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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

TI
VIRTUAL MACHINE

Gio vin hng dn:

TS. V VN KHANG

Hc vin thc hin:


1. Nguyn V Lm Giang
2. Nguyn Vn Ha
3. Trn Vit Khnh
4. Cao Vn Long
5. Trng Th Trc Ly
6. Trn Thanh T

Tp. HCM _12/2011

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MC LC
1

TNG QUAN V MY O...................................................................................3

1.1

o hoa la gi ?

1.2

My ao la gi ?

1.3

Phn loai my ao 4

1.3.1 System virtual machine (o hoa mc h thng)

1.3.2 Process virtual machine (ao hoa theo mc cm my tnh)


1.4

CC KIN TRC O HA

1.4.1 Hosted Virtual Machine

1.4.2 System Operating System(Bare-Hardware)


1.5
2

Nhng li ch cua my ao 12
MT S CP O HA HIN NAY.............................................................13

2.1

o hoa phn cng 13

2.2

o hoa mc h iu hanh (OS-level virtualization)

2.2.1

Gii thiu

2.2.2

o ha h iu hnh l g? 13

2.2.3

Private Virtual Disk 13

2.2.4

Shared/Common Virtual Disk

2.2.5

o ha h iu hnh lm vic nh th no?

13

13

14
14

MT S NG DNG V CNG NGH CHO O HA................................17

3.1

VMWARE 17

3.1.1

Tng quan v WMware

3.1.2

Gii thiu sn phm tiu biu VMWARE vSpere 4

3.1.3

VMware ESX v ESXi

3.2

Hyper-V

3.2.1

17
17

19

24

Gii thiu v Hyper-V

24

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3.2.2

Kin trc Hyper-V 28

3.2.3

Mt s tnh nng chnh ca Hyper-V

34

KHAI THC SC MNH O HA..................................................................36

4.1

Xu hng ao hoa cua th gii ngay nay.

4.2

Gi tr cua ao hoa 40

4.3

Xu hng ng dng cng ngh ao hin nay. 42

36

BO MT TRONG O HA..............................................................................51

5.1

Nhng iu ng lo ngai t s ao hoa 51

5.2

Nhng vn tn tai

5.3

Lam gi bao v tt hn mi trng my chu ao

55

5.4

Nhng san phm h tr bao mt trong ao hoa.

58

53

TI LIU THAM KHO.....................................................................................60

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TNG QUAN V MY O
1.1

Ao hoa la gi ?

o ha l mt cng ngh c thit k to ra mt tng trung gian gia


h thng phn cng my tnh v phn mm chy trn n. Bng cch a ra mt
khi nim logic v ti nguyn my tnh hn l mt khi nim vt l, cc gii php
o ha c th thc hin rt nhiu vic c ch. V c bn, chng cho php bn nh
la h iu hnh rng mt nhm my ch ch l ngun ti nguyn n l. V gii
php o ha cng cho php mt hay nhiu my o (VM virtual machine) chy
trn mt nn phn cng c sn. N cung cp cho mi ngi dng mt my tnh o,
nhng b c lp bi chnh my hoc ca mt s ngi dng khc.
o ha c ngun gc t vic phn chia a, chng phn chia mt my ch thc
thnh nhiu my ch logic. Mt khi my ch thc c chia, mi my ch logic
c th chy mt h iu hnh v cc ng dng c lp. Vo nhng nm 1990, o
ha c ch yu s dng ti to li mi trng ngi dng trc tip trn mt
phn ca phn cng my ln. Nu bn l mt nh qun tr CNTT v bn mun
chy mt phn mm mi nhng bn mun xem xem n hot ng nh th no trn
cc my chy h iu hnh Windows NT v Linux, bn cn n cng ngh o
to ra mi trng ngi dng khc nhau.
1.2

My ao la gi ?

Virtual Machine

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Virtual Machine (VM) l mt mi trng phn mm cho php mt hoc hn mt


HH v cc ng dng ca chng hot ng song song trn ch mt my tnh duy
nht. im th v l chng ta c th chuyn i qua li gia cc HH ang chy
ch bng mt hoc hai thao tc m khng phi khi ng li PC. i vi cc
HH, khng c g khc bit gia VM v PC tht (real computer). Ni mt cc
ngn gn, VM chnh l mt bn sao ca PC tht. Gn nh, iu g bn c th lm
c trn my tht th bn cng c th lm c trn VM. Cng ngh o ha thnh
thong c gi l phn mm my o nng ng.
Khi s dng VM cho cc HH khc nhau, bn cn nm c mt s khi nim
ch cht sau:
* My o (virtual machine - VM): l mt PC do phn mm to my o gi
lp.
* My ch (host machine): l PC m trn bn ci phn mm to VM.
* H iu hnh ch (host operating system): l h iu hnh chy trn my
ch.
* H iu hnh khch (guest operating system): l h iu hnh chy trn
mt VM
1.3

Phn loai my ao

My o chia thnh hai loi chnh, da trn vic s dng v mc ca s tng


thch vi my thc
- System virtual machine
- process virtual machine
1.3.1 System virtual machine (Ao hoa mc h thng)

System virtual machine


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H thng my o (i khi c gi l phn cng my o-hardware virtual


machines) cho php chia s ti nguyn my vt l cho cc my o, chy cc h
iu hnh ring ca mnh. Lp cung cp phn mm o ha c gi l virtual
machine monitor hay hypervisor. Mt hypervisor c th chy trn phn cng
th (Type 1 or native VM) hoc trn mt h iu hnh (Type 2 or hosted VM).
a.

