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GOING GREEK: ATTICIZING POTTERY IN THE

ACHAEMENID WORLD
Andrea M. Berlin and Kathleen Lynch

ABSTRACT

We identify, describe, and evaluate locally manufactured vessels that look identical to Attic versions. The general term "Atticizing" has been coined to describe them. Atticizing
vessels share a number of consistent and visually distinct visual features of breakage patterns,
firing, potting technique, and surface finish, by which they may be distinguished from
their Attic models. Consideration of the character and chronology of the Atticizing assemblage reveals it to begin only in the early fourth century B.C., long after Attic imports
are themselves attested; to last only for a half-century or so; and to be restricted only to
forms suitable for eating and drinking, but not to serving - hence to Attic table settings
but not an Attic table service. Distribution is confined to the region from northern-central Asia
Minor through the Troad and Thrace, which is a small part of the Achaemenid empire,
and small also relative to the extent of Greek habitation in the east. The fact that Atticizing pottery appears in just this area, at just this time, suggests specific demand for Attic
style without attendant substance - exactly the sort of combination that appears in border
zones where distinct cultures live intermingled. The fourth century B.C. Troad may be
seen as a "zone of osmosis" where cultural elements were mixed and matched.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Wir identifizieren, beschreiben und bewerten lokal hergestellte GefaBe, die gleich wie
entsprechende attische Gefalse aussehen. Fur diese wurde der Begriff "attisierend" gepragt. Attisierende Gefalie haben eine Reihe sichtbarer Merkmale in den Bereichen Aussehen des Bruchs, Brand, Herstellungstechnik und Oberflachenbehandlung gemeinsam,
mit deren Hilfe sie von ihren attischen Vorbildern unterschieden werden konnen. Eine
Berucksichtigung der Art und Chronologie des attisierenden Keramikensembles zeigt,
daB es erst im fruhen 4. Jh. v. Chr. beginnt, lange nachdem echte attische Importe nachweisbar sind, daB es nur etwa ein halbes Jahrhundert lang vorkommt, und daB es auf
Gefalle zum Essen und Trinken, aber nicht zum Servieren, beschrankt bleibt; also ein
attisch gedeckter Tisch vorliegt, aber nicht attisch aufgetragen wird. Die Verbreitung ist
auf ein Gebiet vom nordlichen und zentralen Kleinasien bis zur Troas und nach Thrakien
beschrankt, Das ist ein kleiner Teil des Achamenidenreiches, und auch nur ein kleiner
Ausschnitt aus dem griechischen Siedlungsgebiet im Osten. DaB attisierende Keramik
genau zu dieser Zeit in diesem Gebiet auftritt, setzt eine spezifische Nachfrage nach attischem Stil ohne die dazugehorige Substanz voraus; genau die Kombination, die in Grenzgebieten, in denen sich einzelne Kulturen vermischen, auftritt. Die Troas des 4. Jh, v. Chr.
konnte als eine "Zone der Osmose" gesehen werden, in der Kulturelemente vermischt
und angepaBt wurden.

Introduction
The prevalence of Attic pottery in the western
Achaemenid world from the sixth through
the fourth centuries B.C. is a well-known phe-

nomenon. I From Susa, in the Achaemenid heartland, to the far southwestern satrapy of the Land
Beyond the River, Attic black glaze cups, bowls,
and plates are common components of table ware
assemblages.' At some sites in the southern

168

ANDREA M. BERLIN, KATHLEEN LYNCH

coastal zone of The Land Beyond the River, there


is little or no evidence for any table wares besides
the Attic imports, suggesting that Attic pottery
was highly regarded and so easily acquired that
local potters had no need to manufacture similar
vessels.' Older interpretations of Attic pottery as
sure proof of Greek settlement have long since
given way to a general consensus that sophisticated natives sought these high quality imports
for the accessible glamour they provided." In the
words of Keith De Vries, Attic pottery "found
acceptance for enhancing a life distinct from the

