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INTEGRATED MODEL FOR ROAD MAINTENANCE

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RMMS) AND EXISTING FINANCIAL


SYSTEM (EPICOR) FOR TANZANIA NATIONAL ROADS
AGENCY (TANROADS)
A case study of TANROADS Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions

By

Elisony Edward Mweladzi

Dissertation Submitted in (Partial) Fulfillment of the Requirements for the


Degree of Master of Engineering in Maintenance Management of the Dar es
Salaam Institute of Technology

Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology


November 2016

CERTIFICATION
The undersigned below certify that they have read and hereby recommend for the
acceptance by Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology a dissertation titled: Integrated
Model for Road Maintenance Management System (RMMS) and Existing
Financial System (Epicor) for Tanzania National Roads Agency (TANROADS), in
fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Engineering in
Maintenance Management of Dar Es Salaam Institute of Technology.

.
Prof. C.W. Nyahumwa
Supervisor

Date....................................

.
Dr.A. Orbelin
Supervisor

Date....................................

DECLARATION
AND
COPYRIGHT

I, Elisony Edward Mweladzi declare that this thesis is my own original work and
that it has not been presented and will not be presented to any other Institution for a
similar or any other degree award.

Signature......................................................

The dissertation is copyright material protected under the Berne Convection, the
copyright Act 1999 and other international and national enactments, in that behalf, on
the intellectual property. It may not be reproduced by any means, in full or part,
except for short extracts in fair dealings, for research or private study, critical
scholarly review or discourse with an acknowledgment, without the written
permission of the Deputy Principal - Academic, Research and Consultancy, on behalf
of both the Author and Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
There are several people whom I am indebted to; those are all who enabled me to
accomplish this enormous and remarkable task in my life time.
Amongst others I am very grateful to my supervisors, Prof. C. W. Nyahumwa, Dr. P.
Mgaya, Dr. A. Orbelin and Dr. Musagasa of Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology
for their tireless help, advice, encouragement and criticism in enabling me to write this
thesis. I sincerely extend my gratitude to all lectures of Dar es Salaam Institute of
Technology and special thanks to RMMS experts namely Eng. Riccardo Carona, Dr.
V. Ndume, Dr. A. Nungu, Mr. C. Rukurugu, Mr. A. Ombeni, Eng. J. Ndyamukama
Mr. Mugisha Stationary and TANROADS RMMS team who dyed-in-the-wool their
precious time for consultation, support and encouragement in guiding and advising me
during my research work as well as my study period.
Correspondingly, I extend my gratitude to all who contributed in one way or another
to the successful completion of this study including my sponsor Mr & Mrs. Sieglind
Sauer of Zorneding Germany, my employer (TANROADS HQ), my Staff members
(TANROADS DSM), my friend Willilo Shedrack and my colleagues with whom we
pursued Masters degree of Engineering in Maintenance Management (MEMM 14) at
Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology (DIT).
Lastly but not least, I express my gratitude to my family distinctively, my lovely wife
Kindness H. M. and my son Derrick Elisony for being very tolerant and
compassionate for the whole time I was dealing with this task.
I could do nothing without you my Almighty God who provided me desire, health,
strength and reinforce my understanding capacity to pursue this thesis.
"Hallowed be thee to you my Almighty God!.
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DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to Mweladzis family and my late lovely father Edward Luhigilo
Mweladzi who paved a way to my career. May God Rest your Soul in Peace, Ameen!.

iv

ABSTRACT
The transport infrastructure system in Tanzania consists of roads, railway, air, water
and pipeline modes. However, the road sector is the dominant mode of transport in
Tanzania which is managed by TANROADS and PMO LARG. TANROADS
manages maintenance and development of Trunk and Regional road networks in
Tanzania by using Road Maintenance Management System (RMMS). PMO - LARG
manages maintenance and development of Urban, District and Feeder road networks
in Tanzania by using District Road Maintenance Management System (DROMAS).
This research work aimed at developing a model for integration of Road Maintenance
Management System (RMMS) with the existing financial system (Epicor) in
TANROADS. This was achieved after identifying shortcomings of the current RMMS
and evaluating the system components used for integration of RMMS with the
existing financial system (Epicor).
In carrying out this research study, both qualitative and quantitative methods were
used. Basically, the methods used involved structured questionnaires, interview and
reviewing literatures. The primary and secondary data collected were analyzed
through Microsoft excel and a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) programs.
These enabled to develop a model for Integration of RMMS with the existing financial
system (Epicor) in TANROADS. The developed integrated model was tested and
demonstrated its potentials over the RMMS and the financial system (Epicor) when
operating separately.
The research founded that road maintenance management system in TANROADS is
compromised by problems of delaying of approved payment certificate to contractors,
absence of integration with other systems, missing of checkboxes in the RMMS, the
use of outdated coding system of Vb6 and delay or uneven disbursement of funds for
road maintenance works that greatly affect planning and execution of maintenance
works of roads in the country. The proposed developed model addresses the
aforementioned problems. Hence, it improves the effectiveness of the system by
decreasing human errors and delays in payments to certificates issued by various
contractors, reducing time delays in moving of document from one office to another
and easing tracking on which department the document is stuck. In implementing the
developed model effectively, responsible technical personnel in TANROADS are
notified of new e-documents needing their attention so as to make quick decisions and
grant approvals. Consequently, a payment process takes a much shorter time to
process than before.
This study was limited at developing a model for integration of road maintenance
management system (RMMS) with financial system (Epicor) in TANROADS. As
such similar research is needed to conduct further study to develop an integrated
computerized road maintenance management system for replication to other
construction and maintenance management works in TANROADS. These include
procurements and bridges maintenance systems so as to increase efficiency in
maintenance of road works in the country and eventually reduce amount of paper
work
to
make
the
maintenance
management
system
green.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification .................................................................................................................... i
Declaration and Copyright ............................................................................................. ii
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................ iii
Dedication ..................................................................................................................... iv
Abstract .......................................................................................................................... v
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................... vi
List of Tables ................................................................................................................ xi
List of Figures .............................................................................................................. xii
List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................. xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background ............................................................................................................... 1


1.2 Statement of the Problem .......................................................................................... 5
1.3 Research Objective ................................................................................................... 6
1.3.1 Main Objective...................................................................................................... 6
1.3.2 Specific Objectives ............................................................................................... 6
1.4 Research Questions ................................................................................................... 7
1.5 Significance of the Study .......................................................................................... 7
1.6 Scope of the Study .................................................................................................... 8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 9


2.2 Overview on Road Maintenance Management System ............................................ 9
vi

2.3 Development of Road Maintenance Strategies ....................................................... 13


2.3.1 Strategy Development at the Network Level ...................................................... 13
2.3.2 Strategy Development at the Project Level......................................................... 14
2.4 Problems of Road Maintenance Management Systems .......................................... 15
2.4.1 Sophistication of RMMS .................................................................................... 15
2.4.2 Changes of Organization Structure ..................................................................... 16
2.5 Causes of Poor Performance of Different Projects in African Countries ............... 17
2.6 Road Maintenance Types which are managed by RMMS ...................................... 20
2.6.1 Routine Maintenance .......................................................................................... 20
2.6.2 Bridge Preventive Maintenance .......................................................................... 20
2.6.3 Spot Improvement ............................................................................................... 20
2.6.4 Emergency Works ............................................................................................... 21
2.6.5 Periodic Maintenance.......................................................................................... 21
2.6.6 Rehabilitation Works .......................................................................................... 21
2.7 Road Maintenance Functions and Management ..................................................... 22
2.7.1 Functions of Maintenance ................................................................................... 22
2.8 Application of RMMS for Optimal Road Asset Management ............................... 23
2.8.1 Management Techniques and Systems ............................................................... 24
2.8.2 Maintenance Management System (MMS) ........................................................ 25
2.9 Financial Accounting Information System (Epicor) ............................................... 28
2.9.1 Functions of an Accounting Information System ............................................... 28

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2.9.2 Components of Financial Management Accounting Information System


(Epicor) ............................................................................................................ 29
2.9.3 The Reliability of Accounting Information Systems .......................................... 29
2.9.4 Management Accounting .................................................................................... 30
2.9.5 Cost Benefit Analysis of Financial Accounting.................................................. 31
2.9.6 Typical Users of Epicor Financial Management ................................................ 32
2.9.7 Benefits of an Integrated Financial Software System ......................................... 32
2.9.8 Advantages of Integrated Software Applications ............................................... 35
2.10 Integrated Management System ............................................................................ 36
2.10.1 Principles of Integrated Management Systems ................................................. 37
2.10.2 Development of Integrated Conceptual Model ................................................. 38
2.10.3 Constrains of Integrated Management Systems ................................................ 39
2.10.4 Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System ..................... 41
2.10.5 Integrated and non- Integrated Management System ....................................... 45
2.11 Literature Point of View and the Gape of this Study ............................................ 46

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

48

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 48


3.2 Scope of the Study .................................................................................................. 49
3.3 Research Design ...................................................................................................... 50
3.4 Study Population ..................................................................................................... 51
3.5 Sample Size ............................................................................................................. 51
3.6 Data Collection Methods ........................................................................................ 52
viii

3.7 Primary Sources of Data ......................................................................................... 53


3.8 Secondary Sources of Data ..................................................................................... 53
3.9 Research Instruments .............................................................................................. 53
3.10 Data Analysis ........................................................................................................ 55
3.10.1 Integration System Requirements Analysis and Specifications ........................ 56
3.10.2 Integrated Model Development/Formulation.................................................... 57
3.10.3 Challenges on Data Collection.......................................................................... 57

CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH RESULTS

59

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 59


4.2 Respondents Characteristics .................................................................................. 59
4.2.1 Respondents Education Level ............................................................................. 60
4.2.2 Respondents Experience .................................................................................... 62
4.2.3 Departments Responsible for Managing Road Maintenance Works .................. 63
4.3. Data Presentation According to Specific Objectives ............................................. 64
4.3.1 Problem Encountered by Road Maintenance Management System in
TANROADS .................................................................................................... 64
4.3.2 Components Used for Integration of Road Maintenance Management System
with the Financial System ................................................................................ 68
4.3.3 Continual Quality Improvement of Road Maintenance Management System ... 69
4.4 Model Development for Integration of Road Maintenance System in
TANROADS .......................................................................................................... 69
4.4.1 Implementation of the Developed Systems ........................................................ 70
ix

4.4.2 Features of the Developed Integral Model in RMMS Peripherals...................... 71


4.4.3 System Functions ................................................................................................ 74
4.4.4 Operation of the Developed Integral Model in the Epicor Peripherals............... 76

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION

77

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 77


5.2 Impact of the Developed Integrated Model on Road Maintenance Management
System (RMMS) .................................................................................................... 77
5.2.1 Improvement on Certified Payments to Contractors on Application of the
Developed Model ............................................................................................. 78
5.3 Potentials of Integration Model Developed for Road Maintenance Management
System with the Financial System ......................................................................... 79

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

87

6.1 Conclusions ............................................................................................................. 87


6.1.1 Current Problems Facing Maintenance Management System in TANROADS . 87
6.1.2 Functional Components in Road Maintenance Management System and those
of Financial System (Epicor) ........................................................................... 88
6.1.3 Outcomes of Developed Integrated System ........................................................ 89
6.2 Recommendations ................................................................................................... 90
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 91
APPENDICES .................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Differences between Integrated and non-Integrated system....................... 46
Table 3.1: List of departments involved in questionnaire ........................................... 51
Table 4.1: Response rate of various categories of respondents ................................... 60
Table 4.2: Respondents education level ...................................................................... 61
Table 4.3: Respondents level of experience ............................................................... 62
Table 4.4: Departments responsible for managing road maintenance management
works ......................................................................................................... 63
Table 4.5: Problem of road maintenance management system ................................... 65

xi

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1:Input Process-Output Integrated conceptual model developed by
Bernardo C, ( 2009). ............................................................................... 39
Figure 4.1: Graph showing respondents level of education ........................................ 62
Figure 4.2: Components used for integration of the maintenance system .................. 68
Figure 4.3: Conceptual Block Model of Integration between RMMS and Epicor
System..................................................................................................... 70
Figure 4.4: RMMS Epicor Database. ....................................................................... 72
Figure 4.5: Flow Diagram Model Developed for RMMS Integration System. .......... 73
Figure 4.6: Typical Connection Diagram .................................................................... 75
Figure 5.1: Log in screen of RMMS - Epicor Integrator ............................................ 83
Figure 5.2: Users Management Section ...................................................................... 84
Figure 5.3: Payment Certification List ........................................................................ 84
Figure 5.4: Awaiting Payment Approval List ............................................................. 85
Figure 5.5: Rejected Payment Certification List ......................................................... 85
Figure 5.6: Approved/Paid Payment List .................................................................... 86
Figure 5.7: Payment Voucher log in Screen ............................................................... 86

xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AASHTO

American Association of State Highway and Transportation


Officials

AFCAP

Africa Community Access Programme

DIT

Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology

DRMO

Dar es Salaam Regional TANROADS Managers Office

IPC

Interim Payment Certificates

NAOT

National Audit Office of Tanzania

PMO-RALG

Prime Ministers Office Regional Administration and Local


Government

RFB

Road Fund Board

RMMS

Road Maintenance Management System

TACECA

Tanzania Civil Engineering Contractors Association

TANROADS

Tanzania National Roads Agency

UML

The Unified Modeling Language

xiii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The transport infrastructure system in Tanzania consists of roads, railway, air, and
water and pipeline modes. However, the road sector is the dominant mode of transport
in Tanzania, where almost everybody uses or is affected by the use of roads. Road
networks facilitate transport services and reduce the costs of travel and time for
nearby places; individual roads enhance accessibility to markets and services. In
recent years, road networks have expanded in the country to carter for freight and
passenger transport which will continue to grow along with motorization.