Type 1 VMM: Hypervisor

Dng cn bn nht l VMM Type 1 hoc cn gi l cng ngh hypervisor.


Hypervisor l mt lp phn mm nm ngay trn phn cng hoc bn di mt
hoc nhiu h iu hnh. Mc ch chnh ca n l cung cp cc mi trng thc
thi tch bit c gi l cc partition (phn vng) trong cc my o cha cc h
iu hnh my khch c th chy. Mi partition c cung cp tp hp cc ti
nguyn phn cng ring ca n chng hn nh b nh, cc chu k CPU v thit b.
Hypervisor c trch nhim iu khin v phn knh truy cp n cc nn tng
phn cng
Khi mt h iu hnh khch (VMM) lin lc vi phn cng trn OS:
- VMM m phng phn cng.
- VMM lin lc vi cc trnh iu khin thit b.
- Cc trnh iu khin thit b phn cng lin lc trc tip n phn cng vt l.

Bi v v tr chy trc tip trn phn cng khng phi nm bn trong mi trng h
iu hnh nn chng mc nhin s em li hiu sut cao nht, tnh sn sng cng
nh vn bo mt. Mt vi sn phm ang s dng dng ny l Microsoft HyperV, Citrix Xenserver, Vmware ESX server.
b. Type 2 VMM:

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Mt v d in hnh v s o ha Type 2 l my o Java, hoc mt v d khc l


common language runtime (CLR). Trong c 2 v d s bt u vi h iu hnh host
ngha l h iu hnh c ci t trc tip bn trn phn cng vt l. Trn OS l
mt Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) c vai tr l to v qun l cc my o, phn
phi cc ti nguyn cho nhng my v tch bit nhng my o vi nhau. Ni
cch khc VMM l lp o ha trong tnh hung ny. Sau VMM c nhng my
khch ang chy trong trng hp ny l Java hoc .Net.
V d n gin v mi lin lc gia phn cng v trnh iu khin thit b trn h
iu hnh nh sau:
- Bc u tin m phng phn cng o c qun l bi VMM ny.
- Xy dng mi lin lc gia VMM vi h iu hnh.
- H iu hnh lin lc vi trnh iu khin thit b phn cng.
- Cc trnh iu khin thit b phn cng lin lc n cc phn cng trn my tht.
Qu trnh ny s xy ra ngc li khi c cc tr li t cc phn cng n OS.
Cc sn phm i din cho gii php ny l: Microsoft Virtual Server, Vmware
Server v Microsoft Virtual PC.

Cc li ch ca h thng my o:
- Nhiu h iu hnh c th cng tn ti trn cng mt my tnh, nhng c tnh
c lp cao.
- My o c th cung cp mt kin trc tp lnh (ISA-Intruction set Architecture)
khc vi my thc.

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- Cung cp cc ng dng, bo tr ng dng, tnh sn sng v khc phc thm ha


cao.
Nhng nhc im chnh ca h thng my o:
- My o t hiu qu hn so vi mt my thc, v n truy cp gin tip phn cng
- Cc OSes khch khng cn phi ging nhau, c th chy OSes khc nhau trn
cng mt my tnh (v d: Microsoft Windows v Linux,). S dng my o
h tr cc OSes khc nhau ang tr thnh ph bin trong cc h thng nhng; in
hnh nh c s dng h tr mt h iu hnh cp cao nh Linux hoc
Windows.
1.3.2 Process virtual machine (ao hoa theo mc cm my tnh)
Mt qu trnh VM, i khi c gi l mt ng dng my o, chy nh mt
ng dng bnh thng trong mt h iu hnh v h tr mt qu trnh n. N
c to ra khi qu trnh bt u v b ph hy khi n thot. Mc ch ca n l
cung cp mt mi trng c lp chi tit cc phn cng nm bn di hoc h
iu hnh, v cho php mt chng trnh c th thc thi trn nhiu nn tng khc
nhau.
Process virtual machine cung cp mc o ha cao - l kh nng ca ngn
ng lp trnh cao cp ( System virtual machine th kh nng tru tng ha
ca ISA l thp). Process virtual machine c thc hin bng cch s dng nh
mt thng dch vin; so vi ngn ng lp trnh th k thut bin dch l just-intime compilation (k thut bin dch ng- dynamic tranlation).
Mt trng hp c bit ca process virtual machine l h thng o ha qua c
ch truyn thng ca cm my tnh- computer cluster. Nh vy, VM khng bao
gm mt qu trnh n l, m l mt qu trnh cho mi my vt l trong cluster.
Chng c thit k cc lp trnh vin d dng lp trnh cc ng dng song
song bng cch tp trung vo cc thut ton hn l cc c ch truyn thng c
cung cp bi cc kt ni v ca h iu hnh.

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1.4

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CC KIN TRC AO HA

C hai dng kin trc o ho: hosted v bare-metal. Mi mt kin trc c


cc cch thc truy xut I/O khc nhau.
1.4.1 Hosted Virtual Machine
Trong kin trc ny, phn mm my o s c ci t trn nn ca mt h
iu hnh my vt l. Mt phn mm c gi l hypervisor (loi II), cn gi l
Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM), c ci thnh mt lp nm trn h iu hnh
qun l vic truy xut cc ti nguyn ca my vt l t cc my o.