Greek.'?
The interpretation of imported Attic pottery
as, essentially, a desirable foreign good is well
reflected in the quantities found at Daskyleion,
the capital of the empire's third satrapy, Hellespontine Phrygia." There, as at so many other sites
in the Achaemenid east, the ceramic finds consist very largely of two disparate groups: Attic
imports and locally manufactured, Iron-Age
derivatives. The comments of Jones, in her
publication of the Tarsus material in 1950, are
pertinent here as well: "Until the Hellenistic
period Attic pottery was usually conspicuously
different from the local wares of the eastern
regions to which it was exported, and ... remained a group apart."? Just west of Daskyleion,
however, in the region of the Troad, a third
category of pottery occurs: vessels manufactured
on the precise model of Attic versions. These
"copy-cats" are often so similar in form and surface treatment that they can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from their "real" Attic
models, and the general term "Atticizing" has
been coined to describe such productions.
In the Troad, Atticizing pottery seems to be
more common than Attic, and this is surprising.
After all, Hellespontine Phrygia is the Achaemenid region closest to Attica as well as to
Athenian trade routes into the Black Sea, at which
sites Attic pottery is abundant. 8 In addition, the
region housed many Attic colonies and citizens.
Proximity, access, and cultural make-up notwithstanding, all sites in this area - with the exception of
the Attic colony of Sigeion - have more Atticizing
than Attic pottery among their table wares."
Scholars have largely overlooked Atticizing
pottery, and apparently deliberately so. When

noted, it has been regarded simply as anextension


of the real thing, "cheaper substitutes" (in the
words of Francis Follin Jones, speaking of material from Tarsus) that reflect the deep demand for
Attic. 10 We believe, however, that just as the phenomenon of Attic imports in the east has benefited
from closer consideration, so too may Atticizing
pottery benefit from further inquiry. We begin by
formulating guidelines by which Atticizing pottery might readily be recognized, then consider
the particulars of the assemblage and its chronology, summarize discrepancies in manufacture and
distribution, and conclude with a tentative evaluation of its character. A more careful "read" of
Atticizing pottery suggests that it be seen as
something other than simply a poor analogue for
Attic.

Recognizing Atticizing
Productions
In order to understand the meaning of Atticizing
production, one must first be able to recognize
it. II This task is made difficult by the very nature
of the manufacturing process, in which potters
clearly sought to imitate Attic vessels as closely
as their own clays and slips would allow. We omit
the aspect of a potter's own abilities, since it is
impossible to know who they were, whether
highly skilled or poorly trained, natives or "itinerant Athenians" (as some have suggested).'? No
matter if the potters were native or Atheniantrained, however, they would have been at the
mercy of locally available materials.
In an attempt to formulate guidelines by which
Attic and Atticizing productions might be distinguished with consistency and confidence, we
have studied all of the black slipped table vessels
from the large deposit of pottery found in Areal
D9 at Troia (see article by Berlin, this volume).
Some of these vessels (about 20%) seemed to us
indistinguishable from definitely Attic productions found in Athens itself. Many more, however,
were Attic in form, but seemed "off' in other respects. After close examination of these Attic-like
vessels, we recognized a consistent set of ob-

GOING GREEK: ATTICIZING POTTERY IN THE ACHAEMENID WORLD

servable characteristics, which we tentatively


identify as traits common to Atticizing productions.':' We group these under three general
headings: I) fabric; 2) potting technique; and 3)
surface treatment.

