consist of a hydraulic ram or jack having a capacity at least equal to the required maximum load, and a hand or power driven pump with a pressure gauge included in the hydraulic system. The ram shall be placed on the pile so as to transfer an axial load to the pile. The complete system shall be capable of transferring the maximum load required for the purpose of the test. The load from the reaction system shall be transferred axially to the hydraulic ram or jack.

11.10.2

Measurement Of Load

The load shall be measured by a load measuring device and also by means of a calibrated pressure gauge included in the hydraulic system of the

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jack. The load as shown on the load measuring device shall be recorded. The calibrated pressure gauge is required to check for gross error and shall also be recorded. The load measuring device shall be calibrated every twelve months or whenever adjustments are made to the device, or at intervals appropriate to the type of equipment. The pressure gauge and hydraulic jack shall be calibrated together. Certificates of calibration shall be produced for the Engineer’s inspection. The Engineer’s agreement shall be obtained in writing before any modification of this procedure shall be used.

11.10.3

Adjustability Of Equipment

The equipment shall be capable of adjustment throughout the test to obtain a smooth increase of load or to maintain each load constant at the required stages of a maintained loading test.

11.11

METHOD OF MEASURING THE MOVEMENT OF THE PILES

11.11.1

Methods

In a maintained load test, movement of the pile load head shall be measured by one of the methods (i), (ii), (iii) or (iv) below in the case of vertical piles or by one of the methods (ii), (iii) or (iv) in the case of raking piles as required by the Engineer.

(i)

Levelling method

By optical or other levelling method by reference to an external datum.

(ii)

(iii)

Where a level and staff are used the level and scale of the staff shall be chosen to enable readings to be made to an accuracy of 0.5mm (1/50”). A scale attached to the pile of pile cap may be used instead of a levelling staff. A datum shall be established on a permanent object or other well founded structure or deep datum point. The datum shall be situated so that only one setting up of level is needed. The datum shall be duplicated. Neither datum shall be affected by the test loading nor by other operations in the site.

Reference Wire

By means of reference wire which shall be held under constant tension between two foundations form. The wire shall be

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positioned against a scale fixed to the pile and the movement of the scale relative to the wire shall be determined.

(iv) Other Methods

Any other approved method.

Readings shall be taken to an accuracy of 0.5mm (1/50"). The wire shall be protected from sun and wind.

11.11.1.1

Other Methods

Any other approved method.

11.11.2

Constant Rate of Penetration Test

In a Constant Rate of Penetration Test, method (ii) described in Clause above shall be used. Check levelling of the reference frame or on the pile head shall not be required. The dial gauge shall be graduated in divisions of 0.02mm (1/1000") or finer.

11.12

PROTECTION OF TESTING EQUIPMENT AND SUPERVISION

11.12.1

Protection From The Weather

Throughout the test period all load or settlement measuring equipment shall be protected from the weather.

11.12.2

Prevention Of Disturbance

Construction equipment and persons who are not involved in the testing process shall be kept at a sufficient distance from the test to avoid disturbance of the measurement apparatus.

11.12.3

Notice of Test

The S.O. shall be given not less than 24 hours notice of intention to commence the test.

11.12.4

Records

During the progress of the test, the testing equipment and all records of the test shall be available as required for inspection by the Engineer's representative.

11.12.5

Test Piles

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Before installation of piles as a whole commences, the contractor will be directed to install one or more preliminary test piles at positions to be determined by the Engineer. He shall install these piles as soon as practicable to the depth and set as directed. Loading of a preliminary test pile shall not commence until seven (7) days have elapsed after completion of its installation.

11.12.6

S.O's Instruction To Commence Piling

The contractor shall not install any works piles other than the preliminary test piles until he has received instruction from the Engineer on the required penetration or set or other criteria for determining the pile depth. Such instructions will be given not later than seven (7) days after complete results of the preliminary pile test have been submitted to the Engineer. The contractor shall allow in his rates for piling for such delay.

11.12.7

Supervision

The contractor shall provide an experienced supervisor to be present full time during the duration of the pile tests to ensure that the loading sequence and method of taking settlement reading are strictly followed and that the true load is maintained at all times. Pile tests shall be carried out only in the presence of the