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Hosted Operating System


H iu hnh trn my vt l vn gi quyn truy xut, qun l ti nguyn. Mi
mt my o (cn gi l h iu hnh khch) trong m hnh ny s chia s s dng
chung cc ti nguyn vt l (CPU, RAM, HDD, I/O, NIC) thng qua VMM,
iu ny s lm cho mi my o nh s hu cc ti nguyn thc s. Tuy nhin,
VMM khng th nhn bit c tt c cc loi thit b phn cng cc nh sn xut
m ch gi lp cc thit b chung nh: NIC, CD-ROM

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Hosted Virtual Machine


Thc t th trc khi truy xut n cc ti nguyn vt l, phi qua mt s thnh
phn nh sau: y ta xt sn phm Wmware Workstation, khi mt my o cn
truy xut I/O, u tin n phi thng qua VMM, sau n VMX Driver, v cui
cng l n VMApp. VMApp s tng tc vi h iu hnh ca my vt l truy
xut n I/O

Truy xut I/O trong m hnh Hosted Virtual Machine


u im ca m hnh hosted virtual machine l d dng ci t v s dng. VMM
c th c s dng rng ri hu ht cc loi PC. Bi v h iu hnh trn my vt
l cung cp cc drivers tng tc vi cc ti nguyn vt l, phn mm VMM
c ci nm trn h iu hnh gip cho cc my o truy xut cc ti nguyn vt
l d dng hn.
Tuy nhin, nhc im ca m hnh hosted virtual machine l khng o ho c
tt c cc thit b PCI I/O, v khi cn truy xut cc ti nguyn trn my vt l cn
phi thng qua h iu hnh c ci t trn my vt l. V vy, s truy xut s
chm hn.
ng dng loi ny thng c dng pht trin, test phn mm trn cc mi
trng khc nhau. Hoc gi lp mng phc v cho mc ch nghin cu, hc tp
1.4.2 System Operating System(Bare-Hardware)
Trong kin trc ny, VMM ( cn gi l hypervisor loi I) s c ci t
trc tip trn cc thit b phn cng thay v c ci t trn nn ca mt h iu
hnh nh trong kin trc hosted operating system.

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Bare-Hardware
Bi v VMM c ci t trc tip ln phn cng nn hypervisor (VMM) cng c
th truy xut trc tip ln cc thit b I/O. Hypervisor (VMM) trong m hnh
hosted virtual machine thng qua h iu hnh truy xut cc thit b I/O, cn
trong m hnh bare-hardware th cn phi c cc driver cp thp tng tc vi
cc thit b phn cng bn di.

Truy xut I/O thng qua Kernel Driver

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Mt cch khc hypervisor truy xut n cc thit b I/O l gn tng thit b cho
tng my o mt cch c th. iu ny c gi l Partitioning. Vi c ch ny,
my o c th ci t trc tip driver ca tng nh sn xut tng ng

Truy xut trc tip I/O khng qua Hypervisor

Hypervisor

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u im trong m hnh ny l s truy xut n cc ti nguyn mt cch trc tip,


khng phi thng qua mt s iu phi trn mt h iu hnh nht nh, nn vic
truy xut n cc ti nguyn s nhanh v p ng c cc nhu cu v thi gian
thc. Tuy nhin, c mt s nhc im l tt c cc drivers phi c tch hp
trong hypervisor v trin khai kh phc tp.
ng dng ca m hnh ny l thng c p dng cho cc doanh nghip cung
cp hosting, hoc gii quyt cc bi ton cn nhiu phn cng h tr. Hoc trong
cc h thng lun cn s sn sng, m bo khng b ngt qung khi c s c
hng hc v phn cng.
1.5

Nhng li ch cua my ao

- Tit kim tai nguyn: Nu trc y, mi my ch c th chy mt HH vo


mt thi im, dn n i hi phi c cc my khc nhau chy cc h iu hnh
khc nhau. Vi o ha, mt my c th chy nhiu my o, trong mi my o
chy mt h iu hnh. Cch lm ny c th tn dng ti a ti nguyn nh CPU
v b nh. Rng hn l tit kim tin mua my v in chy n. Hin nay o
ha chnh l nn tng ca in ton m my (hay in ton my ch o).
- Gip han ch va c lp li: Nu mt my chy hai chng trnh quan trng, li
ca mt chng trnh c th nh hng n chng trnh cn li (v d lm treo
my). Nu cho hai chng trnh chy trn 2 my o khc nhau s gim s nh
hng ca chng trnh ny ln chng trnh kia. Mt v d khc, gi s chng ta
mun c mi trng kim th (test) chng trnh mi m khng mun nh
hng n mi trng hin ti, cch tt nht l th chng trnh mi trn my o
kim tra an ton v tin cy trc khi ci vo h thng hin c.
-H tr m phng: Vi o ha, chng ta c th m phng cc mi trng lm
vic khc nhau, v d cc phin bn khc nhau ca HH, cc cu hnh phn cng
(v d b nh b hn ch), kim tra tnh tng thch ca ng dng.

Mi trng thun li cho s tng thch


Tng tnh an ton cho h thng do ccVM clp
D pht trin cc HH n nhim cho cc VM clp.