FABRIC

Attic clay is famous, and deservedly so, for exceptional cleanliness and very fine grained
texture. 14 These characteristics mean that when a
pot is broken, the surface of the broken edge is
almost always very smooth and even - ahnost as
if broken along a predetermined line (see fig. 1,
top). In addition, the broken edge is generally a
consistent color all the way through the section.
Among the vessels that we examined, however,
there were a number whose broken edges had
jagged surfaces with small low humps and valleys
(see fig. I, bottom). All those fragments that had
uneven surfaces had firing cores as well. We suggest that these two consistent visual differences the rough surface of a broken edge and an inner
firing core - may be indicators of non-Attic
fabric.
The apparently non-Attic vessels from Ilion
occur in several different fabrics, and we do not
know the source of any. In the Troad and its
adjacent regions, there are a number of ancient
and modern pottery production centers. The most
famous is the modern town of Canakkale, 25 km.
north of the site, at which production is attested
from the seventeenth century A.D. The closest
to Ilion itself is Akkoy, located about 14 km.
southeast; manufacture here is also attested in
modern times only. IS Neither the .Canakkale nor
the Akkoy fabrics appear similar to any of the
fourth century B.C. vessels found at Ilion; the
most important difference is that a glittery, micalike inclusion (identified as muscovite) tempers
these modern clays but never appears in the ancient ones that we examined. 16
In ancient times an enormous pottery manufacturing industry was located near Pergamon."?
While no specific clay beds have yet been identified, four workshops within the Ketios River
valley have been explored. Production is surely
attested by the middle of the first century B.C.,

169

though it is likely to have begun at least by the


second and perhaps the third century B.C. 18 There
is no evidence of manufacture prior to the Hellenistic period. The clay of the Ketios valley results in
a fabric almost as clean and fine as Attic, and as
with the modern fabrics described above, does not
resemble any of the fourth century B.C. pottery
from Ilion.

POTTING TECHNIQUE

Attic potting is characterized by a host of


elaborate, often very delicate finishing features.
Foot stems and undersides receive thin low
ridges, narrow shallow grooves, and subtle
.changes of surface plane such as narrow bevelled
edges (fig. 2). Walls are of an even thickness
throughout, and careful regularity marks even
standard, sturdy components such as the torus
ring foot of a skyphos.!?
In contrast, all of the vessels that we had
distinguished on the basis of the two fabric
anomalies described above also exhibited a very
simplified repertoire of potting techniques, most
notable in the finishing of feet. One plate type
always rested on a very simple squared ring foot,
devoid of any of the Attic potting flourishes described above (fig. 3). Since plates have a broad
floor and so overhang the foot considerably, it
appears as if some potters thought such niceties
unnecessary. For bowls and small table jugs
(olpai), which have a sharply upcurving wall that
reveals the foot, we discerned two quite casual
techniques: 1) gouging out the juncture between
wall and foot (fig. 4); and 2) flattening the resting
surface to create a torus-like molding.

Fig. 1 Fish plates: Attic (D9 .2871 :1, top) and


Atticizing (D9.2871 :2, bottom).

170

ANDREA M. BERLIN, KATHLEEN LYNCH

......... '\
J

)---------

2
Fig.2 1) z6.164:22 (1365), 2) D9.2850: 1. Scale 1:2.

All of these vessels are irregularly potted and


have a cursory look. Compare, for example, two
skyphos feet (fig. 5). The foot on the left has a
completely even and regular profile, while that on

the right has very low but visible wheel marks on


the outer face, small nicks from paring (probably
when in the leather hard stage), and even a tiny,
untrimmed clay nodule on the underside. We suggest

GOING GREEK: ATTICIZING POTTERY IN THE ACHAEMENID WORLD

171

---#

- .'

"

'" A.W<\
' .. ~ .

..

'

Fig. 3 Atticizing plates: detail of scraped grooves.


09.2865:2 (left); 09.2890:2 (right).
Fig.4 Atticizingjug and bowl feet, details of gouging.
09.2881:4 (upper left); D9.2876:34 (upper right);
09.2860:5 (below).

Fig. 5 Skyphoi. Attic (z6.164:30, left) and Atticizing


(09.2871 :4, right).

Fig.6 Incurved rim bowls. Attic (D9.2881 :3, left) and


Atticizing (D9.2858:5, right).

