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Titration Plan

Finding Out the Quantities to Use in the Experiment

Sulphuric acid sample 50 cm3 ( acid solution to be analyzed)
Sodium Carbonate 2.65g (needed to make 250cm3 standard 0.1 molar solution)
250cm3 volumetric flask (needed to create the standard solution)
access to a balance ( to weigh out the necessary amount of sodium carbonate)
wash bottle and distilled water (needed to create standard solution)
burette (needed for the titration)
25cm3 pipette ( its a tenth of the volume of the volumetric flask, its needed to
create a more precise 250cm3 volume solution)
pipette filler ( needed to measure out the acid to put into the conical flask)
100cm3 conical flask ( required to put the acid into)
weighing bottle ( to weigh the sodium carbonate in)

H2SO4 + Na2CO3 Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O
1 mole of sulphuric reacts with one mole of sodium carbonate. So the ratio is one
to one.
The concentration of the acid 0.05-0.15 therefore the midpoint between the two:
0.05 + 0.15 = 0.1

Since the sodium carbonate is a solid, its molar mass has to be found first.
Na2CO3 = (23 x 2) + 12 + (16 x 3) = 106
Therefore Na2CO3 has a molar mass of 106g mol-1
I am going to be using a volumetric flask of volume 250cm3, so to make 0.1 mol
solution I have to find the amount of sodium carbonate I need. Therefore:
250 x 0.1 x 106 = 2.65g
So I will use 2.65g of Na2CO3 to dissolve in 250cm3 of water to make a 0.1mol
standard solution.
2.65g of sodium carbonate must be weighed out using a balance. So an empty
weighing bottle is used as a tare on the balance and then 2.65g of the sodium
carbonate is measured up.
Put the sodium carbonate into the volumetric flask. And wash the weighing
bottle with distilled water, putting the washing into the volumetric flask along
with the sodium carbonate.
Wash out the container distilled water is to be added. Add about 100 cm 3 of
water invert the flask several times (preferably 50 because the solubility of
group one carbonates increases as you go down the group, sodium is only the
second one down) to ensure it is completely dissolved. Then slowly add more
distilled water until the solution reaches about 240cm 3 then shake it 10 times.
Use a pipette to put in the rest of the water until the solution has reached a
volume of 250cm3 and invert the solution further (about 10 times as the sodium
carbonate has now dissolved). This ensures that all the sodium carbonate has
dissolved around the solution evenly. Now we have a 250 cm 3 standard solution.
Using pipette filler draw out 10cm 3 of acid and put it into the conical flask. Add 2
drops of methyl orange into the solution.
Set up apparatus as shown in the diagram and add the standard solution into the
burette. Record the volume on the burette as the start. Release the plug on the
burette and let the solution drip into the conical flask. Do this until the methyl
orange changes colour and reaches an end point. Then proceed to record the
volume shown on the burette. This is only a rough titration so the difference

between the two volumes is only a guide line as to approximately how much
solution should ideally be added to the acid.
Repeat the procedure using the first rough titration as a guideline. Do several
titrations until you have 3 volumes that agree to within 0.1cm 3 of each other
Table of results to show burette readings and titre in the titration experiment




Average titre =
Why this plan is precise and will provide reliable results.
Firstly the amount of sodium carbonate has been precisely calculated.
Also with transferring the sodium carbonate to the volumetric flask, the washings
were transferred, 3 times to ensure the entire solid had gone into the flask.
The flask is inverted several times to ensure that the entire solid has dissolved.
The pipette used is to 10% of the volumetric flask.
The ratio was worked out to prove how many moles of sodium carbonate would
react to the sulphuric acid, it was found to be 1:1.
The right indicator was picked. Sulphuric acid is a strong acid and sodium
carbonate is a weak base meaning methyl orange has to be used.
Risk assessment
Sulphuric acid
Sulphuric acid is a strong acid and will cause burns, and is highly toxic through
ingestion and skin contact. However it is diluted to between 0.05 to 0.15mol in
this experiment therefore it is an irritant.
Lab coats and goggles should be worn to avoid skin contact and eye contact
In case of skin contact it is important to promptly wash the affected area with
water to get rid of the acid.

Eye contact: area must be washed and medical advice consulted.

This should not really occur as protective attire will be worn
Sodium carbonate
it is a weak alkali but can cause irritation and blisters. Inhalation can cause
breathing difficulty and ingestion can cause gastro-intestinal complications such
as diarrhoea and vomiting. In this experiment, however it is at first a solid then
diluted to a 0.1 mol solution. Therefore in case of skin contact it should be
washed off. In case of eye contact then it should be washed off and medical
advice consulted. This should not really occur as protective attire will be worn
In case of any broken glass then it should be swept off thoroughly avoiding
contact as glass fragments may cut through skin. If cuts occur it must be made
sure that all the glass has been removed from the wound. The wound should be
cleaned and dressed. To avoid this, a broom and scoop will be used, along with
lab coats and goggles.

SAC Chemical Ideas 1.5, pg 12 ISBN: 0 435 63120 9, George Burton, 2000.
(Accessed 06-03-07)
SAC 2000 Activity Sheet M2.4 & EL 2.1 (accessed 06-03-07) - sourced information about
sodium carbonate. Website contains information effective as of 08/17/06 making
it reliable and up to date
(Accessed 06-03-07) - sourced
information about sulphuric acid hazard. Website contains information on
hazards and was last updated on 31/08/05 making it reliable and fairly up to
date. (Accessed 06-03-07)