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MT S CP O HA HIN NAY
2.1

Ao hoa phn cng

Hnh thc o ha ny do nh sn xut thit b quyt nh. Chng hn, Intel


thng tch hp thm cc cng ngh o ha vo CPU, mainboard gia tng sc
mnh cho h thng nh tt, m v x l cc li h thng t xa.Hai nh sn xut
CPU ni ting l Intel v AMD pht trin cc kin trc ph hp vi vic o
ha:
AMD pht trin phn m rng cho kin trc x86 vi tn gi l AMD-V (AMD
Virtualization), ngoi ra cn c bit n vi tn Pacifica
Intel pht trin phn m rng cho kin trc x86 vi tn gi l Intel-Vt, ngoi ra
cn c bit n vi tn Vanderpool.
2.2

Ao hoa mc h iu hanh (OS-level virtualization)

2.2.1 Gii thiu


Sau s o ha my ch v o ha ng dng, khng gian o ha tip tc c
nhng bc tin trin sang mc tip theo. Cng vi VDI (Virtual Desktop
Infrastructure), Operating System (OS) Virtualization - o ha h iu hnh l mt
trong s cc cng ngh ang ngy cng ph bin trn th trng hin nay.
2.2.2 o hoa h iu hanh la gi?
Vi mt h iu hnh o ha th khng c g c ci t trc hoc c
ci t vnh vin trn mt thit b cc b v cng khng cn n a cng. Mi
th u c chy t mng bng mt a o. Vi nhng cung cp hin nay, a o
ny qu thc l mt file image c lu tr trn my ch t xa, SAN hoc NAS.
My khch s c kt ni thng qua mng vo a o v s khi ng vi h iu
hnh c ci t trn a o.
C hai kiu a o trong cc cung cp hin nay l:

Private Virtual Disk

Shared/Common Virtual Disk

2.2.3 Private Virtual Disk


Private virtual disk ch c s dng bi mt my khch, cng ging nh mt
a cng ni b. Ph thuc vo cc quyn c gn, ngi dng c th lu cc
thng tin trn a o. Chnh v vy khi my khch c khi ng li, cc thit lp
s c duy tr cng ging nh lm vic vi a cng vt l.

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2.2.4 Shared/Common Virtual Disk


Mt a o chia s c s dng bi nhiu my khch cng mt lc. Trong qu
trnh s dng, nhng thay i c lu li trong cc cache ring, tuy nhin khi
my khch shut down hoc khi ng li th cache s b xa sch.
Ni theo cch khc, khi my khch khi ng n s s dng cu hnh mc nh
hin hu trn a o.
2.2.5 o hoa h iu hanh lam vic nh th nao?
Trc ht chng ta hy xem xt s qua cc thnh phn cn n s dng h iu
hnh o trong mt c s h tng.
Thnh phn u tin chnh l my ch o ha h iu hnh. My ch ny l
mt tiu im trong c s h tng o ha h iu hnh. N sp xp vic streaming
cc thng tin trn cc a o n my khch v cng phn nh my khch no s
c kt ni vi a o no (bng cch s dng c s d liu vi nhng thng
tin c lu). My ch ny cng c th t chc lu tr cc a o mt cch
ni b hoc c th c kt ni n cc a o thng qua SAN(Storage Area
Network) hoc File Share. Trong cc mi trng kh nng c sn cn phi cao
cng cn phi c my ch o ha to s d phng cng nh cn bng ti. My
ch ny cng bo m rng my khch s l duy nht bn trong c s h tng.
Th hai, cn c mt my khch c th lin lc vi my ch kt ni n cc
a o v yu cu cc thnh phn c lu trn a o nhm chy h iu hnh.
Thnh phn h tr y l mt c s d liu dng lu tr cu hnh v cc thit
lp cho my ch, mt dch v streaming x l ni dung bn trong ca a o,
mt dch v TFTP(Trivial File Transfer Protocol) (mang tnh ty chn) v mt
dch v khi ng PXE(Preboot eXecution Environment hoc Pre-eXecution
Environment) (cng mang tnh ty chn) cho vic kt ni my khch vi cc my
ch.
Nh c cp trn, cc a o s cha mt image ca mt a vt l t
mt h thng ang nhx cu hnh v cc thit lp.
Khi a o c to th a cn phi c gn cho my khch s s dng
a ny trc tin.
Kt ni gia my khch v a c thc hin thng qua cng c qun tr v
c lu bn trong c s d liu.
Khi my khch c gn a n c th c bt u vi a o bng cch
s dng qu trnh c th hin di y trong hnh 1 di y.

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Hnh 1: o ha h iu hnh v qu trnh Streaming


Kt ni n my ch OS Virtualization.
u tin chng ta khi ng my v thit lp kt ni n my ch OS
Virtualization.
Hu ht cc sn phm hin nay u cung cp mt s phng php kt ni
n my ch. Mt trong cc phng php c s dng nhiu nht l s dng
dch v PXE.
Cc phng php ny a phn u s khi to card giao din mng, nhn a
ch IP (DHCP) v mt kt ni n my ch.
Kt ni n a o
Khi mt kt ni c thit lp gia my khch v my ch, my ch s quan st
trong c s d liu ca n kim tra xem my khch ny c quen thuc hay
khng v cc a o no c gn cho my khch .
Khi c thm nhiu a o c kt ni th khi s c mt menu khi ng
c hin th trn my khch. Nu ch c mt a c gn th a ny s c kt
ni n my khch.
Vdisk kt ni n my khch