Fig.7 Attic (L284, left) and Atticizing (L189, right).

that the skyphos on the left is Attic, and the one on


the right Atticizing.

between the surface of an ice rink and a swimming pool. Both are the same medium, but in the
former light is reflected back and the surface has a
hard, opaque quality, whereas in the latter light
appears to be absorbed and the surface has a soft,
translucent look.
A second aspect of surface treatment that apparently distinguishes Attic and Atticizing productions involves the application of the slip. Attic
potters (or painters) applied slip exactly where
they wanted - and more to the point, did not apply
slip where they did not want it. For this reason,
Attic vessels frequently have true reserved bands,
for example around the outer edge of plate rims
(fig. 8, top), at the outside juncture of wall and
foot (figs. 9 and 10, left), or around the interior
underside of a ring foot (fig. 11, left). Looking
closely, it is possible to see the controlled edge of

SURFACE TREATMENT

In the fourth century B.C., Attic slip still retains a


lustrous, rich sheen, and is generally fired a deep
black.?" (Misfirings did occur in the Athenian
potter's quarter, however, and were clearly acceptable; many Attic vessels, even large red figure vases, are mottled red and black.) Atticizing
potters definitely sought to emulate both the color
and the character of Attic slip, and their best
efforts produced a hard, shiny, wholly black surface finish. In no case, however, does the sheen of
Atticizing black slip match the deep luster of Attic
(figs. 6 and 7, left). The difference is akin to that

172

ANDREA M. BERLIN, KATHLEEN LYNCH

Fig. 9 Broad footed salter, detail of grooves. Attic


(D9.2876:35, left) and Atticizing (D9.2876: 18, right).

Fig.8 Fish plates. Attic (D9.2871:I, top) and Atticizing (D9.2871 :2, bottom).

Fig. 10 Atticizing plates, detail of dripping marks.


D9.2865:2 (left); D9.2890:2 (right).

Fig. 11 Ring feet: Attic (D9.2876: 11, left) and


Atticizing (D9.2896: 10, right).

the brushwork at the edge of an Attic reserved


band.
Atticizing potters eschewed such careful, deliberate, and time consuming practices. Instead
they replicated the look of a reserved band by
scraping away the covering slip (figs. 8,9, 10
right). The edges of these scraped bands are very
even, in the same way that a modem painter can
create an even edge by using masking tape. It is
usually possible to feel the slight groove created
by the scraping, which can also help in identifying the procedure.

Attic counterparts at Ilion. In so doing, we discovered something very interesting: while many
real Attic forms were imported to Ilion (as to the
larger region), only a few of those forms were
duplicated by Atticizing potters. In Table I, we
list all specific Attic vessel types that have been
found at Ilion along with those types that occur in
Atticizing versions."
Not all of the vessels that are listed in Table 1
appear in similar quantity. In fact, some of these
shapes are represented by only a few or even
single examples. Those shapes that are underlined
are known by at least ten examples. From this it
can be seen that the commonly occurring Atticizing vessels - Attic-type skyphoi, molded rim
kantharoi, bolsals, one-handlers, incurved rim
bowls, salt cellars, fish plates, and lamps - comprise a neatly simplified, very basic table setting
for an individual diner. There are three choices of

THE ATTICIZING ASSEMBLAGE:

CHARACTER AND DATE

Using the above guidelines, we tentatively distinguished the Atticizing vessels from their

GOING GREEK: ATTICIZING POTTERY IN THE ACHAEMENID WORLD

DRINKING CUPS

ATTIC IMPORTS

ATTICIZING PRODUCTS

Skyphoi, Attic type


Skyphoi, Corinthian type
Stemless cups
Cup-kantharoi
Kantharoi, molded rim
Bolsals

Skyphoi, Attic type

Kantharoi, molded rim


Bolsals

BOWLS

One-handle r
Bowl, incurved rim
Bowl, outturned rim
Bowl, convex-concave profile

One-handler
Bowl, incurved rim

SALT CELLARS

Broadfooted
Thick walled

Broadfooted
Thick walled

PLATES

Fish plate, black


Plate, rolled rim

Fish plate, black

SERVING VESSELS

Kraters
Choes
Olpai

Olpai

Lekythoi
Squat lekythoi
Pyxides
Lamps

La 111pS

OTHER

173

Table I Attic imports and probable Atticizing productions represented at Ilion. Italic indicates that over ten examples are
attested.