The Tanzania National Roads Agency (TANROADS) is an Executive Agency under


the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication, established under section 3(1)
of the Executive Agencies Act (Cap 245) and came into operation in July, 2000.
TANROADS is the Agency responsible for the maintenance and development of the
trunk and regional road networks in Tanzania Mainland.

The total classified national road networks in Tanzania Mainland are estimated to
cover 86,472 km (Road Act 2007). The Ministry of Works, Transport and
Communication through TANROADS is managing the national road networks of
about 33,891 km comprising 12,786 km of trunk out of which 5,130 km are paved and
7,656 km are unpaved, and 21,105 km of Regional roads out of which 840 km are
paved and 20,265 km are unpaved. The remaining network of about 53,460 km of
Urban, District and Feeder Roads is under the responsibility of the Prime Ministers

Office Regional Administration and Local Government (PMO-RALG) (TANROADS


Annual Progress Report, 2015).

The Dar es Salaam Regional TANROADS Managers Office (DRMO) manages a


road network of 600.97 km of which 120.28 km is Trunk roads, 398.88 km is
Regional Roads, and 81.81 km is designated roads (District Roads). The entire Trunk
road network is paved comprised of dual and single carriageways, adjacent service
roads, and pedestrian walkways while for regional roads 190.95 km are paved and
207.93 km unpaved ( Ndyamukama J, TANROADS DSM Annual Progress Report,
2015).

A road condition survey carried out in November 2014 on roads under jurisdiction of
TANROADS in Dar Es Salaam Region (TANROADS Condition Survey, 2014)
confirmed that only 44 percent of the Dar es Salaam network was in good condition,
21 percent was in fair condition and 35 percent of roads was in poor condition. Large
portion of those roads are unpaved requiring more frequent maintenance to ensure
yearly passability and reduction of travel costs and time used to travel by road users.
Unless the roads are maintained frequently, if not they may deteriorate to an extent
that it may require major rehabilitation which in turn requires heavy financial
investments.

TANROADS uses Road Funds (RF) and Development Funds for maintaining their
road network using their in-house staff members who supervise and approve works
executed by contractors obtained through public procurement guidelines. They use

Management System to improve and maintain the efficiency and reliability of their
roads networks.

The Road maintenance management system in TANROADS is managed and


maintained by directorate of planning, who also continuously focuses on building
capacity to all system users. Calibration of ROMDAS equipment - Paved Roads A
section of well-maintained road maintenance and management is a key focus of
TANROADS since its establishment in 2000. Road maintenance falls under the
responsibility of the Directorate of Maintenance and the Regions level is managed by
Planning and Engineering departments technical staff members.

Road Maintenance Management System (RMMS) is used to process data and analysis
of budget, analysis of RMMS database homogeneous sections HDM-4, maintenance
plan multi-year and one-year routine maintenance. The RMMS integrates a number of
applications (modules); and is designed to assist in specific decision-making
processes. Some of applications include routine and recurrent maintenance module,
periodic maintenance module, contract monitoring module, budget summaries
module, HDM-4 export module. In order to simplify and increase the efficiency of the
RMMS, it is required to integrate with other systems like financial and procurement
systems.

The currently System Success or Performance is based in the area of processing and
presenting data for planning purposes, operates as database for the roads inventory
and condition surveys, and is used for contract monitoring when issuing Interim
Payment Certificates (IPCs) which are among the components built in. However the
3

RMMS is not extended for use in other operations management such as Finance and
accounting so as to smoothen the maintenance management activities when the
payments of contract are required.

The RMMS does not link or communicate with the existing financial system (Epicor)
as a result, it causes delays in payments to Contractors due to human errors caused by
manual inputs of data, this has led to slow of execution of contracts by contractors due
to a lot of manual work that has to be done during data entry and payments of
certificates from RMMS to Financial System. The current system is also not user
friendly that it is more difficult for users to access features and codes or manipulate
data easily during planning stage, the use of outdated coding system of Vb6 is the
causative of this deficiency.

With proper developed and integrated roads maintenance management system with
the existing financial system (Epicor) in TANROADS, road maintenance projects in
TANROADS could be implemented within time schedule and at acceptable quality
and quantity that fits the road users needs and the costs anticipated unless unforeseen
circumstances arise that cannot be controlled.

This research work is thus aimed at studying shortcomings of the current road
maintenance management system (RMMS), proposing strategies for road maintenance
improvement, and sequentially developing a model for integration of the road
maintenance management system with other systems like Financial System (Epicor).
Such a model will enable efficient functioning of Tanzania National Roads Agency
(TANROADS) in terms of developing a system which tends payments to contractors
4

to be executed within short time hence will help on regular maintenance of roads to
keep them serviceable and to ensure yearly passability as a national assets necessary
for the nations economic development.

1.2 Statement of the Problem


The Road Maintenance Management System (RMMS) is used to process data and
analysis of budget, and identifies homogeneous sections, maintenance plan multi-year,
one-year routine maintenance. In addition, the RMMS integrates a number of
applications modules which are used to assist in specific decision-making processes
on routine and recurrent maintenance module, periodic maintenance module, contract
monitoring module, budget summaries module, and HDM-4 Export Module. All these
help in efficient operation activities of maintenance management.

However, the Road Maintenance Management System (RMMS) operations which are
currently used in TANROADS are not extended for operations carried by other
management systems. The current system has many shortcomings that hinder efficient
and effective operations of all road maintenance activities. Amongst the drawbacks
are lack of integration with the existing financial system (Epicor), limitations in
running constrained and unconstrained budgets with respect to the released budget, the
use of outdated coding system of Vb6 and absence of checklists which are used as
goals during the planning stage.

As a result, the RMMS is not able in establishing important needs like setting
priorities, regular updating of progress of works, integration with financial and
accounting system, and minimization of human errors made in payments when issuing
5

various certificates. This has led to slow execution of contracts by contractors due to
repetition of manual data entry that has to be done during transferring of data between
RMMS and Epicor. The current system is also not user friendly; in other words, it is
more difficult for users to access features and codes as well as data manipulation
during planning stage.

In order to overcome the aforementioned problems, there is a need of developing an


integrated road maintenance management system with other systems of TANROADS
for efficient functioning of the systems for maintenance management of road networks
under TANROADS.

1.3 Research Objective


1.3.1 Main Objective
The main objective of the study was to develop a system model that integrates the
road maintenance management system with the existing financial system (Epicor) in
improving maintenance management operations of road networks under TANROADS
authority in Tanzania mainland.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives


The study was guided by the following specific objectives:
(a) To identify the shortcomings of TANROADS on the Road Maintenance
Management System;
(b) To evaluate the system components to be used for integration of the road
maintenance management system with the existing financial system
(Epicor);
6

(c) To develop an integrated model for the road maintenance management system
with the existing financial system to road networks which are under
TANROADS authority.
1.4 Research Questions
In respective of specific objectives, this study had three research questions, namely:
(a) What are limitations hindering the road maintenance management system used
in TANROADS?
(b) What are functional components available in TANROADS maintenance
management system and the financial system (Epicor) which can be
integrated?
(c) What are requirements needed for development of an integrated model for the
RMMS and the financial system (Epicor) for effective and efficient
maintenance management of the road network under TANROADS
jurisdiction?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research study is that once the proposed system model for
integration of all road maintenance management system components with the existing
financial system will be implemented or executed, will increase reliability and
understanding in the following areas.
i. System restrictions on organizing effective roads maintenance;
ii. Reliability of information in the form of inventory and condition survey data
on the road network which are used by the system for annual and multiyear
planning and programming of road maintenance program;
iii. Increase maintenance on the national roads basing on the available funds;
7

iv. Decrease human errors and delays in payments certificates of various


contractors;
v. Enlighten TANROADS management on appropriate methods of organizing
and implementing maintenance series of modules which support the decision
making process within the road maintenance; and
vi.

Also it will build on existing initiatives to improve road management system in


recognizing the fact that good roads maintenance management system is
important for the organizations roads maintenance cost control, quality
control and assurance and on time delivery of road services to the community
resulting into economic growth through use of good means of transport. The
information to be collected is reputed to be helpful in maintenance planning/
programming and contracts monitoring in road sector including production of
reports.

1.6 Scope of the Study


This research will cover two regions in the coastal zone namely;

TANROADS Dar es Salaam; and

TANROADS Coast Region (Pwani)

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter synthesizes studies conducted by various researchers concerning the
concepts of road maintenance management system used by road authorities. The
purpose was to study the fundamentals and basic theories on integrated road
maintenance management system in Tanzania National Roads Agency and other
countries elsewhere through different sources of information international and local,
published and unpublished works.

The chapter is structured as follows: Section 2.2 elaborates on the Overview on Road
Maintenance Management System, Section 2.5 outlines problems of road maintenance
management systems, Section 2.7 discusses types of road maintenance which is
managed by RMMS, Section 2.9 explains principles components of integrated
management systems, Section 2.10 shows main components of financial management
accounting information system (Epicor), and Section 2.11 explains advantages and
limitations of integrated management system.

2.2 Overview on Road Maintenance Management System


Road management can be viewed as the entire management process employed by a
road authority in order to provide and maintain a road network. It therefore includes a
number of diverse activities including the assessment of current and future needs for
maintenance, rehabilitation, upgrading and geometric improvements of the various
elements of the road system under the road authorities 'jurisdiction. The road
management task has become more difficult as the range and complexity of issues
9

have increased with the size and economic importance of road systems. As a result,
many road agencies have to resort to the use of road management systems in the
management of their road networks (Kjell, 2011).

A road management system may be defined as a system which employs a set of


formalized procedures used by managers to evaluate alternative strategies in a
systematic and co-ordinated manner with the objective of providing, maintaining and
managing a road system at minimum cost and maximum efficiency (Sinha and Fwa,
1986).

The procedures are used by the several managers of the road network to produce
information and evaluate alternative strategies in order to optimize the efficiency of
the provision of new facilities and the maintenance of existing facilities, improving
facilities to required standards according to changing circumstances and demands and
projecting the needs for new facilities, where and when needed. The design of a road
management system is based on the concepts of systems engineering and
management techniques (Sinha et al, 1986).

Conceptually a road management system may be considered as encompassing a


number of inter-related components which collectively integrate into a loosely
structured system which allows full functional integration between the information
system and the decision support systems (Sinha et al, 1986).

The essential concept behind the design of the road management system is that of an
integrated, modular, computerized system in which an Information System (Central or
10

Core Database) is linked to and interacts with a number of Decision Support Systems
module that are both providers and recipients of data from the centre (Vincent et al,
1994). Thus, while each system performs a specific useful function within its own
sphere of need, each system should still be seen as part of a larger road management
decision making process.

A study carried out by Kumaraswanmy and Chan (1998) indicated four common
significant factors for both buildings works and civil engineering projects, namely,
poor site management and supervision, low speed of decision making involving all
project team and inadequate contractor experience. Al-Momani (2000) conducted a
survey on 130 public projects and found out that delays occurred in 106 out of 130
surveyed projects due to poor designs, change orders, weather and site condition.
Mbachu, (2007) carried out a study which involved registered members of Chartered
Institute of Building (CIOB) Southern Africa through review two (2) ways for
improving time management of projects. It was found out that poor financial
management and associated cash flow problems by contractors, sub-contractors and
suppliers, frequent changes to the scope of work by clients, inaccurate estimation and
pricing, poor strategic as well as risk management by consultants and
government/statutory controls, chiefly. Rules and regulations that negatively impacted
on construction resources and progress on effective time management.