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Sau khi a o mong mun c chn hoc mt a o c gn cho my


khch c xc nh th a o s c kt ni xuyn sut my ch OS
Virtualization n my khch.
Trn back-end, my ch OS Virtualization phi m bo rng my khch l duy
nht (tn my tnh v b nhn dng) bn trong c s h tng.
Ngay khi a c kt ni, my ch s bt u cng vic streaming ni dung bn
trong a o. Phn mm s bit cc phn no cn thit khi ng h iu
hnh mt cch m i, chnh v vy cc phn ny cn phi c stream trc.
Cc thng tin c stream n h thng s c lu mt v tr no . Hu
ht cc sn phm hin nay u cung cp nhiu cch lu tr cc thng tin ny.Cho
v d nh b nh trn my khch, trn a ca my ch o ha h iu hnh hoc
cc b trn a cng ca my khch.
Streaming b sung.
Sau phn u tin s c stream cho h iu hnh chy nh mong i.
D liu a o b sung s c stream khi cn thit chy hoc khi ng chc
nng c gi bi ngi dng (cho v d khi ng ng dng c sn bn trong
a o).
u im
S d phng linh ng
H tr a image trn h thng, gm c c menu khi ng
Trin khai phn mm (OS/App) nhanh
H thng ging nhau 100%
Ci thin d dng cho cc nng cp v cc hotfix ca cc ng dng v h iu
hnh.
D dng rollback cc kch bn
Sau khi khi ng li, h thng s tr v trng thi sch trn.
...
Nhc im
Khng c kh nng lm vic offline
Cn LAN tc cao (>100Mb)
Khng h tr tt c cc h iu hnh
Cc gii php a PXE/BootP trong on mng s gy ra cc vn

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MT S NG DNG V CNG NGH CHO O HA


3.1

VMWARE

3.1.1 Tng quan v WMware


Nh chng ta bit, WMware l hng cung cp phn mm o ha. WMware
cung cp nhiu dng sn phm o ha, khng ch o ha h iu hnh m cn o
ha c 1 h tng data center.
Cc dng sn phm ca to my o:

VMware Workstation

VMware Server

VMware ESX/ESXi

3.1.2

Gii thiu san phm tiu biu VMWARE vSpere 4

VMware vSpere 4 l sn phm thay th cho VMware Infrastructure 3 dng o


ha data center .
VMware vSphere 4 l mt b sn phm bao gm nhiu phn mm vi nhiu tnh
nng nhm gip o ha ton b h thng data center:
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VMware ESX v VMware ESXi


VMware Virtual Symetric Multi-Processing
VMware vCenter Server
VMware vCenter Update Manager
VMware vSphere Client
VMware Vmotion and Storage Vmotion
VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler
VMware High Avaibility
VMware Fault Tolerance
VMware Consolidated Backup
VMware vShield Zones
VMware vCenter Orchestrator

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VMware ESX va ESXi

Tri tim ca b sn phm vSphere chnh l hypervisor l mt lp o ha c


dng lm nn cho hot ng ca cc phn mm khc trong b sn phm vSphere.
Trong b vSphere, hypervisor c tn ti 2 dng: ESX v ESXi. Nhim v ca
hypervisor l cung cp nn o ha chnh v c 2 sn phm ESX v ESXi u c
ci t trc tip ln phn cng vt l ca Server. S khc nhau gia ESX v ESXi
chnh l s ng gi sn phm.
V mt l thuyt, Hypervisor bao gm 2 loi: loi 1 v loi 2. Hypervisor loi 1
c chy trc tip ln phn cng vt l ca server, cn c gi l bare-metal
hypervisor. Hypervisor loi 2 c chy trn nn ca mt h iu hnh khc, ngha
l phm mm to my o s c ci t trn mt h iu hnh c th: Windows,
Linux V mi vic qun l truy xut vng nh, thit b I/O s do h iu hnh
quyt nh. VMware ESX v VMware ESXi u l hypervisor loi 1, ngoi ra
cn c Hyper-V ca Microsoft v Xen Hypervisor (Citrix XenServer) v Oracle
VM cng u thuc nhm 1.
VMware ESX bao gm 2 phn: Service Console v VMkernel
Service Console: l h iu hnh ngi qun tr tng tc vi WMware
ESX v cc my o chy trn Server. H iu hnh ny da trn nn tng
Linux bao gm mt s dch v: SNMP, Firewall, Web Server.
Vmkernel: trong khi Service Console cung cp cc phng thc nh qun
tr truy xut n Vmkernel, cn Vmkernel chnh l cc process cung cp s o
ha ca h thng. Vmkernel s qun l, iu phi s truy xut ca cc my o
bng cch iu phi CPU, qun l b nh.

VMware ESX
VMware ESXi c xem l th h tip theo ca VMware virtualization
foundation. Khng ging nh WMware ESX, ESXi khng c thnh phn Service

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Console. V vy, ci t ESXi s t tn ti nguyn hn. Tuy nhin, Vmkernel ca


ESXi cng tng t nh ca VMware ESX

H tr phn cng ca VMware ESX/ESXi 4.0


1. VMware Virtual Symetric Multi-Processing
VMware Virtual Symetric Multi-Processing (vSMP hoc virtual SMP) cho php
ESX/ESXi c ci t trn cc Server nhiu CPUs, ngha l c th c nhiu
CPUs trong mt my o

VMware vSMP
2. VMware vCenter Server
vCenter Server c th c xem nh l Active Directory trong Microsoft, n c
dng qun l tp trung tt c cc host ESX/ESXi cng nh cc my o c
chy trong cc host . vCenter Server c giao din Windows, database cho php
nh qun tr trin khai, qun l, gim st, t ng ha, v thit lp an ton trong
mi trng mng. H qun tr CSDL Microsoft SQL Server hoc Oracle c
dng lu tt c thng tin v cc host v my o.