Fig. 12 Sample Atticizing table assemblage. Above, left to right: lamp, incurved rim bowl, skyphos, one-handler;
below: fish plate (left) and bolsal (right).

174

ANDREA M. BERLIN, KATHLEEN LYNCH

drinking vessel (skyphos, kantharos, and bolsal),


two small food dishes (one-handler and incurved
rim bowl), two small relish dishes (broad footed
and thick walled salt cellars), one plate (for
serving?) and a lamp (fig. 12). What is missing,
notably, are vessels essential for wine service,
such as kraters, table amphoras, hydrias, and
oinochoai. The Atticizing assemblage, in other
words, comprises an individual Attic table setting
without the necessities of an Attic table service,
specifically for symposium-like activities (for
other cultural considerations, see below).

CHRONOLOGY

By comparing the Atticizing products with their


Attic models, we can identify the period when
Atticizing production was in vogue around Ilion.
The Atticizing vessels first appear in quantity
beginning in the second quarter of the fourth century B.C. and they continue through the third
quarter. Throughout this half century or so, Ilion
also received considerable quantities of Attic
pottery, including all of the vessel types that were
produced in Atticizing versions. One striking
chronological discrepancy does occur, however.
During the fifth century B.C., when Attic pottery
and especially serving vessels appear in some
quantity (66 kraters occur, datable to the fifthfourth centuries B.C.), there is no contemporary
Atticizing pottery at Ilion.P Instead, the evidence
reflects a later, and relatively brief duration.
This discrepancy is notable because Atticizing
production is attested elsewhere during Archaic
and early Classical times. At a workshop on Thasos, which is dated minimally from 525-480 B.C.
but probably began earlier and lasted longer, potters manufactured Attic-style kraters, oinochoai,
olpai, cups, one-handlers, lekani, mortars, and
lamps.P In Asia Minor, Archaic-period Atticizing
one-handlers appear at Larisa, and Classicalperiod Atticizing skyphoi are known from
Asses." While fifth century B.C. remains are
notably few at Ilion, this period is represented by
pottery and amphoras from the West Sanctuary
(see Berlin, this volume, Historical Conclusions).
Ilion's appearance on the Athenian tribute reassessment of 425 B.C. also indicates some

occupation. The lack of Atticizing pottery from


the fifth through the early fourth century B.C.,
then, appears to be a real absence.
Determining when Atticizing production ended
precisely is problematic. In the later fourth and
early third centuries B.C. much of the pottery
found throughout the northern Aegean and Asia
Minor follows closely upon Attic innovations in
form and decoration (e.g., "baggy" kantharoi with
low molded feet, West-slope style decoratiorn.P
Defining these vessels as Atticizing, however, is
not a straightforward matter. This is because by
the end of the fourth century B.C. the quantity of
Attic imports dropped off considerably, and this
coincides with the establishment of new population centers throughout Asia Minor (e.g., Alexandria Troas, Ephesos, Tarsus, Antioch). These
new foundations certainly created new markets
and (probably) led to new pottery manufacturers
as well. Thus, while potters across a broad area
created their own versions of Attic, it is impossible to identify the model of an Attic-style vessel
of the early to mid third century B.C. as specifically Attic. Since we cannot know exactly who
is inspiring or copying whom, we have not
defined early Hellenistic Attic-style pottery as
Atticizing."