Roads are of vital importance in order to make a nation grow and develop. Especially
in the third world countries, good maintained roads enhance poverty reduction by
improving access between regional and rural communities and, ultimately, enhancing
socio-economic growth and development. Road networks form vital links between
11

production centers and markets. In addition, its multiple function of providing access
to employment, social, health and education services makes road network crucial in
fighting against poverty by opening up more areas and stimulating economic and
social development. There is a problem, however, which is common throughout the
world, this is the negligence of maintaining our roads (Kumaraswanmy et al, 1998).

Building new roads costs money, but without maintaining the roads properly, they
deteriorate promptly. If nothing is done, roads with a design life of decades can need
replacing or major repair work after just a few years (Kjell et al, 2011).

It is therefore vital that roads are properly managed and monitored by anyone
involved in management so as to preserve the road assets in its originally constructed
condition, protect adjacent resources and user safety and provide efficient and
convenient travel along routes through use of integrated road management from
diverse activities including current and future need for road maintenance given the
limited resources devoted to road maintenance works (Kumaraswanmy et al, 1998).

Experiences observed through technical audit done by the National Construction


Council in the four regions of the southern highlands for the financial year 2012/2013
highlighted areas of management of road maintenance projects which needs
improvement to enhance achievement of quality and safer roads for the nations
economic development. These road maintenance management concerns which needs
improvement included uneven disbursement of road maintenance and development
funds committed from the Roads Fund Board (RFB), poor scheduling of road
maintenance works, delay in procurement of road maintenance works, lack of
12

expertise which resulted into improper customization of contract conditions causing


road projects management become more challengeable, Shortage of supervisors on
road projects and the quality assurance for road maintenance projects in road
construction sector (Doloi et al, 2012).

2.3 Development of Road Maintenance Strategies


2.3.1 Strategy Development at the Network Level
Any authority involved with the management of roads is inevitably faced with the
challenge of trying to manage a specified road network to standards set by policy
makers (or expected by road users) with a constrained budget. To achieve this
objective, actions typically carried out are to select optimal maintenance and
rehabilitation projects, estimate the long-term consequences of the selected actions,
compare the outcome with the set standards, consider alternatives (Adjusted budget,
changes in strategy, or lower standards) and finalize the decisions for implementation
sector (Doloi et al, 2012).

In developing a strategy for maintenance in Botswana three maintenance policies were


modeled. The strategies considered in modeling consisted of a first strategy to fix the
worst roads first, the second strategy to select maintenance action that will result in
minimizing the long-term Total Transport Cost (TTC). TTC includes both the costs to
the Agency and the road users (Rohde et al, 1996) and the third strategy is to select
maintenance actions that will maximize the area under a deterioration curve (Haas et
al, 1994).

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The outcome of pursuing the alternative strategies indicated above, for a given budget
allocation was evaluated in terms of the long-term outcome. That the long term
outcome (At network condition) of second and third strategies is clearly preferable to
the first strategy due to valuable communication tool to convey information to
decision makers. However, the aggregate nature reduces its suitability for use beyond
the network level selection of funding and maintenance strategies.

In terms of average vehicle operating costs over annual excess user costs, the second
and third strategies are again clearly preferable to the first strategy. In this regard, Cox
(1994) has found that, world-wide, there is a growing realization that investment
decisions which have traditionally been based primarily on network needs and
engineering standards in some countries, should be based on total life cycle costs
including, importantly, user and vehicle operating costs.

Again, the preservation of the asset value of a road network can provide a useful basis
for selecting and evaluating alternative investment strategies. These strategies
illustrate quite vividly that it is very important for any road agency to be fully aware
of the long-term consequences of pursuing any particular investment strategy. They
also illustrate detrimental consequences of not obtaining optimal funding for
maintenance of road networks in relation to the strategy being pursued (Haas et al,
1994).

2.3.2 Strategy Development at the Project Level


The development of a life cycle maintenance strategy on each road link of the road
network is paramount important. The optimal strategy for a link is selected using an
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incremental benefit-cost technique. In the analysis, the life-cycle costs and benefits
associated with all the possible strategies on a link are predicted. The benefit can be
defined in monetary terms or in non-monetary terms (Shahin et al, 1985).

2.4 Problems of Road Maintenance Management Systems


A key problem for road maintenance management systems is the provision of the raw
data input and the maintenance of up-to-date information. The company already
generates data on sales, revenue, expenses, payments and other fundamental
maintenance information. Maintenance departments often have additional databases.
The right management information system for the company can use this data in either
its current form or import it from a standard format. In this way, the data in the
maintenance system is always the same data as the company working level is using
and generating. If the management information system requires extra processing, the
data will be less current and less valuable (Cox et al, 1994).

2.4.1 Sophistication of RMMS


Sophistication of RMMS is a major problem for road maintenance management
systems. A powerful system perfect for the data of the company is wasted if the
employees don't use it. Some of Road Maintenance Management information systems
fail because their user interface is too complicated, it is too hard to get useful results
or the results are not in a useful form when the system generates them. The reports
have to be easy to understand and relevant for the company / Institution. Users have to
be able to generate the reports they want with a minimum of training time and with
little effort (Cox et al, 1994).

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2.4.2 Changes of Organization Structure


An important of Road Maintenance Management Information System characteristic is
the ability to adapt to changes in the Company / Organization. The available
information may change, the reports you want may vary and often the personnel using
the system changes. The system you put in place has to allow for revisions in the
inputs and outputs, either easily enough through your own IT staff, or at agreed rates
by the supplier. There has to be a simple method of adding and deleting user accounts
that you can handle internally, because old, active accounts can be a security problem
(Lema and Ogare, 2008).

The road construction sector is evidenced by many studies to experience extended


problems. These problems are mainly grouped into three types.
(a) Time management, i.e. road works are not completed within the agreed time
and benefits of the works to the public are delayed.
(b) Cost overruns, i.e. additional but avoidable costs to the approved budgets for
various reasons.
(c) Quality of the road works, i.e. rates of deterioration are higher than anticipated
which implies early repairs and maintenance (Lema and Ogare, 2008).

Tanzanias underdeveloped transportation network remains a key structural weakness.


Nearly 80% of the populations still live in rural areas, engaged in agricultural
activities. These rural areas are not adequately served by the transportation system.
Moreover, the countrys transportation system also serves to handle transit traffic for
Tanzanias landlocked neighboring countries including Burundi, Malawi, Rwanda,
Uganda, Mozambique and Zambia. (Lema and Ogare, 2008).
16

Given the importance of the road construction sector and the above mentioned
problems, a Performance Audit (PA) study on the management of Road Works has
been conducted by the National Audit Office of Tanzania (NAOT) and come up with
the fact that that poor management of road construction/repair/maintenance project
results into major findings such as inadequate design of road resulting into cost
overruns due to inadequate project management and/or quantities and variation of
price factors. A huge part of the increasing costs was related to miscalculations of
some kind in the design stage (Lema and Ogare, 2008).

Other factors like changed conditions, values and priorities just to mention a few have
also affected road construction/maintenance projects. The audit report concluded that
road works system in Tanzania is not managed efficiently, effectively and timely, they
are not talking with other management system (not linking). Road works project plans
and budgets are often revised, resulting in significant delays and cost overruns, all the
above problems are the consequences of poor road management (Lema and Ogare
2008).
2.5 Causes of Poor Performance of Different Projects in African Countries
Poor performance such as time delays, cost overruns and (at most times) poor quality
is not uncommon in construction projects (Lo et al, 2006). The causes of these
problems have attracted the attention of construction practitioners and researchers.
Examples of academic interest in the causes of poor performance in the construction
projects can be seen in research done by scholars such as Doloi et al, (2012). They
identified the seven most important factors leading to time delays and cost overruns
as:
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Lack of commitment,
Insufficient site management,
Poor site coordination,
Improper planning,
Lack of incorporation/ linking
Lack of clarity on project scope,
Lack of communication and substandard contract.

Similarly, Rafel, (1994) established that the predominant causes of poor quality in
construction projects were the clients demand for unrealistically short contract
periods, the poor management of subcontractors, the construction environment,
inadequately trained and unmotivated artisans, lack of quality control and defined
responsibility for quality, delays of payment certificates, inadequate planning as well
as inadequate communication among departments due to absence of integrations of
their systems. A study conducted by Kaming et al, (1997) showed that the
predominant factors influencing time delays were design changes, inadequate
planning, inaccuracy of material estimate and poor labour productivity, while cost
overruns were attributed to inaccurate material estimation, material cost increases and
lack of experience of project type, lack or poor of communication within the
organization.
The performance of projects is generally improving from one year to another, this is
according to the audit reports by National Audit office (NAO) of 2010/2011 and
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2011/2012. According to URT (2012), project management by road authorities was


satisfactory. But the Control and Auditor General noted that a huge number of funds
was being set aside by government through Road Fund to implement various road
projects. Observation was found that some rolled over projects due to delays in
executing works, sub-standard works, unnecessary addendums caused by poor
supervision of works and huge sum of money disclosed as unspent balances (URT,
2012). It was advised that road authorities had to ensure that the projects were
implemented as planned.
A paper presented by Tanzania Civil Engineering Contractors Association (TACECA,
2006), pointed out that the state of poor performance of most civil engineering works
under roads authorities was attributed by inadequate/poor implementation and
monitoring mechanism of the procurement process which included, design, cost
estimating, tendering, execution and commissioning stages.
Factors responsible for such state of affairs were reported to be lack of suitable
personnel (quantitatively and qualitatively); lack/absence of construction works
legislations for monitoring; inadequate working facilities as well as corruption
(TACECA, 2006).
A study conducted by CRB in the year 2000 on performance of local contractors in
Tanzania revealed that; delayed payments, lack of credit facilities, high interest rates
on overdraft and absence of clear guidelines on application of construction contracts
as obstacles to good performance of construction projects. Other factors were
expensive equipment hiring system, frequent breakdown of equipment, few skilled
personnel in construction industry, fluctuating prices, low quality, low work
availability, substantial number of works done by unregistered contractors, lack of
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transparency in tendering, discriminatory pre-qualification criteria, and corruption


practices were most obstacles to good performance of construction projects (Materu,
2000).
2.6 Road Maintenance Types which are managed by RMMS
The road maintenance types prevail in roads and managed by maintenance system are
described in the following subsections;
2.6.1 Routine Maintenance
The Routine and Recurrent Maintenance Module is used to estimate the needs for
routine and recurrent maintenance for a one-year period. The needs are estimated
using the inventory and condition data in the RMMS database and a series of quantity
and frequency tables linking the inventory and condition data to quantities of routine
and recurrent maintenance. This routine incorporates all maintenance works required
continuously or at intervals on every road whatever its engineering characteristic or
traffic volume, and comprises of activities such as grass cutting for "Right of Way"
increase, drain cleaning, culvert and bridge cleaning, road furniture and bridge
guardrails maintenance, paved road patching, edge repair, crack sealing, and line
remarking and also unpaved road grading, shaping and potholes repairs (Materu and
Urio, 2000).
2.6.2 Bridge Preventive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance works on bridges aim at repairing or restoring the bridges and
their various components to the original specification.
2.6.3 Spot Improvement
Localized maintenance works are carried out on paved and unpaved roads on short
sections (typically 1 km or less) of roads in order to ensure a reasonable level of
20

passability. The maintenance activities include road surface repairs, embankment


repairs, culvert and drainage repairs, localized road reshaping and re-gravelling, and
the construction of diversions. Spot improvement is usually done due to excessively
poor condition of a road over a short section that threatens the flow of traffic (Doloi et
al, 2012).
2.6.4 Emergency Works
Emergency maintenance activities on paved and unpaved roads are required to open or
repair roads or bridges after a natural or other unforeseen disaster like landslides,
falling of trees and stones, major accidents and blockage of the road and natural
events like floods. Such works are normally executed immediately following the
occurrence.
2.6.5 Periodic Maintenance
Periodic maintenance works are carried out on a defined project basis at intervals of
several years. Some activities included in periodic maintenance works are referred to
as preventative maintenance. Typical activities on paved roads include resealing,
overlay of less than 100 mm, fog sprays and shoulder reforming (Doloi et al, 2012).
2.6.6 Rehabilitation Works
Rehabilitation works includes activities such as pavement layer reconstruction or the
addition of pavement layers.

