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Q.

1: Explain in detail Acoustic consideration for design of the following spaces:


Hospital
A quiet environment in hospitals is desirable for patients who are acutely ill.
Staff require quiet conditions for consultations and examinations and also in
their living and sleeping quarters.

The building should be so arranged on the site that sensitive areas like
wards, consulting and treatment rooms, operating theatres and staff bedrooms
are placed away from outdoor sources of noise, if possible, with their windows
overlooking areas of acoustic shadow.
Unloading bays, refuse disposal areas, boiler houses, workshops and
laundries are examples of service units which should be as far from sensitive
areas as possible.
The kitchen is a constant source of both airborne and structure-borne noise
and should preferably be in a separate building away from or screened from
the sensitive areas. If this is not possible and the main kitchens must form part
of a multi-storey building, noise control is easier if they are placed below and
not above the wards and other sensitive rooms so as to facilitate the insulation
of the equipment and machinery in order to reduce the transmission of
structure-borne noise to a minimum.
In ward units, the kitchens, sluice rooms, utility rooms, sterilizing rooms and
other ancillary rooms, need to be placed quite near to the beds if they are to
fulfil their purposes, which are all sources of noise. Some form of noise baffling
between open wards and rooms of this kind will be needed.
Mats of rubber or other resilient material on draining boards and rubber-shod
equipment will greatly reduce noise from utility rooms, sluice rooms and ward
kitchens. The use of plastics or other resilient materials for sinks, draining
boards, utensils and bowls would also reduce the noise. Many items of
equipment especially mobile equipment, such as trolleys and beds, may be
silenced by means of rubber-tyred wheels and rubber bumper and the
provision of resilient floor finishes.
Lift gates and doors should be fitted with buffers and silent closing gear. Fans
and other machinery should be mounted on suitable resilient mountings to
prevent the spread of noise through the structure.
Auditorium
The size should be fixed in relation to the number of audience required to be
seated. The floor area of the hall including, gangways (excluding the stage)
should be calculated on the basis of 0.6 to 0.9 sqm per person. The height of
the hall is determined by such considerations as ventilation, presence (or
absence) of balcony and the type of performance.
The average height may vary from 6 m for small halls to 75 m for large
halls. Ceiling may be Bat but it is preferable to provide a slight increase in the

height near the center of hall. The volume per person required to be provided
should normally range between. 35 to 5.5 cu m.
Floor plans of various shapes are used, but the one which is considered to
give satisfactory results without introducing complications in the acoustical
treatment of the hall is the fan-shaped plan.
The side walls should be arranged to have an angle of not more than 100
degrees with the curtain line. In the case of talking pictures synchronization of
sound with lip movement is most essential.
In order to satisfy these conditions, it is recommended that the distance of
the farthest seat from the curtain line should not normally exceed 23 meters.
The auditorium rear walls should be either fiat or convex in shape. This
should not be concave in shape, but where it cannot be avoided, the
acoustical design shall indicate either the surface to be splayed or convex
corrugations given in order to avoid any tendency for the sound to focus into
the hall.
Where the side walls are non-parallel as in the case of a fan-shaped hall, the
walls may remain reflective and may be architecturally finished in any manner
required, if sound absorbing material is not required from other considerations.
Where the side walls are parallel they may be left untreated to a length of
about 7 m from the proscenium end. In addition, any of the surfaces likely to
cause a delayed echo or flutter echo should be appropriately treated with a
sound absorbing material. Difference between the direct path and the path
reflected from side wall shall not exceed 15m.
Schools
Rooms should be planned in a manner so that the minimum amount of
glazing is placed on the side facing the external noise.
Noises arising from the activities of a school and from the use of the
buildings after school hours may constitute a nuisance to occupants of
surrounding property; therefore, it is desirable to place playgrounds,
workshops, swimming pools, music rooms, assembly halls and gymnasia as far
away as possible from buildings which require a quiet environment.
Windows of noisy and quiet rooms should not open on to the same courtyard
or be near to one another. Roof lights and ventilators over noisy rooms should
be avoided, if they are likely to be a source of nuisance to adjacent upper
floors
Where open planning is used to permit spaces, such as assembly halls,
dining rooms or entrance halls to be used in association with each other or for
circulation, the degree of disturbance caused by interfering noise to teaching
areas needs careful consideration; traffic through such areas should be strictly
controlled; full use should be made of sound absorbent treatments to reduce
the spread of noise from one space to another.
Special attenti6% should be given to noise reduction in schools for the deaf
and schools for the blind. Deaf children are taught by means of hearing aids
which cannot be used satisfactorily in high noise levels or in reverberant