Conclusions
This study is necessarily preliminary. We are
hampered by great gaps in information concerning workshops, clay origins, quantities, and
distribution. Without such data we cannot pretend
to explain either the full extent or meaning of the
Atticizing phenomenon. We would like, however,
to offer some preliminary ideas about how such
an assemblage might be interpreted. Archaeological
interpretation, though a subjective business, does
follow a few basic guidelines, one of which is that
irregularities in the evidence are worthy of further
inquiry. In the case of the Atticizing pottery found
at Ilion, the irregularities strike us as significant.
They suggest that this material is a manifestation
of a specific cultural phenomenon rather than a
common or casual occurrence. We identify three
discrete parameters important to evaluating the

175

GOING GREEK: ATTICIZING POTTERY IN THE ACHAEMENID WORLD

Atticizing assemblage: 1) chronology; 2) contents; and 3) geographic range.


Long-standing Athenian involvement in the
larger region and the existence of various Attic
imports notwithstanding, Atticizing manufacture
is late, short-lived, and restricted to certain
forms." The Atticizing assemblage is attested
only through the second and third quarters of
the fourth century B.C., and comprises vessels
suitable for an Attic table setting but not an Attic
table service. Moreover, distribution is confined
to the region from northern-central Asia Minor
through the Troad and Thrace (map fig. 13).28
This "Atticizing region" is a small part of the
Achaemenid empire, and it is small also relative
to the extent of Greek habitation in the east. After
Alexander's campaigns, there is an explosion of
Attic-style pottery manufacture throughout the
east; but this production coincides with the cessation of Attic ceramic exports. Classical-period
Atticizing production, on the other hand, occurs
despite a ready supply of "real" Attic.
For whom was this pottery made? The fact that
it appears in just this area, at just this time, suggests specific demand for Attic sty Ie without attendant substance - exactly the sort of combination that appears in border zones where distinct
cultures live intermingled. It is, of course, impossible to determine who purchased these vessels,
but that is anyway irrelevant - their very existence attests to a fundamentally melded world,
in which Greek style was an available option, unlinked to actual behavior, foreign access, or even
purchasing power (for it must be admitted that
these vessels would have been less costly than
their "real" counterparts). The fact that this inexpensive alternative appears around Ilion only in
the fourth century B.C. may thus reflect the
area's changing personality at this time." There
is evidence for such mixing at the highest levels:
in the 370's the satrap Ariobarzanes was made an
Athenian citizen, and his portrait statue stood in
front of the temple of Athena on Ilion's citadel."
An additional elite manifestation of this phenomenon is the recently discovered Achaemenid
aristocratic sarcophagus from Can, in the northern Troad, whose iconography and figural style
suggests an artist knowledgeable of and influenced by Greek models."

Tyre
Samari
Ascalon

Jerusalem

Fig. 13 Map of Attic imports and Atticizing local production.

The Troad in the fourth century B.C. seems to


have been (in J. Bingen's phrase) a "zone of
osmosis," where cultural elements were mixed
and matched.V As Chester Starr observed,
"artistically - and I would judge in other ways
too - ... natives [of Asia Minor] were open to
both East and West."33 This interpretation, which
naturally appeals to a modern, multi-cultural sensibility, happens also to be reflected in an offhand exchange in Plutarch's Life of Artaxerxes.
During this precise period, just after the King's
Peace of 387 B.C., the Persian king "took a
wreath of flowers, dipped it in the most costly
ointment, and sent it to Antalcidas [the Spartan
envoy to the Persian court] ... When someone
then said to [Agesilaus], 'Alas for Greece, now
the Spartans are medizing,' he replied, 'Are not
the Medes rather spartanizing?'''34 We would
see our pottery as a material manifestation of
Plutarch's story. From the "spartanizing" Persian
king to the Atticizing locals in the Troad, it seems
that for a brief period in the fourth century B.C.
"going Greek" was in vogue.