All the mentioned maintenance types in Section 2.6 are to be done to conform to the
Annual Operational Plan for TANROADS as agreed by the Board. The Annual
Operational Plan gives details of operations based on the approved strategic plan and

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shall include the planning of activities that need to be performed to achieve


TANROADS output together with matching resources calculations, including;

(a) Key performance targets and priorities;


(b) Cash flow projections, budgets and revenue targets based on indicative
resource allocations from the Road Fund Board, and estimated income from its
own sources of revenue;
(c) Personnel plan;
(d) Work programs for periodic maintenance, showing clearly all activities,
locations, timing and financial resources required; and
(e) Key assumptions, including those of resources which will underpin
performance targets.
2.7 Road Maintenance Functions and Management
2.7.1 Functions of Maintenance
Road maintenance is essential in order to preserve the road in its originally
constructed condition, protect adjacent resources and user safety, and provide
efficient, convenient travel along the route. Unfortunately, maintenance is often
neglected by the management or improperly performed resulting in rapid deterioration
of the road and eventual failure from both climatic and vehicle use impacts. It follows
that it is impossible to build and use a road that requires no maintenance (Doloi et al,
2012).

In order to plan for road maintenance needs, it is important to keep a complete set of
"as built" plans and records of all maintenance operations and observations. The "as
built" plan should at least contain complete job index, complete history of project
22

from planning stage to construction and maintenance, photographic records, exact


location and observations of any unstable conditions in relation to the road location
and exact location of culverts and other drainage features.

The most valuable tool for any maintenance program is the knowledge and experience
gained by individuals performing the road maintenance work. Every effort should be
made to retain competent, knowledgeable, and experienced individuals in these
positions not only from the standpoint of instituting and executing a good maintenance
program, but for future road planning needs as well (Materu and Urio, 2000).

In deciding on an appropriate level of maintenance management for a particular road


or road segment, consideration must be given to the amount and type of vehicle use
and physiographic and climatic variables which may impact drainage structures.
2.8 Application of RMMS for Optimal Road Asset Management
Road transport is an important sector of economic activity in any country and the road
asset usually represents a substantial public investment in transport infrastructure. It is
therefore essential that this vital national asset is managed efficiently and costeffectively in support of national economic development. The task of managing a road
system in an optimal manner is technically complex, particularly where there are
competing demands for limited resources. However, this task can be greatly simplified
by employing a modern management system which can be operated to assist road
managers in managing their road networks efficiently and cost-effectively by setting
and achieving their policy objectives (Materu and Urio, 2000).

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2.8.1 Management Techniques and Systems


Management is the technique, science or practice of planning and controlling and
involves knowledge of the entity to be operated. Modern management techniques
require cost-effectiveness, economic efficiency in the use of scarce funds and
selection of technical standards, and accountability of the management through
performance measures and transparent accounting procedures, amongst other things.
When applied to a functioning entity it means operating and steering to achieve the
organizations pre-established objectives.

Procedures to quantify and evaluate the variables associated with any management
action are basic tools which should enable objective judgment of the performance.
However, judgments are made by persons as a result of whom subjective attitudes,
such as optimism or pessimism, may affect them. In order to remove subjectiveness
from decision making, a set of procedures is required to collect, validate, store and
retrieve data which, when processed statistically, will remove the element of personal
bias by providing the information in an objective form such as an index.

Furthermore, evaluation procedures based on weighting or other criteria can be


applied to obtain a priority ranking. Finally, external constraints may have to be taken
into account when decisions are to be made. The organized setup of these procedures,
criteria and constraints is called a Management System. In its broadest sense, a
Management System provides the necessary tools to enable the user to Do the right
thing at the right time in the right place and at the right cost.

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2.8.2 Maintenance Management System (MMS)


The maintenance management system (mms) is a computerized database designed to
optimize the management of maintenance and capital improvement activities through
the organization by using standardized procedures to document and prioritize field
facility and equipment needs and to report accomplishments.
It is a management tool for planning budgeting of maintenance, capital improvement,
equipment repairs and replacement, and construction projects. The MMS
documentation begins at the ground level with identification of maintenance, capital
improvement, construction, and equipment replacement and repair needs by manager.
The database allows generation of report that summarizes data in a variety of ways
such as by maintenance code, by facility and equipment category, by project cost
estimates by priorities, and project expenditures.
2.8.2.1 Objectives of the maintenance management system
According to Sergeant (2000), the primary objectives of the maintenance management
system are to;
i. Optimize the use of available funds, personnel, facilities, and equipment
through effective maintenance management methods;
ii. Provide accurate data for maintenance and construction program decision
making;
iii. Systematically identify maintenance needs or deficiencies and capital
improvement needs;
iv. Establish Station, Regional, and National maintenance and construction project
priorities;

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v. Enable preparation of Service maintenance and construction budget requests


using systematic, standardized procedures;
vi. Monitor and document corrective actions, project expenditures, and
accomplishments;
vii. Enable communication by linking with other management system;
viii. Decrease human errors caused by manual input; and
ix. Decrease paper work.
2.8.2.2 The scope of the maintenance management system
The MMS is a comprehensive inventory of maintenance and capital improvement
project for all service field stations.
The MMS database is project oriented database that house maintenance, capital
improvement and equipment replacement needs.
2.8.2.3 Components of maintenance management system
Maintenance Management System has the following basic components:
i)Contract monitoring;
ii) List of activities and packages;
iii) Data base (reports) including all the information that goes into an MMS;
iv) Inventory and condition;
v) Contract Monitoring; and
vi) Internal controls component for protecting data.
2.8.2.4 Maintenance management system effectiveness
It is the probability that a system will meet is operational demand within a given time
under specified operation condition. It is a characteristic of the design, and may be

26

evaluated by comparing the actual volumetric flow to that theoretically possible when
there are no restrictions at the input or output ends of the system.

2.8.2.5 Modeling, validation and verification


According to Balci and Sergeant (1984), a model is considered valid if its response
accuracy is within acceptable range for its intended purpose within respective
experiment in other words, to prove validity, the accuracy of modeling needs to be
evaluated. As such, validation answers the question: are we building the right thing?
Verification evaluates the transformation accuracy from the valid model to its correct
implementation. The question answered by verification is therefore: are we building
the thing right? The engineering simulation manager must become the broker for a fair
comparison of real systems, modeled systems, and simulated systems.
Sergeant (2000) explained these relations between system to be model, conceptual
model, and simulation using exhibit and introduced special terms to facilitate the
discussion on validation and verification.
2.8.2.6 Capabilities of road maintenance management systems
In principle, as a decision making tool, a road management system is capable of
providing decision support for a number of road management activities such as
pavement management, bridge management, traffic signs management, traffic lights
and traffic signal management etc, at all three levels of management, namely,
policy/executive, planning and execution. In so doing, a road management system
would include ability:
i) To determine the most appropriate funding level to meet a specified standard;
ii) To plan network improvements according to budget constraints;

27

iii) To determine the effects of deferring maintenance on upkeep and road users
costs;
iv) To determine the effects on users costs of raising/lowering the quality
standards of road pavements;
v) To assure cost-effectiveness through prioritization based on comparison of the
costs and benefits of alternatives.

2.9 Financial Accounting Information System (Epicor)


An information system is a formal process for collecting data, processing the data into
information, and distributing that information to users. The purpose of an accounting
information system (AIS) is to collect, store, and process financial and accounting
data and produce informational reports that managers or other interested parties can
use to make business decisions. Although an AIS can be a manual system, today most
accounting information systems are computer-based (Materu and Urio, 2000).
2.9.1 Functions of an Accounting Information System
Accounting information systems have three basic functions:
The first function of an AIS is the efficient and effective collection and storage
of data concerning an organizations financial activities, including getting the
transaction data from source documents, recording the transactions in journals,
and posting data from journals to ledgers.
The second function of an AIS is to supply information useful for making
decisions, including producing managerial reports and financial statements.
The third function of an AIS is to make sure controls are in place to accurately
record and process data.

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2.9.2 Components of Financial Management Accounting Information System


(Epicor)
An accounting information system typically has seven main basic components which
include:
i) Accounts receivable
ii) Accounts payable
iii) Electronic funds transfer
iv) Bank Reconciliation
v) Tax management
vi) Payroll
vii) Credit and collections management
2.9.3 The Reliability of Accounting Information Systems
Because an Account Information system (AIS) stores and provides such valuable
business information, reliability is vitally important. The American Institute of CPAs
(AICPA) and Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA) have identified
five basic principles important to AIS reliability (Vincent R, 1994).
i)Security - Access to the system and its data is controlled and limited only to
those authorized personnel;
ii) Confidentiality - The protection of sensitive information from unauthorized
disclosure;
iii) Privacy - The collection, use, and disclosure of personal information about
customers is done in an appropriate manner;
iv) Processing integrity - The accurate, complete, and timely processing of data
done with proper authorization; and

29

v) Availability - The system is available to meet operational and contractual


obligations.

Epicor has evolved from a financial accounting system provider to an end-to-end


enterprise solutions company. Epicor Financial Management is a scalable Enterprise
Resource Planning (ERP) software suite of accounting applications for businesses of
any size in the manufacturing, distribution, retail, hospitality and in service industries.
The Epicor Financial Management suite is also capable of managing multiple business
entities on a global scale and supports inter-company transaction processing. Its
applications include accounts receivable, accounts payable, general ledger, cash
management, payroll and budgeting and forecasting, among others. Epicors
accounting applications have compliance capabilities as well. Epicor Financial
Management clients can use Windows or Mac OS X. The server can use Windows,
Linux or Unix. Epicor leverages the Microsoft .NET platform for building and
exposing applications with Web services (Materu and Urio, 2000).
2.9.4 Management Accounting
Management accounting involves collecting, analyzing, and presenting financial
information used to help company management make sound business decisions. This
would include everything from providing detailed financial statements for different
divisions within a large company, to analyzing the financial impact of a potential
expansion or business acquisition. Management accounting is at the center of almost
every significant business decision made (Vincent R. et all, 1994)

Management accountants are called upon to assess whether a companys current


products and processes are still viable. By comparing data on the projected profits
30

generated by a line of business against the cost of shutting it down, management


accountants can determine if operations should be discontinued. In this scenario, a
comprehensive analysis would involve consolidating human resource data to assess
the costs of potential layoffs, and using data from engineering and marketing to decide
whether a new product needs to be added to the production line. A complete analysis
of this nature would also consider the potential profits that could come from using
resources from a discontinued line of business elsewhere.

Management accountants prepare detailed analyses of both business problems and


opportunities. Their reports are ultimately used to assist a companys senior
management in making the major decisions that determine the companys financial
success (Vincent R. et all, 1994).

2.9.5 Cost Benefit Analysis of Financial Accounting


Cost-benefit analysis is the most common goal of management accounting. The
business then must choose how best to use that money. Company officers may
consider acquiring a competing business or may return the money to shareholders.
Senior executives may also want to consider the possibility of investing in the current
business to expand output, or increase productivity by buying new equipment.
Management accountants are skilled analysts that make reasonable assumptions based
on their expertise, experience, and accumulated past data. This means management
accountants must really understand the business. Based on this understanding, they
make assumptions about the likelihood of success of each option, costs associated
with implementing each alternative, and the likely profit stream each offers within the
current economic climate (Vincent R. et all, 1994)

31

A great deal of judgment is required in management accounting. Future outcomes


hold a great deal of uncertainty and the management accountants will need to make
estimates of the various factors that could impact business decisions. Senior
executives rely on management accountants to gather all the relevant information
needed to make fully informed decisions so as to create some degree of certainty in
the otherwise uncertain world of economics. Without management accountants, senior
executives would be gambling on the future. Their decisions would be based on
instinct rather than justifiable data.
2.9.6 Typical Users of Epicor Financial Management
Epicor Financial Management has the following typical customers, Freelancers, Large
Enterprises, Mid-Size Business, Non Profits, Public Administrations and Small
Business. The Epicor Financial Management support mobile devices, Linux and Webbased, hence can be integrated with others management systems (Vincent R. et all,
1994)
2.9.7 Benefits of an Integrated Financial Software System
Every high-growth business grapples with decisions around the best business system
to manage its expanding operations. Proper planning of an integrated financial
management software system often takes a back seat to long-term revenue
acceleration goals. As a consequence, various disparate applications are installed at
different points in time in various functional areas, resulting in business process
efficiencies and software integration improvements.

32

To further increase top-line revenue, many companies will open new office locations
and embrace additional sales channels resulting in more sophisticated processes for
ecommerce integration, recurring billing, and financial consolidation, amongst others.
Additional business software to support these processes can take the form of
standalone applications from different vendors, homegrown applications, or a variety
of spreadsheet work around.