conditions. Blind children depend on good hearing for understanding speech


and for detecting changes in environment. In both these types of schools,
noise levels should be kept low and reverberation times short. As an example,
the reverberation times in empty class-rooms should not exceed one second in
schools for the blind or 0.5 second in schools for the deaf.
A new concept in school planning is the use of a large teaching area with
simultaneous instructions imparted to several groups of students. These open
plan teaching areas offer a different set of problems. Because of the
limitations in achieving a great deal of attenuation across the space and
related difficulties in noise control and speech interference, lecturing to a large
number of students is not possible without interfering with neighboring
groups. The shape of such spaces may be as linear as possible with a width to
height ratio of 5:1 or greater.
In addition, special measures are required to be introduced to reduce the
level of intruding speech to an acceptable value so that the various teaching
groups are not disturbed and adequate privacy is maintained. Judicious
positioning of partial height barriers 1.8 m to 2.1 m in height can improve the
sound attenuation between teaching groups and the use of reflective screens
can reinforce the speech locally without reflecting it to unwanted areas.
Q.2:

Write short notes about the following-

Structure borne sound


Generation and propagation of time dependent motions and forces in solid
materials which result in unwanted radiated sound. Structure-borne
sound results from an impact on, or a vibration against, a part of a building
fabric resulting in sound being radiated from an adjacent vibrating
surface. Structure-borne noises are transmitted when sound arises from the
actual impact of an object on a building element such as a wall, floor or
ceiling. Examples of this could be footsteps of a person or the sound of an
object falling on the floor. Structure-borne sound occurs because the impact
causes both sides of the building element to vibrate, generating sound waves.
This can oftentimes be the hardest to isolate.

Airborne noises
Airborne noises are transmitted by air and atmosphere such as the radio, the
barking of dogs or people carrying on conversations. When sound waves
traveling through the air reach a building element they hit it and cause it to
vibrate. These vibrations travel through the structure or building and are
radiated out the other side. It may have felt as if the music was reverberating
loudly within house. This is due to airborne noise traveling through windows
and doors which is a major source of sound leakage.

Flanking of sound
Flanking sound (or flanking noise) is sound that transmits between spaces
indirectly, going over or around, rather than directly through the main
separating element. This can allow sound to transmit between spaces even
though the main separating element itself provides good acoustic insulation. A
common example of flanking is sound transmitted between two spaces
through a floor void (or even a floating screed) that runs under the separating
partition, even though the partition provides good acoustic
insulation preventing the direct transmission of sound.
Flanking can result from both impact sounds and airborne sounds.
Flanking can be a particular issue where adjoining spaces have different uses,
such as; a lecture theatre next to an office, a private room adjacent to a
circulation space, or between neighboring houses with different patterns of
occupancy and behavior.

Cavity resonators
A cavity resonator is a hollow closed conductor such as a metal box or a cavity
within a metal block, containing electromagnetic waves (radio waves)
reflecting back and forth between the cavity's walls. When a source of radio
waves at one of the cavity's resonant frequencies is applied, the oppositelymoving waves form standing waves, and the cavity stores electromagnetic
energy.Since the cavity's lowest resonant frequency, the fundamental
frequency, is that at which the width of the cavity is equal to a halfwavelength (/2), cavity resonators are only used at microwave frequencies
and above, where wavelengths are short enough that the cavity is
conveniently small in size.
Due to the low resistance of their conductive walls, cavity resonators have
very high Q factors; that is their bandwidth, the range of frequencies around
the resonant frequency at which they will resonate, is very narrow. Thus they
can act as narrow bandpass filters. Cavity resonators are widely used as the
frequency determining element in microwave oscillators. Their resonant
frequency can be tuned by moving one of the walls of the cavity in or out,
changing its size.

Resonant panels
A resonant panel or diaphragmatic absorber is used to absorb low frequencies.
They work by vibrating at these low frequencies and turning the sound energy
into heat. The drywall in wall construction acts as a resonant panel and
absorbs a considerable amount of bass. Resonate absorbers are the most
powerful of low frequency absorption technologies. Pound for pound and
square foot per square foot, resonant absorbers can not be matched for low
frequency absorption.

Porous absorbers
A porous absorber is any kind of porous or fibrous material such as textiles,
fleece, carpets, foams, mineral wool, cotton wool and special acoustic plasters.
They all absorb sound energy as they damp the oscillation of the air particles
by friction. Porous absorbers are most effective in slowing down air particles
with a high sound velocity. When mounted directly onto the wall they therefore
must be of a certain thickness in order to absorb sound waves down to a
certain lower limiting frequency. If, however, the absorber is mounted at a
distance from the wall, its thickness can be reduced accordingly.
Manufacturers of acoustic ceilings take advantage of this effect. Besides the
distance from the wall, the flow resistance of the material also is of high
importance.