176

ANDREA M. BERLIN, KATHLEEN LYNCH

NOTES

7
8

10
II

12
13

We thank Prof. Dr. Ch. Brian Rose, Prof. Dr. Mark


Lawall, and Sebastian Heath for help and advice during
the research and writing of this article. We are indebted to Gebhard Bieg for the careful photographs,
and to John Wallrodt for scanning and collating pictures and text.
On Attic pottery in the northern, western, & central
portions of the empire, see De Vries 1977 and
Boardman 1979. On Attic pottery in the southwestern portions of the empire, see Clairmont 195657, 1-3; Weinberg 1969; Wenning 1981; Perreault
1984; Perreault 1986; Wenning 1990; and Wenning
1991. The "Land Beyond the River" refers to the
Levant (part of Syria, Phoenicia, Jordan, and
Palestine), and the river in question is the Euphrates.
For references to the use of this term, see Stolper
1989,288-289.
On fourth century Attic pottery in Cyprus, see Filimonos and Giannikouri 1999, 206; at Tarsus, see
Jones 1950, 151. For Attic imports at Dor, see Marchese 1995; at Apollonia-Arsuf, see Tal 1999, 1056,115,130-32,145-46,151,161-63,176-78,183-84;
at Tel Mevorakh, see Johnson 1978; at Tel el-Hesi
see Risser and Blakely 1989.
Wooley 1938, 25; Vallet and Villard 1961, 310: "la
ceramique est la marque necessaire de I' occupation
d'un site par les Grecs." Cf. Clairmont 1956-57, I
and all subsequent scholars.
De Vries 1977, 548.
Tuna-Norling 1999.
Jones 1950, 152.
Alexandrescu (1978) identifies all of the tableware
found at Histria as Attic, for example.
Our sense of the range of Attic pottery in the Troad
region is based largely on visits to local museums
and site collections in the Troad. We base our statement on the amount of Atticizing vs. Attic on admittedly scanty data (which is all that currently
exists). We have seen collections of fourth century
B.C. pottery from the following sites in this region:
Assos, Birytis, Daskyleion, Sigeion, and Ilion itself.
For permission to view and comment on the finds
from Assos, we thank Dr. Prof. Omit Serdaroglu and
Ms. Ebru Icden Kilic. We thank Reyhan Korpe for
showing us his finds from Birytis and Sigeion, and
allowing us to comment on them.
Jones 1950,152; Kopcke 1992,279.
Christoph Clairmont, the first scholar to seriously
collect and attend to this material, commented
on "the difficulty which exists in accurately distinguishing Attic from Alexandrian black vases" in
his seminal study on Greek pottery in the Near East
(1956-57,1).
Kopcke 1992,279.
Samples have been selected for both petrographic

14

15
16

17

Ig

19

20

21

22

23

and neutron activation analyses, to be conducted in


Heidelberg. Results are pending.
Noble 1988, 16-19. See, however, the frank and full
admissions by Sparkes and Talcott 1970, 2-3 on the
vagaries of Attic clay, and also Rotroff 1982, 14.
Several Athenian potters' workshops have been excavated (Baziotopoulou-Balabane 1994).
Tekkok-Bicken 2000.
Mica-like inclusions do characterize much of the local
wares of later periods found at Ilion, especially from
the later Hellenistic and Roman periods (TekkokBicken 2000, 100). It is likely that pottery manufacture began close to the site after the fourth century B.C., when the population and economy of
Ilion expanded considerably.
See now Poblome, Bounegru, Degryse, Viaene et al.
2001, 145-59, which also includes all earlier bibliography.
Poblome, Bounegru, Degryse, Viaene et al. 2001,
156. For possible Pergamene products of the third
century B.C., see Berlin 1999, 86.
Noble 1988,24-36.
For description of the visual characteristics of Attic
black slip (which is almost always, though incorrectly, called glaze), see Sparkes and Talcott 1970, 23 and Rotroff 1997, 11. On techniques of application
see Noble 1988, 79-81, 84-91. On the chemical
composition see Kingery 1991 and Maniatis, Aloupi,
and Stalios 1993. These latter studies have demonstrated that the deep, luminous character of the
slip was a product of "considerable empirical development", and not merely the result of coating with a
separate and fine clay fraction (Kingery 1991, 47).
This list is based on our study of the Behalter from
post-Bronze Age areas excavated since 1988 in the
Western Sanctuary, Areal 09 and the area of the
later Agora, and the Lower City. Essentially all of
the Attic and Atticizing pottery that we found came
from the Western Sanctuary and Areal 09. The reason for this is that there is practically no fourth century B.C. material from other sectors of the site.
Only ten krater fragments can be securely dated to
the fifth century because the majority are non- figural fragments. The unusual prevalence of Attic redfigure kraters among the otherwise rather sketchy
fifth century B.C. remains from the West Sanctuary
suggests that these vessels may have been dedications in and of themselves. Evidence recording a
dedication of table service vessels comes from a
mid-sixth century B.C stele from nearby Sigeion.
Phanodikos of Prokonnesos gave a krater, a stand,
and a strainer for use in the city's Prytaneion
(though these were probably metal). We are indebted to Susan Rotroff and John Oakley (1992,44) for
this reference. The stele is published in Michel
1900, no. 1313.
Blonde, Perreault, and Peristeri 1992.