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vCenter Server cn cung cp cc cng c: VMware Vmotion, VMware Distributed


Resource Scheduler, VMware High Avaibility, v VMware Fault Tolerance
Ngoi ra, vCenter Server cng h tr thm mt s tnh nng:
Enhanced Vmotion Compatibility(EVC)
Host Profiles
vNetwork Distributed Switches: cung cp h tng mng cho vic cluster v
cc switch o.
vCenter Server c 3 phin bn:
vCenter Server Essential: c tch hp vo vSphere Edition, trin khai cho
cc vn phng nh.
vCenter Server Standard: cung cp tt c cc tnh nng ca vCenter Server,
bao gm c d phng, qun l, gim st v t ng ha
vCenter Server Foundation: tng t nh vCenter Server Standard nhng
ch gii hn qun l 3 ESX/ESXi host.
3. VMware vCenter Update Manager
vCenter Update Manager l mt plug-in cho vCenter Server vi mc ch gip cho
t ng cp nht cc bn v mi nht cho cc my o. N cung cp cc tnh nng:
Qut nhn dng h thng
t cc lut (rule) nhn bit h thng sp ht hn
T ng cp nht cc bn v cho server ESX/ESXi
H tr cp nht bn v cho h iu hnh Windows v Linux
H tr cp nht cho cc ng dng Windows trong my o.
4. VMware vSphere Client
vSphere Client l ng dng chy trn Microsoft Windows nhm qun l trc tip
cc Host ESX/ESXi hoc gin tip l thng qua vCenter Server. install vSphere
Client, nh qun tr ch cn duyt URL n cc host ESX/ESXi hoc vCenter
Server

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vSphere Client
vSphere Client h tr qun l cc host ESX/ESXi bng vic xc thc ti khon
trn tng host cc b hoc c th xc thc tp trung thng qua vCenter Server vi
ti khon Windows.
5. VMware Vmotion va Storage Vmotion
Vmotion l tnh nng ca ESX/ESXi v vCenter Server cho php cc my o ang
chy c th c di chuyn t host vt l (ESX/ESXi) sang host vt l khc m
khng cn phi tt ngun my o. S di chuyn ny gia 2 host vt l ny khng
lm mt i s hot ng hay kt ni gia cc my o vi nhau.
Storage Vmotion cng da trn tng Vmotion nhng i tng c di chuyn
y chnh l cc storage trn SANs
6. VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler
DRS l tnh nng phn phi ti nguyn mt cch t ng trong mt cluster. Tuy
nhin, khi nim cluster y khng ging nh khi nim cluster trong h iu
hnh Windows Server.
Mt ESX/ESXi cluster l s tp hp v tn dng kh nng x l ca cc CPU, b
nh ca tt c cc host trong cluster. Sau khi 2 hay nhiu host c gn vo
cluster, tt c cc host s hot ng mt cch ng thi nhm cung cp CPU v b
nh cho cc my o trong nhm cluster
7. VMware High Avaibility
WMware HA khng ging nh DRS ngha l n khng s dng cng ngh
VMotion di chuyn cc my o t host ny sang host khc, bi v c nhiu
nguyn nhn khin h thng b li khng th on trc c nh: mt ngun, li
phn cng. Khi c s c li xy ra v phn cng hoc mt ngun ca mt Server
ESX/ESXi, cc my o ang chy trong Server b li s c khi ng li
chy tip trong cc Server ESX/ESXi khc trong cng cluster cha Server b li
.
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VMware High Avaibility

8. VMWare Fault Tolerance


Vi tnh nng ca VMware HA, cc my o s c khi ng li trong cc
Server ESX/ESXi khc cng cluster tip tc thc thi. Tuy nhin, vic khi ng
li ny cng b mt mt khong thi gian. Vi cng ngh vLockstep s duy tr 1
bn sao ca my o trn host vt l khc, tt c nhng g ang thc thi trn host
primary u c sao chp sang host secondary khi c s c v mt vt l nh
hng phn cng, mt ngun ca host primay, th host secondary s tip tc thc thi
tip m khng lm gin on kt ni.
Trong trng hp b li xy ra c host primary v host secondray, th VMware HA
s reboot cc my o trong host primary sang mt Server ESX/ESXi cn hot
ng khc , cn VMware FT s t ng khi to mt my o d phng mi
VMware FT c th hot ng cng vi Vmotion, nhng khng hot ng vi
DRS, v vy DRS phi c disable bng tay trn cc my o c bo v bi
VMware FT.
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VMware Fault Tolerance