Flutter echo

Flutter echo is an energy thats trapped between two surfaces and the angle
that the sound enters between the two surfaces. Flutter-echoes appears to be
wave phenomena similar to standing waves, only with periods long enough
(>50ms) to be perceived as separate sound events. When occurring between
parallel walls the axial modes normal to the parallel walls will constitute the
harmonics of a flutter-echo with period T and harmonic frequencies 1/T, 2/T,.
If the walls are hard and smooth, the higher harmonics can be prominent so
that discrete tones are being heard. Due to little absorption at normal
incidence and long free paths, decays are slow and reverberation time long,
often leaving a late double slope at mid-high frequencies.

Whispering gallery
A whispering gallery is usually a circular, hemispherical, elliptical or ellipsoidal
enclosure, often beneath a dome or a vault, in which whispers can be heard
clearly in other parts of the gallery. Such galleries can also be set up using two

parabolic dishes. Sometimes the phenomenon is detected in caves.


Whispering-gallery waves, or whispering-gallery modes, are a type of wave
that can travel around a concave surface.

Noise criteria curves


Noise curves are a common way to measure and specify background noise in
unoccupied buildings and spaces. Background noise may have several
undesirable effects. Noise can be an annoyance that creates fatigue and
negatively affects productivity, safety and the ability to communicate.
Therefore, standard methodologies for quantifying noise have been developed.
Noise curves reflect different standardized means of creating a single number
rating for the background noise spectrum in a space. Different rooms,
locations, regulations and applications may allow different acceptable noise
ratings. In most cases, the goal is that background noise should not interfere
with the purpose of the room, e.g. the noise of an office air-conditioning
system and consistent noise of traffic outside the building should not interfere
with telephone calls or conversations. In other cases, special noise may also
be tolerated or even introduced at higher levels, for example to create
acoustic "privacy", or to help mask other more irritating noise sources.

STC / NRC
The Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC) measures the build-up of noise within a
space. The Sound Transmission Class (STC) measures the sound transmission
between spaces. A single number rating is used to measure the assemblys
barrier effect. A higher STC rating blocks more noise from transmitting
through a partition. Acoustical wall treatments with a high NRC can stop sound
from reflecting back into the space and lowering the noise level within the
space. Improving the STC rating of a wall (wall cavity insulation, etc.) will
reduce the noise transfer to the adjacent space. STC is a priority in industrial
settings where youre attempting to block a noise sound source (equipment in
plants, noisy facilities, manufacturing, warehousing etc). Most people looking
for this are preventing sound from transmitting from the source and/or
preventing the sound from travelling into neighboring spaces, office / work
areas etc.

Sound pressure level


Sound level is usually defined in terms of something called Sound Pressure
Level (SPL). SPL is actually a ratio of the absolute, Sound Pressure and a
reference level (usually the Threshold of Hearing, or the lowest intensity sound
that can be heard by most people). SPL is measured in decibels (dB), because

of the incredibly broad range of intensities we can hear. It is also commonly


referred to as efficiency and sensitivity. This parameter represents how loud a
speaker is. A higher SPL equates to a louder speaker. A speaker is placed on a
baffle with the cone facing into an anechoic chamber (room designed to stop
sound reflections).

Floating floor
A floating floor is a floor that does not need to be nailed or glued to the
subfloor. The term floating floor refers to the installation method, but is often
used synonymously with laminate flooring but is applied now to other
coverings such as floating tile systems and vinyl flooring in a domestic
context. A sprung floor is a special type of floating floor designed to enhance
sports or dance performance. In general though the term refers to a floor used
to reduce noise or vibration. Floating floors as used in sound studios can be
either just larger versions of the domestic variety, or much larger
constructions with slabs of concrete to keep the resonance frequency down.
The manufacture of integrated circuits uses massive floating floors with
hundreds of tons in weight of concrete to avoid vibration affecting mask
alignment.
Floating floors are one of the requirements for the THX high-fidelity sound
reproduction standard for movie theaters, screening rooms, home theaters,
computer speakers, gaming consoles, and car audio systems.While floating
floors add to the appeal of a home, they are not recommended for areas that
may get wet, i.e. bathrooms and near exterior doors.

Q.3:
Explain in detail at least 5 sound absorbing materials and their uses
(e.g. wood wool, glass wool, acoustic tiles etc.).