Here is a summary of the five main issues that can hinder the growth of a business if it
is run with disparate financial software systems:

(a) Wasted Employee Productivity


When a company is in growth mode, every employee must be operating at
optimal productivity. If employees of the company are bogged down with
inefficient and disjointed processes, it increases errors and takes time away
from their more important core duties. Important processes such as order
processing, invoicing, expense approvals, and fulfillment, to name a few, can
take a lot longer to get completed, and are often erroneous. For instance, the
employees may be spending hours manually re-entering order information into
the accounting and invoicing system, while other employees pull that same
information from integrated system for their order fulfillment processes and to
calculate sales commissions. If any orders are canceled in the meantime, the
employees have to sift through mounds of data to reconcile this information
again. Such labor-intensive and manual tasks reduce the agility that the
company needs to grow.

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(b) Lack of Real-time Visibility


When software systems are un-integrated, a company has multiple overlapping
databases, and cannot easily get a view of business performance in a timely
fashion. Reports showing performance across your finance, sales, marketing,
service, and fulfillment departments are crucial to giving you an integrated
view of your company's operations. Most companies simply give up on
acquiring this information on a regular basis because of the amount of time it
takes to source, extract and analyze this data. For those that do, countless hours
are wasted trying to tie unrelated, error-prone, and out of date information
together. Consequently, businesses either end up making critical decisions
slowly, based on inaccurate information, or they make hasty and risky
decisions off of gut instinct (Vincent R. et all, 1994).

(c) Integration Complexity and Cost


With so many disparate applications, IT wastes an enormous amount of time
and money on integrating, maintaining, and acquiring new versions of these
applications. Often times, once new versions are purchased, even more
integration and maintenance needs to be performed for all the different
versions of software to work together. Consequently, valuable IT time that
could be used to make the business more productive is wasted, while
maintenance costs skyrocket.

34

(d) Increased Customer Churn


Customer/Contractors acquisition and revenue growth are key pillars to the
company's continued success. With fierce competition, it is essential that
TANROADS provide an exceptional customer experience or risk having
customers take their business elsewhere. When customers are unable to
quickly get information on their order status, or payments certificates can't get
issues resolved in a timely manner, , they will be less satisfied and less likely
to continue purchasing contracts or working from you. An integrated software
system ensures that accounting officer and clients have the right information
and served at very reasonable time.

2.9.8 Advantages of Integrated Software Applications


To keep your business growing at the dramatic rates you plan for, it is essential to
have your business software applications integrated around a single codebase,
database and business process. The advantages of designing your systems in this
manner yield tremendous cost savings and improved business productivity including:
(a) Process Efficiency Across Organization
There are several key processes that you may encounter in your daily
operations, such as order management, fulfillment, invoicing, cash collection,
expense approvals, and financial consolidation, to name a few. Automating
such processes enables you to avoid new hires that would otherwise be
required to manage these processes, and redeploy staff to higher-value
activities to help your business innovate and grow.

35

(b)

Dramatically Improved Visibility


Real-time visibility is important in making timely informed decisions. When
information can be accessed instantly from almost anywhere, without wasting
resources on data extraction and tying data from different sources together,
employees are better informed and can make more accurate, faster decisions.
This integration of RMMS and Epicor will save a lot of time compared to the
stand alone system which is current practiced in TANROADS.

2.10 Integrated Management System


Various aspects of integrated management system have been studied both theoretically
and empirically. This literature is structured around main themes such as; what is
integration, what and how to integrate and expected benefits of integration.
According to Karapetrovic and wellborn (1988) two system are integrated when they
are linked in a way that results is a loss of independence of one or both.
Beckmerhagen (2003) define integration of management system as a process of
putting together different function specific management system into a single and
more effective integrated management system. Dalling 2007, defined integrated
management system as a single integrated system used by an organization to manage
to totality of is processes in order to meet organization to to manage the totality of its
processes in order to meet the origination objectives and equitably satisfy
stakeholders.

Hence an integrated management system (IMS) combines all related system


components of a business into one system for easier management and operations.
These systems are not separate systems that are later joined together, rather they are
36

integrated with linkages so that similar processes are seamlessly managed and
executed without duplication.

As a part of gaining ISO certification, it is important to have a good quality


management system that not only meets the standards, but it will also improve
business processes.

2.10.1 Principles of Integrated Management Systems


The main condition which allows implementing different management systems is a
united conceptual approach to the nature of organizational management, having in
mind that different management systems operate in a unified organizational structure,
using shared resources and combining work processes to achieve organizational goals
(Slater, 1991).

In other words, integrated management systems are being developed on the base of
principal similarities of management systems. There are a few reasons why
implementation of management systems is beneficial for the organizations (Jorgensen
et al, 2006):
(a) It allows the organizations to decrease the extent of documentation and
bureaucracy which arises due to work organizing and control, referring to
separate procedures or different standards;
(b) It allows saving resources, entrusting the management of the integrated
management system to one leader instead of appointing separate leaders to each
and every management system, including the certificated one;
(c) It allows carrying out an internal and external audit more clearly and
effectively;
37

(d) It promotes concentrating on the organizations activity improving and the


strengthening of connections between quality, employee health and safety and
social responsibility.

2.10.2 Development of Integrated Conceptual Model


A system model is the conceptual model that describes and represents the structure,
behavior, and more views of a system. A system model can represent multiple views
of a system by using two different approaches as schematically presented in Figure
2.1. The first one is the non-architectural approach and the second one is the
architectural approach. The non-architectural approach respectively picks a model for
each view. The architectural approach, also known as system architecture, instead of
picking many heterogeneous and unrelated models, will use only one integrated
architectural model (Bernardo, 2009).

38

Figure 2.1: Input Process-Output Integrated conceptual model developed by


Bernardo C, ( 2009).

2.10.3 Constrains of Integrated Management Systems


Nevertheless,

standardizing

integrated

management

systems

with

common

documentation is difficult due to the variety of organizational goals and characteristics


and the uncertainty of management, which is influenced by a changing external
environment. Talking about the coordination and supervision of management systems,
it should be marked, that this activity is complex, requiring constant redesigning and
at the same time innovations in separate management areas. Long-term united efforts
of strategic level leaders and high level of organizational maturity are required to
ensure fluent stages of planning, preparing the documentations (policies, procedures,

39

orders), implementation Social Technologies

and realization of integrated

management systems (Bernardo et al, 2009).

As there is no international standard, which would submit unambiguous


recommendations to ensure the implementation of management systems, every
organization copes with this task on its own. Both in theoretical and practical level of
implementation of the integrated management systems a few key problem issues arise.
The idea of management system implementation, as it was said, is based on the
similarities of international standards, which appeared naturally: up to eighty percent
of works about quality management, environmental protection management and
employee health and safety management in different organizations are very similar in
their nature.

However, there still remain twenty percent of issues, the content of which, talking
about different organizations and their management areas, is not similar. Sometimes
these works even seem incompatible with each other at first glance (Pojasek, 2006). It
means that they cannot organically blend with each other; they can only be
documented next to each other.

Another problem is the organizations leaders approach to the importance of


management systems. The highest rank in organizations is usually given to quality
management, and the environmental protection, employee health and safety and social
responsibility is pushed to the background, or serves as a proof that reach for quality
exists in all work areas (Jorgensen et al, 2006). Overrating one area, while devaluating
others is incompatible with the idea of integration. It should be also marked, that the
40

realization of united management systems, including integrated management systems,


is inherent from organizational culture, which supports a few things: employees taking
part in submitting the solutions for the organizations development and solving
problems, teamwork, constant learning and improving, dedication and personal
leadership and coordinating various interests. (Wilkinson, 2002).

However, there are not many organizations that develop and advanced organizational
culture, because in order to create and strengthen this culture, resources with
difficultly evaluated quantities return are needed. On the other hand, if and adequate
organizational culture is not supported, the implementation of management systems
confronts with strong resistance of functional leaders. It is associated with the human
factor, needed structural changes and the nature of implementation of management
systems itself. Due to the variety of work specifics, conflicts between the supervisors
responsible for separate areas arise; they fight for influence areas or even survival.

Finally, it must be agreed, what does the implementation of management systems


mean in organizational context. Dictionaries describe the implementation as a merge
of parts or elements into one system, and setting the functions of each element.
Sometimes the implementation of management systems is described as cooperation
based on coordinated policy (Tarptautiniu 2005).

2.10.4 Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System


Benefits from integration several studies indicate that integration is becoming more
common than stand-alone systems ( Bernado et al. 2009). Many of the organizations
that are certified according to multiple types of standards have established integrated
41

management systems. The research indicates potential benefits of using an integrated


approach (Russel, 1997). Increased efficiency, possibility to link quality related and
environmental related aspects with ethics and organizational profitability, and the
possibility to develop management systems better matching stakeholder interests are
some reasons for integrating.

The general impression from studies carried out is that there are more benefits than
downsides and problems when management systems are integrated, Karapetrovic
(2002). From the studied literature it was noted that some important benefits from
IMS are the use of process approach, the use of the integrated audits and common
documentations system with common structure of routines.
Integration has advantages such as;
(a) Standardization,
(b) Effective support of processes,
(c) Using resources optimally,
(d) Reducing sub-optimization,
(e) Minimizing problems with communication between different areas.
(f) Coordinated: separate management systems operate in the same organization
at the same time;
(g) Integra table: shared elements of management systems are identified;
(h) Integrating: the identified shared elements are coordinated to work jointly
(i) Integrated: a united system, which incorporates all shared elements, is
operating.
Even if these advantages are only mentioned for a limited scope of system integration
it could be assumed that this conclusion also applies when increasing the scope. Level
42

of integration towards better process control also has advantages in the organization
aspiring for total quality and business excellence.

As some elements, as mentioned, cannot be merged into unified system, and a


necessity to talk about the level of management system integration arises. Partly,
integrated systems are also called parallel systems (Wilkinson, Dale, 2002). Parallel
management systems mean that a united management structure is created using
similarities of installed standards, however, the procedures of each area remain
described separately, even though filed in a single manual. This type of
implementation allows both to decrease bureaucracy, which inevitably occurs after
installing different management standards, and to remove most of duplicated work To
solve the mentioned problems, theoreticians suggest not implementing all
management systems, but only few of the referring to needs and possibilities
(Salomone, 2008).

It is also suggested to execute the implementation not by thinking about a united


system from the position of functional leaders, but by concentrating on the employees,
who actually do the particular work. A tension and confusion would be avoided while
describing the processes and orders of employees work, if employees had to
coordinate their work referring to different standards (Pojasek, 2006).

In other words, if all the attention was given to the processes, the desired results
would be realized itself and integral system would be created (Slater, 1991).
It is important, that both leader executives and experts would take part equally while
developing the documentation of processes (Pojasek, 2005).
43

Discussion on having an intention to integrate management systems, it is important to


realize the organizational processes as a united management of many different
organizational activity areas. Following areas are resources management, knowledge
management, environmental protection management, work safety management,
employee health protection and others. The implementation of management systems
integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach
to the organization.

The implementation of management systems allows optimizing the processes of


organizational management:
(a) To organize the processes of organizational activity smoothly;
(b) To meet the deadlines;
(c) To do not exceed the planned budget;
(d) To reduce faulty work and waster to a minimum; and
(e) To avoid the disturbance of employee health and violations of environmental
balance.

Integrated management systems are developed on the basis of principal similarities of


organizations management systems. However, it is difficult to standardize integrated
management systems with a single documentation due to the variety of organizational
goals, tasks and characteristics and the uncertainty of management, which is
influenced by a rapidly changing economic and social environment. Coordination and
maintenance of management systems is a complex work, that requires constant
reconsideration and at the same time innovations in separate areas.
44

As international standard for IMS not exist, that gives unambiguous recommendations
on assuring the integration of management systems, every organization copes with this
task on its own. Inherent from the organizational culture, which supports changes and
management innovations. It is necessary to purify the conception of integrated
management system in organizational context. A need to talk about the level of
integration of management systems is very important as in scientific discourse as in
practice. The theoretical analysis of IMS shows that all of the management systems
cannot be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and
coordinated.

2.10.5 Integrated and non- Integrated Management System


Integration, combination consolidation, blend, fusion-these are just terms used in the
literature to describe the theoretical) and practical level of integration. Integration is
perceived as continuum ranging from no integration (two independent systems) to
partial integration to full integration with most organization situated somewhere in
between (Dalling, 2007). Some of the features of an integrated management system
versus non- integrated system are shown in Table 2.1.