3.2

Hyper-V

3.2.1

Gii thiu v Hyper-V

Trc y Hyper V c bit n vi ci tn Windows Server Virtualization, tn


m Viridian, Hyper-V l cng ngh o ha server th h mi ca Microsoft v l
thnh phn quan trng trong h iu hnh Windows Server 2008.
Hyper-V chnh l cng ngh o ha th h k tip da trn hypervisor, khai thc
phn cng server 64-bit th h mi. Ngi dng (ch yu l doanh nghip) khng
cn phi mua thm phn mm khai thc cc tnh nng o ho bi n l mt tnh
nng sn c trn Windows Server 2008. Kin trc m ca Hyper-V cho php cc
nhm pht trin ni b v cc nh pht trin phn mm ca hng th ba ci tin
cng ngh ny v cc cng c.
Vi Hyper-V, Microsoft cung cp mt nn tng o ha mnh v linh hot, c th
p ng nhu cu o ha mi cp cho mi trng doanh nghip. Trong cu trc
Hyper-V gm 3 phn chnh: phn vng cha hay con gi l parent, cc phn vng
con (child partition) hay cn gi l my o chy h iu hnh my khch v cui
cng mang tnh quyt nh l lp hypervisor. Windows Hypervisor l mt b
giao tip bng phn mm, n nm gia lp phn cng vt l v mt hay nhiu h

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iu hnh. Hypervisor iu khin vic truy cp n phn nhn ca phn cng v


nh ngha ra cc mi trng hot ng c lp tch ri gi l partition.
Nhim v chnh ca Windows Hypervisor l m bo s tch ri gia cc phn
vng, s dng cc chnh sch hn ch truy cp phn cng v quan st hot ng
cc partition. Hypervisor duy tr vic iu khin cc thit lp phn cng cho php
n m bo c nhim v tch ri mi lin h gia cc partition to cho chng
s cch ly c lp trong khi l phn chia quyn u khin truy cp n cc
phn cng yu cu, n cc tin trnh x l hay n cc thit b iu hin trong
phn vng cha. Windows Hypervisor iu khin phn cng vt l ging nh
advanced programmable interrupt controllers (APICs) trong vic ngt qung nh
tuyn, b x l vt l ln k hoch x l mt cch logic vic truy cp ca my
o, hng ch, khng gian b nh vt l iu khin cc truy xut n Ram v b
nh thit b v cc phn cng khc.Phn vng cha qun l vic phn phi Ram, b
x l v qun l ngun, Pci bus, cc thit bi truy xut thng qua cc trnh iu
khin thit b
Qua ngi thit k nhn ra rng n nht thit phi n gin v x l c cc
hot ng mt cch nhanh chng m khng gp gin on no.
Hyper-V c 3 phin bn Windows Server 2008 64 bit l Standard (mt my o),
Enterprise (4 my o) v DataCenter (khng gii hn s lng my o). Tuy nhin
n h tr h iu hnh khch trn c 32-bit v 64-bit l im ni bt ca Hyper-V.

3.2.2

Kin trc Hyper-V

Hyper-V gm 3 thnh phn chnh: hypervisor, ngn o ha (Virtual stack) v m


hnh I/O (nhp/xut) o ha. Hypervisor l lp phn mm rt nh hin din ngay
trn b x l (BXL) theo cng ngh Intel-V hay AMD-V, c vai tr to cc
"partition" (phn vng) m thc th o s chy trong .
Mt partition l mt n v cch ly v mt lun l v c th cha mt h iu hnh
lm vic trong . Lun c t nht 1 partition gc cha Windows Server 2008 v
ngn o ha, c quyn truy cp trc tip cc thit b phn cng. Partition gc tip
theo c th sinh cc partition con (thng c gi l my o v bn thn chng
cha mi trng hot ng c lp cho mt my o) chy cc h iu hnh
my khch. Mt partition con cng c th sinh tip cc partition con ca mnh.
My o khng c quyn truy cp n b x l vt l, m ch nhn thy b x l
c hypervisor cp cho. My o cng ch s dng c thit b o, mi yu cu
n thit b o s c chuyn qua VMBus n thit b partition cha. Thng tin
hi p cng c chuyn qua VMBus. Nu thit b partition cha cng l thit b
o, n s c chuyn tip cho n khi gp thit b thc partition gc. Ton b
tin trnh trong sut i vi HH khch.

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Hyper-V c tch hp sn trong HH Windows Server, v hypervisor mc trc


tip n cc lung x l ca BXL, nh vy vic vn hnh my o hiu qu hn so
vi kin trc o ho trc y.

Hypervisor.

Ti sao vai tr ca Hypervisor li cn thit? l m bo to ra mt h thng


tch ri thc s mnh m h tr trn nhiu h iu hnh khc nhau bng cch
to ra cc b vi x l o, b nh, timer, v cc b iu khin ngt. Qua cc h
iu hnh ny da trn vic s dng cc ti nguyn o ha ny nh mt h thng
phn cng tht s.
Vi vai tr tham gia l mt phn t trong Hyper-V, Hypervisor cung cp cc chc
nng cn thit sau tham gia vo qu trnh o ha my ch vt l:
- To ra cc phn vng v mt logic.
- Qun l cng vic ln k hoch cho b nh v b x l cho cc my o.
- Cung cp cc c ch sp xp cc lung thng tin vo ra v lin lc gia cc phn
vng ca h thng.
- Thi hnh cc quy tc truy cp b nh.

