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Looking at the results, there were no anomalous results unless we include the
rough titration volume, but then it is supposed to be larger than the actual
titration volumes. All titrations were within 0.1 cm3 of each other.
Percentage errors
2.65g of sodium carbonate was measured out on a balance
Balance error 0.005 x 100 = 0.19%
This error of 0.19% is fairly large, though its effect is minute.
25 ml of sodium carbonate solution was drawn using a pipette
Volumetric pipette error 0.05 x 100 = 0.20%
This error is pretty large in comparison to the others, so it was a major source of
Burette error
Final burette reading 35.30
Initial burette reading 3.30
Titre 32.00
0.05 x100 = 0.16%
Two readings were used to get this so the error is 0.32%. This is the largest
error and may have been the main source of error.

The volumetric flask contained 250 cm3 of solution:

Volumetric Flask = 0.2 x 100 = 0.08%
An error of 0.08% is very small and its effect on the results should not be very
large or even noticeable.
The main source of error within the instruments was the burette reading as it
was the largest error since two reading were taken per single titration.

Sources of error.
The sources of error in the procedure were relatively few. But still some were
capable of affecting results. For example it says to measure out 2.65g of solid
into a weighing bottle and transfer the solid into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask. But
there is no mention of transferring the washings into the volumetric flask as well
to ensure all the solid has gone into the flask. This would mean it would take less
acid to make the solution with indicator turn a permanent pink colour, resulting
in a smaller titration volume and a higher acid concentration from calculations.
Then it says to set up the burette but does not say that it should be washed out
with water and the solution to be used in the burette. This could either
contaminate acid the solution with a stronger acid or a weaker one or an alkali
meaning it could affect the results either way.
They dont also mention flushing out the air bubble. An air bubble takes up
volume meaning a higher volume of acid will be recorded, making the
concentration of the acid smaller.
There is no mention of a white tile which helps spot the colour difference early
before too much acid is added to the solution. Again this would mean too much
acid added and a lower concentration than what is actually there.
The procedure also directs the acid to be added until a colour change is noticed.
It should be added until a permanent colour change is noticed. This makes sure
that the sodium carbonate has been neutralized, however by stopping the
titration at the first colour change; the solution is still alkaline and therefore has
not completely reacted. This means less of acid is used, resulting in a higher
concentration obtained from the calculations.
Accuracy and reliability
For the purpose of the experiment, the results obtained were fairly accurate. All
of the results ended up within 0.1 cm3 of each other meaning either the same
errors were repeated or the same errors were avoided. But I feel I went through
all the possible avoidable errors and did my best to avoid them. The percentage
errors are also relatively small, not even individually close to 1%.
Aspects necessary to ensure that results were accurate as possible and how they
ensure this.
Repeating the experiment by repeating the experiment, it ensures that random
errors in the first attempt are not repeated in the second and so doing 3 or more
attempts ensures accurate and reliable results.
Washing out burette this ensures that the burette is not contaminated and only

contains the solution to be used therefore without contamination results are not
Flushing out air bubbles air takes up space just like a liquid and expelling an air
bubble means there are no recording inaccuracies as that bubble might expel
during the titration causing a drop in volume.
White tile a white tile will ensure accurate colour judgement and nearly the
right amount of acid used in the titration.
Controlled amounts of indicator more indicator solution poured in require more
acid to make it change colour. This means if its controlled then the amount of
acid needed will be roughly the same.
Swirling this ensures that the two solutions are properly mixed
Reading volumes from the bottom of the meniscus that just ensures that the
actual volume is taken down instead off one thats too large.