45

Table 2.1: Differences between Integrated and non-Integrated system


S/N Integrated System

Non - Integrated System

The totality of the control of people issues, such Discrete


as
1

organization,

competency

responsibility,

and

organization/

authority, different

arrangements
aspects

project responsibility,

for

of

authority

managing

organization,
employment,

employment life-cycle is defined in an integrated competency and other people specific


process

issues

The management review process covers all Discrete management review processes
aspects of the operation of the organization and which do not review all aspects of data in
shorter
2

term

review

cycles

are

logically a coherent and integrated way. A typical

embedded into longer term review cycles to form example is agreeing a company budget
an integrated hierarchy of management review separately from quality, health safety,
processes appropriate to the size complexity of environment and other training for the
the organization.

coming year.

Aim to apply management tools and approaches Tendency to not apply management tools
3

generics way to achieve improvements

generically for achieving improvements

2.11 Literature Point of View and the Gape of this Study


On the literature review, various authors pointed out various problems in Road
Maintenance Management and Financial management systems. The following
problems were pointed out in one way or another with various authors:
(a) Absence of integrations of two or more systems of management system,
(b) Lack of finance and poor disbursement,
(c) Lack of trained personnel in road maintenance management system, and
46

(d) Delay of payments to contractors.


The component of financial, managerial and technical relationship in maintenance
management system in RMMS is not well clearly described. The present examined
problems/shortcoming and identified components required for development of the
integrated model for improving maintenance management system on Road
maintenance management and Financial Management were identified as narrated
above. The study used TANROADS Dar es salaam and Coast Regions as a reference
point.

47

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
Various authors have described the meaning of research methodology and methods.
Kothari,( 2003) explains that research methodology is a systematic way applied to
solve the research problem. Nachmias (2000), argued that the methodology for
scientific research is a system of explicit rules and procedures upon which research is
based and against which claims for knowledge are evaluated. According to Myers
(2009), the research method is a strategy of enquiry, which moves from the underlying
assumptions to research design, and data collection. Although there are other
distinctions in the research modes, the most common classification of research
methods is into qualitative and quantitative.

Some researchers prefer to use mixed methods approach by taking advantage of the
differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and combine these two
methods for use in a single research project depending on the kind of study and its
methodological foundation (Brysman and Burgess, 1999).

An obvious basic distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is the form
of data collection, analysis and presentation. While quantitative research presents
statistical results represented by numerical or statistical data, qualitative research
presents data as descriptive narration with words and attempts to understand
phenomena in natural settings. This means that qualitative researchers study things

48

in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in


terms of the meanings people bring to them (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000).

Now this chapter provides the methods used in carrying out the study. It focuses on
research design, study area/population, sample size and sampling techniques and data
collection methods. It also gives what ought to be done with regard to the data
analysis plan and development of a model for integration of road the maintenance
management system with the existing financial system (Epicor) for Tanzania National
Roads Agency (TANROADS).
3.2 Scope of the Study
The study was intended to cover TANROADS coast regions, namely Dar es Salaam
and Coast. It is also intended to cover five (5) road construction/maintenance
reputable construction firms/companies available in these regions.

In achieving the specific objectives set, the following parameter(s)/data were


collected.
To achieve the first specific objective "determining the shortcomings of road
maintenance management system", the searched parameters are as follows:
i) Number, education and experience of technical personnel involved in road
maintenance
ii) Road inventory and condition data being collected and their application
iii) Maintenance needs
iv) Maintenance funding levels
v) Level of acceptance of completed road maintenance works to client

49

The research study was based on information gathered following the parameters
mentioned above, from which missing necessary inputs for road maintenance
management system in TANROADS were obtained. Problems encountered in
managing the existing system were also acquired. It was planned that structured
questionnaires and interview (tools) were used to collect the data/information.

For achieving the second specific objective "Identifying components used for
integration of road maintenance management System and financial system",
departments/units dealing with road maintenance management in TANROADS which
need to be integrated into the system were covered in this study. Key components
were given weights against the importance of integrating them into the system. Tools
used in collecting data were structured questionnaires and interview.

To achieve the third specific objective "To develop an integrated model for the road
maintenance management system with the existing financial system to road networks
which are under TANROADS authority", proposed strategies were adopted to
improve the Road Maintenance Management System (RMMS) based on information
obtained from the first and second specific objectives.

3.3 Research Design


There was quantitative research approach so as to generate data in quantitative form to
be analyzed and results be generalized, while qualitative research was about subjective
assessment of attitudes, opinions and behavior.
In this research study, qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Basically,
qualitative method focused on what people perceive towards road maintenance
50

management system in TANROADS, to include problems and shortcomings in the


current system of road management and strategies towards improving the system.
Quantitative methods focused on frequencies and percentages for response and trends
on road maintenance performance.
3.4 Study Population
In this study population comprised respondents from Engineering department,
procurement department, planning, accounts and finance, all from TANROADS and
finally reputable Civil Contractors.
3.5 Sample Size
In this study, respondents from each of the Coast and Dar es Salaam regions were
supplied with questionnaire basing on their roles and responsibilities in road
maintenance works. These were then used to group the respondents accordingly.
(Table 3.1).

Table 3.1: List of departments involved in questionnaire

S/N

Name of the Department / Section

Number of Respondent (Staff)

Engineering Department

22

Procurement Department

Planning Department

Accounts and Finance Department

Reputable Civil Works Contractors

17

51

The reasons for selecting respondents are as follows:


i) Contractors

are

responsible

for

direct

execution

of

road

maintenance/construction works,
ii) Engineering department are responsible for design and supervision of
maintenance projects on behalf of clients (Regional Managers),
iii) Procurement Department are responsible for monitoring procurement
processes,
iv) Accounts and Finance Department deals with disbursement of all payment
with regard to road works,
v) Planning Department is responsible for overall organizations planning process
and running and managing of the system.
In TANROADS the proposed respondents were holding important information which
enabled this study to examine and develop an integrated model for road maintenance
management system with financial system in TANROADS.
3.6 Data Collection Methods
This research study employed both primary and secondary data collection methods to
capture processes in the context of the road maintenance management system. The
data collected didn't involve field (site) data collection by the researcher but rather
was collected through questionnaires distributed to different targeted respondents.
Primary data was obtained through questionnaires and interviews to key informants.
Questionnaires were distributed to targeted respondents. Secondary information was
obtained through literature reviews.

52

3.7 Primary Sources of Data


In gathering primary data, both qualitative and quantitative collection methods were
involved. The qualitative method used included key informants and Interviews while
quantitative methods used were questionnaires that met all objectives required.
Interviews were carried out to with Regional Managers and Heads of departments
including Planning, Procurements and Engineering units.

3.8 Secondary Sources of Data


The relevant literatures were reviewed as the supplement material in order to
demonstrate gaps in available information on the integrated road maintenance
management and their effectiveness in improving road management in Tanzania.
Review of different documents including official policy documents, relevant
textbooks, publishes paper, magazines, journals, internets and articles were scrutinized
accordingly.

3.9 Research Instruments


Several different research instruments were used to achieve the same research
objectives.

The

research

instruments

included,

survey,

interviews

and

questionnaires. In this research study, the questionnaires and interviews were used as
the research instruments because they were simple to identify the research
requirements. The research instruments used are described in the following
subsections:

53

a) Interviews
The interview technique entail set of structured, semi-structured and
unstructured questions to allow respondents provide their interpretation of road
maintenance practice and express how they regard the situation from their own
point of view. The interview method was used to counter check information
obtained through questionnaires to all targeted respondents. The sample
questionnaire as appended herewith, was structured in accordance with needs
to respond to the specific objectives. The main interviewees group comprised
technical personnel from planning units, who are managing and operating the
existing system. The other group was from Procurements, Financial and
Engineering units/ departments.
b) Questionnaires
The questionnaire consisted a number of questions in soft and hardcopy, thereby
giving the respondents more time to think and review document. Also respondents
who were not easily approached were sent the questionnaires by e-mails preceded
by a telephone introductory remark. The questionnaire was structured such that it
was requesting their knowledge, experiences, and attitudes on road maintenance
practices in TANROADS for a period of not less than five years i.e from financial
year 2000/2011 to 2015/2016.

c) Observation
Observation being an ordinary method for gathering data, it was used to verify
some of the information given by respondents if needs was.

54

d) Research Reliability and Validity


The reliability and validity address issues about the quality of the data and
appropriateness of the methods used in carrying a research project. A number of
measures were taken to insure reliability and validity of the study. Among the
measures is the use of multiple methods (triangulation) in order to validate the
data sources to increase the reliability of the research, the more agreement the
more is the reliability of data. This insured that the issues were not explored
through one lens, but rather the variety of lenses which allowed for multiple facets
of the phenomenon to be revealed and understood (Baxter and Jack, 2008).

According to Yin (2013), interview data were verified by information from other
sources to increase the validity of the study. In this study 5 questionnaires were
produced as a pilot test to assess validity of the questionnaire used. The developed
questionnaire was checked to see whether there was a need to review it or not to
fulfill the intended purposes.

3.10 Data Analysis


The analysis of data that was collected from questionnaire survey was performed
using a Microsoft access package. The data entries were manually cross checked to
ensure accuracy. Descriptive statistics such as Means, Frequencies and standard
deviations were computed by the use of the Statistical Package for Social Science
(SPSS). Qualitative data/information that was gathered such as causes of ineffective
road maintenance management system and strategies needed to improve the same was
analyzed by using Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools.

55

Quantitative data indicating trends of performance of road maintenance works and


experience and training trends of key technical personnel involved in road
maintenance works and maintenance funding levels was analyzed by using Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel packages.

3.10.1 Integration System Requirements Analysis and Specifications


In the field of software engineering, requirements analysis, also called requirements
engineering, is the process of determining user expectations for a new or modified
product. These features, called requirements, must be quantifiable, relevant and
detailed. They are also often called functional specifications.
The Integration System requirements identified for the development of an integrated
model in this research study are as follows:
(a) The integration system should be able to allow users to access it from remote
in order to facilitate the user personnel to work with payments even if he/she is
out of the office;
(b) The system should be secured;
(c) The system should Integrate RMMS and Financial System (Epicor);
(d) The system should allow planning department to view payments status and
report;
(e) The system should allow the head of engineering to review, certify or reject the
payment certificates generated from RMMS;
(f) The system should allow the Manager to approve the certified payments from
engineering, the approved payment should then be sent to the financial system;
(g) The system should also show if the payment vouchers and cheque have been
prepared from the financial system.
56

3.10.2 Integrated Model Development/Formulation


The model for integration of the road maintenance management system (RMMS) with
the financial system

(Epicor) was developed after having analyzed the

data/information collected. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams were


used in developing the required model. The type of UML used in developing an
integrated road maintenance management system is the Activity Diagrams. The
integrated model for the road maintenance management system and financial system
in TANROADS) showed the road maintenance processes (i.e. work flow) and overall
flow of control of road maintenance management operations.

The features of notations which allow easily to integrate the modeled processes into
the general information system of an organization and to create a flexible structure
that could be quickly and even automatically adapted to new necessities. It was
presumed that the model structure would enable a link between the maintenance
function and the other organizational functions and sequence of activities for the
execution of road maintenance at every stage.

3.10.3 Challenges on Data Collection


The data collection exercise was successful in the sense that most of the respondents
(48) which is equivalent to 77% of the targeted respondents were cooperative and
returned the duly filled questionnaires. However, the following challenges occurred
during the data collection exercise:
1. Busy schedules of several respondents, making the exercise not successfully
by only having some excuses and not taking the issue seriously.

57

2. Some respondents from targeted departments refused to be supplied with


questionnaires by giving an excuse that they did not have enough time to go
through the questions and to provide answers.
3. Some respondents did not answer all questions set in the questionnaires,
leaving some of the important questions un-attended.

58

CHAPTER FOUR
RESEARCH RESULTS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the main findings of the study and data analysis. It gives the
summary of answers to the research questions that guided the researcher as formulated
in Chapter One. The research work was guided by the three research questions. In
order to address these questions, necessary data were collected from survey
questionnaires, interviews and literature review (see Chapter 3).

The chapter is divided into three sections. Section one is introduction, section two is
all about characteristic of respondents; section three presents data collection, data
analysis and brief discussion on the three objectives described in three sub sections.