GOING GREEK: ATTICIZING POTTERY IN THE ACHAEMENID WORLD


24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32
33
34

Larisa: Boehlau and Schefold 1942, pl. 50; Assos:


Filges 1992,136-37.
Berlin 1999, 89-94, 104. On West slope style see
Rotroff 1997, 38-71.
The broad stylistic diffusion of the early Hellenistic
period is quite analagous to that in the Archaic
period, when a number of regional styles and forms
appear at Ilion (and elsewhere in Asia Minor). While
many Archaic forms owe their ultimate inspiration
to Athenian products, the number of successful independent workshops assured a vibrant give-andtake among regional producers. The potters and
painters of Archaic Athens were often - but not
solely - in the lead.
On the background and specifics of Athenian involvement in the Hellespontine region, see Boardman 1980, 264-66; Figueira 1991, 132-34, and the
article by Berlin in this volume.
Further north, at Histria on the Black Sea coast, all
of the fourth century B.C. plain black table wares
are identified as Attic; no Atticizing production is recognized (Alexandrescu 1978,29,82-93). There are
Attic imports on Cyprus, but local potters imitate
only a few forms (especially skyphoi and small incurved rim bowls), and then without the distinctive
black slip (Yon 1984, 237). On Rhodes there are Attic imports but no documented Atticizing production
(Filimonos and Giannikouri 1999, 206). Inland, at
Sardis and Gordion, local production is "Achaemenidizing" and Phrygian in character, respectively
(Dusinberre 1999; R. Gordon, personal communication).
Ilion's Atticizing pottery is exactly the sort of
evidence that Chester Starr would have seized upon
in his prescient studies (1975, 1977) of Greek and
Persian interactions in the fourth century. In his introduction, he remarks that current evidence is suggestive of "peaceful fusion" but is still insufficient
to prove it, and that "further information ... will undoubtedly turn up in subsequent years [that] should
allow scholars to paint the lights and shadows more
precisely" (1975, 43).
For the citizenship: Demosthenes, Aristocrates 141;
for the statue: Diodorus 17.J7 .6.
Sevinc, Korpe, Tombul, Rose, Strahan, Kiesewetter,
and Wallrodt 2001.
Bingen 1981,9.
Starr 1977, 108.
Plutarch, Artaxerxes 22.2 (translation from the Loeb
Classical Library, Plutarch volume 11).

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Prof. Dr. Andrea Berlin


Dept. of Classical and Near Eastern Studies
305 Folwell Hall
9 Pleasant St. SE
University ofMinnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55105
USA
Email: aberlintistc.umn.edu
Dr. Kathleen Lynch
Dept. of Classics
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221
USA
Email: kathleen. lynch @ uc.edu

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