Sub section one presents the identified shortcomings of the Road Maintenance
Management System (RMMS) of TANROADS. The second subsection explains the
system components used for integration of road maintenance management system
with the existing financial system. This examines success factors for improvement of
road maintenance management system. The third sub section presents the analysis of
the developed integrated model for the road maintenance management system with the
existing financial system to road networks which are under TANROADS authority.
4.2 Respondents Characteristics
The research study covered two regions in the coastal zone namely TANROADS Dar
es Salaam and TANROADS Coast Region (Pwani). A total of 62 questionnaires were
distributed to the studied TANROADS Regions. Nonetheless, only 48 questionnaires
59

were returned by respondents giving a response rate of 77 percent. The proportion of


returned questionnaires is as shown in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Response rate of various categories of respondents


S/N

Respondents

Issued Questionnaires

Returned

Respond Rate

Questionnaires

for Respective
Group

TANNROADS HQ

15

13

87%

TANROADS

14

11

79%

24

21

88%

33%

48

77%

COAST REGION
3

TANROADS DSM
REGION

CONTRACTORS
TOTAL

62

The findings presented in the Table 4.1 show that there was respondents readiness
(77%) to provide different information on road maintenance management system used
in TANROADS. From that view, response rate was regarded to be sating factory
hence finding from the study could be relied upon for analysis.

4.2.1 Respondents Education Level


The level of education of the respondents was important as it was assumed that it
would affect the opinion of the respondents. Thus, the respondents were requested to
indicate their level of education. As can be seen in Table 4.2, most respondents were
knowledgeable enough to fulfill requirement of this study for road maintenance
management system in TANROADS. Figure 4.1 also shows respondents level of
60

education which is considered necessary for the effective implementation of the


RMMS.

Table 4.2: Respondents education level


S/N

LEVEL OF EDUCATION

NUMBER OF

PERCENTAGE (%)

RESPONDENTS
1

PRIMARY EDUCATION

0%

SECONDAY EDUCATION

6%

TECHNICIAN

16

33%

20

42%

MASTERS AND ABOVE

19%

TOTAL

48

100%

CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA
4

ADVANCE
DIPLOMA/DEGREE

61

Frequency

Figure 4.1: Graph showing respondents level of education


4.2.2 Respondents Experience
The study sought to establish number of years respondents who had worked in
TANROADS particularly in the area of management of road maintenance works.
Table 4.3 shows respondents level of experience in the road maintenance
management area.
Table 4.3: Respondents level of experience
Frequency

Percent

Cumulative

(No)

(%)

Percent (%)

Less than Three Years

12.5

12.5

Three to Five Years

12

25.0

37.5

More than Five Years

30

62.5

100.0

62

As per Table 4.3 and Figure 4.1, most respondents were well experienced and
knowledgeable in the road maintenance management as only 12% of respondents had
worked for less than three. In line with that, 25% of them had worked for three to five
years whilst 63% had worked in TANROADS for more than five years.
4.2.3 Departments Responsible for Managing Road Maintenance Works
In this study, a concern was to determine which unit/ department in TANROADS
organization structure is currently responsible for road maintenance management.
Respondents were therefore requested to give their opinion by indicating the unit/
departments responsible for managing road maintenance works in the TANROADS
organization structure. Table 4.4 shows statistical distribution of 51 respondents on
departments of planning, procurement, works, finance, weighbridge, road reserve and
any other existing department(s) involved in managing road maintenance works in
TANROADS.

Table 4.4: Departments responsible for managing road maintenance management


works
DEPARTMENT

NUMBER OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENT

(%)

PLANNING

18

35.4

PROCUREMENT

7.9

ENGINEERING

24

47

WEIGHBRIDGE

1.9

FINANCE

3.9

ROAD RESERVE

1.9

OTHERS

1.9

TOTAL

51

100

63

4.3. Data Presentation According to Specific Objectives


This section presents data analysis and description according to the collected data and
literature reviewed.
4.3.1 Problem Encountered by Road Maintenance Management System in
TANROADS
The most current occurring problems and shortcomings of road maintenance
management system used in TANROADS were examined to establish their effects on
management of road maintenance works. Table 4.5 indicates the ranks of the found
problem and shortcoming that hinder efficient functioning of the systems for
maintenance management of road networks under TANROADS authority in Tanzania
mainland.

64

Table 4.5: Problem of road maintenance management system

Scale
1

measure of statistics

Problems / shortcomings

2 3

4 5 Mean

Delay or even disbursement of

48 18 15 3 6

Std.dev Var. Rank

2.52

1.54

2.37

Funds for road maintenance


Absence of integration with other

48 24

48 16

14

48 21

14 9 1

2.25

1.51 2.27

system eg financial
Missing of reliable road inventory,

3 11

2.75

1.65

2.70

2.19

1.19

1.41 1

and condition surveys data


Delay of Certified payments to
Contractors of road maintenance works
Missing of checkboxes in system

48 21 12

2.37

1.47 2.16 3

Political and no-professionals

48 16 6

2.63

1.56 2.43

Interference during implementation


of road maintenance works

Key:
1=strongly agree, 2= agree, 3 =slightly agree, 4 = disagree, and 5= strong disagree

Table 4.5 shows respondents opinions on problems or shortcomings facing the road
maintenance management system in TANROADS. Ranking of the findings shown in
Table 4.5 gives the most considered current occurring problems, and sorts out
problems to be worked out first requiring immediate action to be undertaken by
responsible agency towards improving the management maintenance system. For
clarity, the problems are narrated as follows:

65

(a) Delay of certified payments to contractors


According to literature review analyzed in Chapter Two, one among the functions
of the management system was to simplify and shorten unrequired process by
integrating process which could shorten the long process.

As can be seen in Table 4.5, the most found occurring problem/ shortcoming is the
Delay of Certified payments to Contractors of road maintenance works having
mean rate of 2.19. The analysis shows that this happens due to long process and
repetition of manual work of data input on preparation of certificates.

(b) Absence of integration of road maintenance management system with the


financial system
The second ranked occurring problem/ shortcoming is absence of integration of
RMMS with the financial system (Epicor) having mean rate of 2.25. The findings
show that if this can be solved, it would help to remedy the problem of delays of
contractor`s payments.

(c) Missing of checkboxes


Checkboxes were found not to be available in the road Mentor Management
System. Most of the developed systems in the world is characterized with
checkboxes which simplify selections of data entry (Sergeant, 2000). It was
observed that the RMMS in TANROADS was not user friendly, and was not in
simpler format. Hence most of works were repetitively handled due to absence of
checkboxes during assigning of activities on a planning stage.

66

(d) Uneven Disbursement of Funds


Uneven disbursement of funds for road maintenance was found to require a
systematic approach on allocation procedures. Unprecedented traffic growth and
overloading were observed to have been resulted by the absence of reliable good
road inventory and condition survey data. This might have been motivated by
uneven disbursement of funds for road maintenance works. Reliable road
inventory and condition surveys which are key success determination of handling
the aforementioned problem should therefore be conducted so that they fit the
current needs of road construction and maintenance practices in TANROADS. If
the required road works data are properly administered and customized, it is
expected that the developed integrated model for the RMMS and Epicor financial
system in TANROADS would enable timely having adequate quality of the
design, construction and maintenance. Therefore, the road maintenance
management model currently required in TANROADS should include reliable
road inventory and condition survey data which are updated regularly and worked
out for improvement of the system.

According to the findings and in respect of developing a model, there is a need to


overhaul the existing systems or procedures dealing with road maintenance works
when preparing payments for certificates submitted by Contractors so as to speed
up the rate of construction and maintenance of roads under TANROADS
authority. This happens due to lack of easily communication between the system
used to process and analysis of executed works conducted by Contractors and the
financial system (Epicor) used to prepare payment vouchers to Contractors.

67

4.3.2 Components Used for Integration of Road Maintenance Management


System with the Financial System
System components that were used for integration of road maintenance management
system with the financial system (Epicor) are;
i)

Certification component

ii)

Approval component

iii) Notification component


iv) Prepared Component
As can be seen in Figure 4.2, more weight is given in the approval mechanism which

Frequency

is followed by certification mechanism.

Figure 4.2: Components used for integration of the maintenance system

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4.3.3 Continual Quality Improvement of Road Maintenance Management System


About 68% of the respondents amounting to 34 strongly agreed on the continual
quality improvement of RMMS when responding to a success factor for improvement
of road maintenance management system. Thirteen (13) of the respondents moderately
agreed while four (4) respondents disagreed. They assessed the factor simply to
examine if the program of continual quality improvement would be judged critically
by the targeted respondents responsible for road maintenance management in
TANROADS as experience showed that no system is static.

All systems require improvement at all times and also requires drive and dedication
from organization particularly from the individual staff involved. The response mean
rate examined on this particular aspect was 1.56, indicating that most of the
respondents provided their views based on the fact that the improved operations of the
existing system would contribute to improve the maintenance management system of
road network under jurisdiction of TANROADS.
4.4 Model Development for Integration of Road Maintenance System in
TANROADS
According to the study findings, a conceptual model (Figure 2.1) was used as a base
for the development of integrated model for the road maintenance management
system and the financial system (Epicor). This was done on the understanding of
proposed requirements and designs for the new system with due regards to deep
understanding on how TANROADS organization works. Furthermore, a conceptual
model explains how the new proposed system fits the requirements followed the
activity based approach represented in terms of graph structure organized in input-

69

process-output. This therefore led to formulate a conceptual block of integration


between RMMS and Epicor systems which meet requirements (Figure 4.3).

Figure 4.3: Conceptual Block Model of Integration between RMMS and Epicor
System

4.4.1 Implementation of the Developed Systems


System codes were developed to handle the certificate data entered in the RMMS
Module, checked and verified by the system User. In summary, the implementation of
the developed system is described as follows.
The processed and verified system document sends notification to the Head of
Department who can then review the submitted certificate on the software installed on
his/her PC. Hence, the certified Certificate is then appears on the Manager installed
system for approval and if no it is sent back to the engineering department for further
corrections.
70

When accounting officer accepts the certificate, the certificated data automatically
appears on the accounting system and is processed accordingly, and if not accepted
the certificate is sent back to the manager and engineering department for further
correction.
4.4.2 Features of the Developed Integral Model in RMMS Peripherals
The RMMS part is used to enter, process, store and produce reports of payment
certificates information. It consists of the application part and the database section
which are briefly described as follows.
(a) Application Part
The application part of the RMMS is a section where there is system users
login, and one can enter data, process and produce various reports. Once data
is entered it is processed and stored on the data base.

(b) Database Section


The database section is a place where all the user input data and various
reports including certified payment certificates are stored. The developed
RMMS - Epicor Maintenance Model (Figure 4.4) comprises;

Road Mentor data

Contract Data

Work order Data

Payment Certificates

Other relevant System Info

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Figure 4.4: RMMS Epicor Database.


The integral part is among of peripherals of this proposed system, and deals with
acquiring prepared payment certificate from the RMMS database, sending notification
for approval and sending the certificate to Accounts for payment processing. Also it
consists of the messaging server for sending, receiving and processing of database
queries. This system subsection consists of two parts;(a) Software for Certificate Data Transfer
(b) Messaging Server for Notification
Figure 4.5 presents a conceptual system model developed for integration of road
maintenance management system in TANROADS. It consists of a sequence of
activities covering all required aspects of operations in an integrated hierarchy of
management processes appropriate for road maintenance works. The concept used in
development was based on user (respondents) responses about their system new
requirements and on understanding of TANROADS organization on the maintenance
management of roads and also how the system fits.
For the totality of integrated management processes, success factors shown in the
model are proposed to be continuous for sustainable improvement of the system. The
72

success factors include continual quality improvement, regular training follow up,
beneficiary involvement, and fund allocation and delivery improvement and
standardized road network data. These factors are considered to be the basis for the
system endurance because of inherent advantage of continual improvement of the
system against the current way of managing road maintenance works in TANROADS
and also because no system is static. Hence, there is a need for further refinement and
improvement of the system.

Figure 4.5: Flow Diagram Model Developed for RMMS Integration System.

73

4.4.3 System Functions


The following stages explain how the developed integral model functions:
Stage 1:

Measured works data for Certificate are entered in the RMMS module
prepared and checked by the system user.

Stage 2:

The integral system regularly communicates and scans for new payment
certificates. When the certificates are found, it retrieves them to the
respective database. The integral system then sends notification to Head of
Department and then he/she can review the certificates by login into
system with his/her credentials.

Stage 3:

If the certificate is certified, the system sends the notification to the


Manager who has to login to the system for viewing and approving of the
new certificates. If the certificates are not approved for not meeting the set
requirements they are send back to Planning Department for further
corrections.

Stage 4:

If the Manager approves the certificate, certificated data automatically


appear on the accounting system and are processed accordingly.

Stage 5:

If the Manager does not approve the certificate, it is sent back to the
Engineering Department (Head of Engineering) for further corrections.

All data transfer are made possible by use of relevant software installed on a computer
located on the office Local Area Network (LAN). Alongside process, there is a
message notification upon preparation, processing, certifying, approval and the
making of payment checklist to the Manager. The typical schematically connection
diagram is shown in Figure 4.6. The messaging server (Figure 4.6) is responsible for
sending notification of an incoming certificate for approval or correction to respective
74

person. It comprises of a software application for querying database and regular email
system or server. The following are its major components for it to work properly:

Engineering
Department

Manager

LAN

RMSS
System

Account
Department

Messaging
server
Figure 4.6: Typical Connection Diagram

(a) Software
The software checks for any message request, sends and stores messages in the
database. It is installed on the server computer.

(b) Database
The database acts as a message storage. It is installed along with the software
in the server computer.

(c) Email system


The email system connects to cellular networks, and sends and receives
messages. It is attached on the server Computer via USB ports.
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4.4.4 Operation of the Developed Integral Model in the Epicor Peripherals


The developed integral model in the Epicor peripherals is where payment process
takes place after receipt of certified payment certificate from the integral Module. The
approved certificate is received by accounting officer. Appropriate information is
entered in the system and payment voucher printed for release of payments. In doing
these, the following advantages of the system are expected to be realized;
(a) Reduce time delays in moving of document from one office to another.
(b) Increase efficiency of the system.
(c) Easy to track on which department the document is stuck.
(d) Responsible people are notified of a new document needing their attention.
(e) Payment process will take a much shorter time to process.

76

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION
5.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses the main findings of the study and gives an emphasis on results
that add improvements of road maintenance management system in Tanzania National
Roads Agency (TANROADS). Other findings in literature are used for comparison
and contrast purposes.
5.2 Impact of the Developed Integrated Model on Road Maintenance
Management System (RMMS)
The general objective of the study was to develop a model for integration of road
maintenance management system with financial system Epicor in TANROADS with a
view of increasing efficiency in the route of achieving the main objective after
addressing successfully the three specific objectives of this research study. The first
specific objective was to examine current problem/ shortcomings facing road
maintenance management system in TANROADS while the second specific objective
was to identify components which were used for integration into road maintenance
management system in TANROADS. The third specific objective was to examine
success factors viable in TANROADS for improvement of road maintenance
management system through developing an integrated model based on the
shortcomings and components used for integration.
A sample of 62 respondents was selected for the study, all from TANROADS Coast
zone regions. However, 48 respondents whom the study findings relied on reacted
positively, a sample constituted 77% of the targeted respondents as detailed in Table
4.1. The findings revealed that, the current road maintenance management system in
77

TANROADS faced significant problems/shortcomings. The problem / shortcomings


are narrated in ascending order of their mean rates from the most to least occurring
problem/ shortcoming of the road maintenance management system (RMMS) in
TANROADS (Table 4.5).When developing the integrated model on the RMMS, the
most critical found delays on payment of the certificates submitted by contractors
were significantly considered in the model so as to realize its impact in improving
maintenance management of roads.
5.2.1 Improvement on Certified Payments to Contractors on Application of the
Developed Model
According to literature review analyzed in Chapter Two, one among the functions of
the maintenance management system is to simplify and shorten un-required works or
processes by integrating two or more activities which could shorten the long process
of execution.

The analysis drawn from the research results shows that there is a long process /
procedures of payments to contractors whether is interim or substantial payments for
certificates processed from RMMS system following the certification and approval of
the same before being reprocessed to another financial system called Epicor.

The delays of payments happen due to presence of long process and repetition of
manual work of data input on both systems for preparation of certificates and cheque.
The delays of the payments to contractors have not only contributed to inconveniences
to contractors performance but also resulted to affect the economy of the country due
to fact that the contracts works fail to be completed within the construction period. As
the results, addition of time or liquidated damages are inevitable to most construction
78

contracts. These penalties to contractors are due to late execution of works caused by
payment delays which are among the major factors affecting negatively not only
individual economy but also a National economy as whole.

5.3

Potentials of Integration Model Developed for Road Maintenance


Management System with the Financial System

According to Rafel, K. (1994), the organization works in efficiency manner if the


management systems can communicate to each other. The organization management
systems can only communicate when they are integrated. In contrary, the RMMS and
the Financial System in TANROADS do not communicate to each other for
realization of efficiency of the maintenance management of roads under TANROADS
authority. The results drawn from the analysis of the collected data show that the
second occurring problem/ shortcoming is absence of integration of RMMS with other
system with mean rate of 2.25. If this shortcoming can be solved, the RMMS would
provide solutions for the problem of delay of Contractors payments. Hence, the
integrated model developed for the RMMS with the financial system (Epicor)
addresses the already observed shortcomings as discussed in the following
subsections:
(a) Additional of checkboxes
Absence/missing of checkboxes in some modules on Road Mentor Management
System increases difficulties in management of the RMMS. Most of the developed
systems in the world are characterized with checkboxes which simplifies
selections and manipulation of data entry in the systems (Sergeant, 2000). The
research results presented in Table 4.5 reveal that the RMMS system installed in
79

TANROADS is not user friendly due to fact that most activity or process are being
worked more than once. This could be processed by one click only if checkboxes
could be built in.

Furthermore, the RMMS was found not in simpler format, and it uses outdated
coding system of Vb6. This type of coding causes most of works to be double
handled. This problem is mostly caused by the absence of checkboxes during
assigning of activities on a planning stage. Hence, it is advised to re-build a new
model which can facilitate users and can be accessed wherever they are by using
Dot.net program systems.

(b) Evenly disbursement of funds


Evenly disbursement of funds for road maintenance needs systematic approach on
allocation procedures, and control of road network. Precedent traffic growth and
overloading control are the results of the presence of reliable good road inventory
and condition survey data. Hence, road inventory and condition survey should be
reliable so that they fit the current needs of road construction and maintenance
practices in TANROADS. Reliable road inventory and condition surveys are key
success determinants of other problems listed above. If the required road works
data are at customized, would enable in timely having adequate quality of the
design, construction and maintenance. This integrated system has to provide
solutions for this shortcoming of disbursement of funds at acceptable level.

80

(c) Un interference of political and non-professionals


Among the problems found to face road maintenance management in
TANROADS were caused by political and non-professionals interferences during
implementation of road maintenance works. Inadequate quality of the designs,
poor construction and maintenance of roads were also observed to shorten lives of
road infrastructure. Furthermore, shortage of qualified technical staff responsible
for road works and uncontrolled increase of the road network were found to affect
the maintenance management of roads.
The

findings

revealed

that

basic

components

needed

for

successful

implementation of road maintenance system in TANROADS are not interfered by


political and non-professionals although will not cater for it in all.
Effective and vibrant road maintenance management system in TANROADS can
therefore be achieved by reviewing thoroughly the current system and putting in
use well equipped success factors for sustainable improvement. The improvement
of efficiency of TANROADS road maintenance management system was
prioritized basing on the findings presented in Table 4.5. Hence a well-integrated
system was required to provide ways to compart the shortcomings.

According to the findings and in respect of developed model, it was inevitable to


overhaul the system and procedures of preparations of payments Certificates to
Contractors so as to speed up the rate of construction and maintenance of roads under
TANROADS Authority. This was due to lack of easily communication between
system used to process and analysis of executed works conducted by Contractors

81

(RMMS) and financial system (Epicor) which used to prepare payment vouchers and
checks.
Hence the RMMS - Epicor integrated system which caters all narrated shortcomings was
developed with the following among many features:
(a) Security Features
There was an introduction of security features which only permitted/allowed
personnel will be able to assess the developed system.

(b) Notification Features


The developed system is able in sending notification of an incoming
certificate for certification and approval or correction of the same to a
respective person. This comprises of a software application for querying
database and regular email system.

(c) System operators;


The developed RMMS - Epicor integrator system have the following operation
levels that have been successfully carried out in this research study:
i) Administrator level

Programmer, IT specialist

ii) Supervisor level

Regional Manager, Head of Departments

iii) Technician level

Engineers, Project managers

iv) User level

Road Inspectors

The developed integrated system was tested and showed all components built in
were working efficiently.

82

When operating the developed RMMS Epicor integrator system, screen shots were
taken to show some important output operations of the system as can be seen from
Figure 5.1 through to Figure 5.7.

Figure 5.1: Log in screen of RMMS - Epicor Integrator

83

Figure 5.2: Users Management Section

Figure 5.3: Payment Certification List

84

Figure 5.4: Awaiting Payment Approval List

Figure 5.5: Rejected Payment Certification List

85

PAYMENT SUCCESSFULLY AFTER APPROVAL FROM


MANAGER

Figure 5.6: Approved/Paid Payment List

Figure 5.7: Payment Voucher log in Screen

86

CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Conclusions
From the study carried out, several conclusions are drawn based on the findings
obtained and on the three research questions.
6.1.1 Current Problems Facing Maintenance Management System in
TANROADS
The study examined six (6) most current occurring problems/ shortcoming facing road
maintenance management system in TANROADS. It can therefore be concluded that
the current road maintenance practices in TANROADS is confronted with
problems/shortcomings that draw attention to the responsible agency to take actions
and if solved could improve the effectiveness of the system. The problems are listed in
order of their ranking as follows:

Delay of Approved Payment certificate to contractors

Absence of Integration with other systems eg Financial

Missing of checkboxes in the RMMS

Delay or uneven disbursement of funds for road maintenance works

Political and nonprofessionals interference during implementation of road


maintenance works resulting into mismanagement of works.

Missing or unreliable road inventory data

In this regard therefore, the road maintenance management system (RMMS) in


TANROADS is compromised by problems/ shortcomings that greatly affect planning,
design and execution of maintenance of roads. By attending these shortcomings, the
developed integrated System resolves all issues by adding some components which
87

improve the efficiency of the system on the road maintenance management in


TANROADS.
6.1.2 Functional Components in Road Maintenance Management System and
those of Financial System (Epicor)
The following basic functional components in the Road Maintenance Management
System have been reviewed or added on integrated maintenance system;
(a) Components reviewed on RMMS
i) Contract monitoring
ii) List of activities and packages
iii) Data base (reports) including all the information that goes into an MMS
iv) Inventory and condition
v) Contract Monitoring

(b) Components added on RMMS


i.

Internal controls component for protecting data

ii.

Security components

iii.

Notifications components.

iv.

Certification component

While the Accounting Information System (Epicor) has the following basic
functional components:
i)

Accounts receivable

ii) Accounts payable


iii) Electronic funds transfer
88

iv) Bank Reconciliation


v) Tax management
vi) Payroll
vii) Credit and collections management
viii) Security components
ix) Notifications components.
x) Approval component

6.1.3 Outcomes of Developed Integrated System


The integrated system has been developed and tested. It addresses the most found
problems or shortcomings facing the road maintenance management system and the
financial system (Epicor) in TANROADS. Its basic components have been built in for
enhancement of the systems in order to:
(a) Decrease human errors and delays in payments certificates of various
contractors by minimizing manual inputs of figures in financial system.
(b) Reduce time delays in moving of document from one office to another by 80%.
(c) Easy to track on which department the document is stuck.
(d) Notify responsible personnel within 5 minutes of a new document requiring
their attention.
(e) Process payment that takes not more than 30 minutes which is considered a
much shorter time to process than four (4) to seven (7) days used before.
(f) Increase efficiency of the systems.

89

6.2 Recommendations
According to study findings and conclusions stated, the following recommendations
are frontward for action.
The government through the Minister of Works, Transport and Communication
should redevelop and issue standards operational systems guidelines for road
maintenance management and develop integrated ways of implementing maintenance
management systems which they possess. The integrated system should also be
standardized and should allow interoperability with other government systems such as
a system that control country database.
In order to keep pace with development in the road maintenance management, the
Agency should improve its systems for efficiency of the Agency. Although the
developed system model has taken into account the most found problems facing
maintenance management system in TANROADS and has been tested, a similar
research is required to conduct further study to develop an integrated computerized
road maintenance management system for replication to other construction and
maintenance works in TANROADS. These include procurements and bridges
maintenance system so as to increase efficiency in maintenance of road works in the
country and eventually reduce amount of paper work to make the maintenance
management system green.
The integrated system is strongly recommended to be accepted by TANROADS
Council so that the system can be used to intervene all listed shortcomings for
improvement of maintenance management of roads under TANROADS authority.

90

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