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- Thi hnh chnh sch s dng ti nguyn CPU


- a ra mt giao din chng trnh n gin c gi l hypercalls
Do s dng m hnh Microkernelized nh mt kin trc chnh nn Windows
Hypervisor tng i kh nh trn thc t l di 1MB v ln v th vn v
li l kh him v cng d dng hn trong x l khi xut hin im yu t phn
no nng cao vn an ton cho h thng.
Mt trong cc yu cu nh bit c th vn hnh mt h thng Hyper-V th
phi c mt h thng 64bit c s dng phn cng cng ngh Intel VT v AMD-V.
Do da vo cng ngh 64-bit s cho php truy cp qun l khng gian b nh ln
hn nhiu so vi 32-bit cc my ch s c h tr lng b nh ln hn v cho
php nhiu my o hn trn mt my. Intel-VT v AMD-V l hai gii php phn
cng h tr cho cc cng ngh o ha. N cho cung cp mt lp siu c quyn
trong m hnh ring nh gip duy tr c mt mi trng thc thi cho
Hypervisor tch ri hon ton vi cc phn cn li trong h thng.

Parent Partition.

Trong kin trc chnh ca Hyper-V , parent s hu mt s cc thnh phn khng


c trong con. Hnh sau y s cho thy r cc thnh phn chnh ca mt
partition gi vai tr l parent (duy nht)

Partition parent ny c nh ngha l partition c to u tin trn h thng


khi m hypervisor c kch hot hay n gin l khi Hyper-V Role c ci t.
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V partition ny cng chnh l h iu hnh chnh (Windows Server 2008) ang c


vai tr l Hyper-V server. Sau y l mc ch chnh ca khi nim parent
partition:
y l phn vng gi nhim v to v qun l cc phn vng con trn h
thng v bao gm kh nng dng WMI cho vic qun l t xa.
Phn vng ny ngoi ra cn phi qun l v phn b thit b phn cng,
thi biu cho b x l v cp pht b nh , tt c iu hot ng thng qua lp
hypervisor.
Ti nguyn phn cng ca phn vng cha s c chia s v cp pht s
dng bi cc phn vng con.
Bn cnh cn mang nhim v qun l in nng, tnh trng hot ng
v ghi nhn cc s c li khi xy ra.
Nh tng cp thnh phn chnh gp phn lm nn Hyper-V chnh l ngn o
ha n l tp hp cc chc nng chnh trong hot ng ca Hyper-V v n ch c
phn vng cha.
Sau y l bng chi tit thnh phn chc nng c trong ngn o ha.
Thanh phn

M ta

Virtual
Machine Chu trch nhim qun l trng thi ca my o
Management
Service ang hot ng trong cc phn vng con (active,
(VMM service)
offline, stopped) v iu khin cc tc v c th
nh hng n trng thi my o hin ti in hnh
l hnh ng to snapshot. Ngoi ra cn c vai tr
trong vic b sung hoc loi b cc thit b. Khi
mt my o c khi ng VMM service s to
ring mt Virtual Machine Worker Process cho mi
my o c khi ng.
Virtual
Machine Thnh phn ny c khi to bi VMM service
Worker Process
khi my o c khi ng. mt Virtual Machine
Worker Process s c to ring cho mi my o
Hyper-V v chu trch nhim qun l cc mc
tng tc gia phn vng cha chay h iu hnh
Windows Server 2008 vi phn vng con ang
chy h iu hnh my khch. Nhim v ca n
bao gm: creating, configuring, running, pausing,
resuming, saving, restoring v snapshotting my o
m n ang lin kt v chu trch nhim qun l.
N cng x l vn IRQs, b nh, v port nhp

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xut thng qua Virtual Motherboard (VMB).


Virtual Devices

Virtual
Driver

c qun l bi Virtual Motherboard (VMB).


VMB th li c cha trong Virtual Machine
Worker ci m c cp pht ring cho tng my
o. Virtual Devices c 2 loi Core Vdevs v plugin
Vdevs trong Core Vdevs c 2 mc con l thit b
m phng (Emulated Devices) l nhng thit b m
phng phn cng thit b c th nh Vesa Video
card,, floopy, bios v thit b tng hp (Synthetic
Devices) n khng da vo thit b phn cng c
th nh card mang, cng v ch c trn my
khch h tr Integration Services.

Infrastructure Hot ng trong Kernel Mode, cung cp vic qun


l phn vng, b nh, b x l cho my o ang
hot ng trong phn vng con. Virtual
Infrastrusture Driver ngoi ra cn chu trch nhim
cc thnh phn chc nng cao hn Virtual Stack
lin kt vi Hypervisor.

Windows
Hypervisor L mt th vin DLL cha trong phn vng cha
Interface Library
ang chy Windows server 2008 v bt k h iu
hnh my khch no c chng nhn l hot ng
tt trn phn vng con ( nm trong danh sch h
iu hnh h tr) ca Hyper-V.
VMBus

L mt thnh phn ca Integration Services trong


Hyper-V, chu trch nhim ti u ha qu trnh lin
lc gia phn vng cha v phn vng con.

Virtualization
Providers

Service Ch c trong phn vng cha v gi nhim v cung


cp vic h tr thit b tng hp thng qua VMBus
n Virtual Service Clients (VSCs) ang chy trong
phn vng con.

Virtualization
Clients

Service L cc trng hp thit b tng hp ang tr trong


cc phn vng con. Chng lin lc vi cc VSPs
trong phn vng cha thng qua VMBus thc thi
cc truy xut thit b ca cc phn vng con.

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Child Partion

Phn vng con l mt phn vng phn cng v mt logic ang chy mt h iu
hnh c lp trong mi trng Hyper-V .
Phn vng con l mt trong 3 khi nim chnh trong mi trng Hyper-V. Hai ci
cn li chnh l phn vng chnh (root partition) v phn vng cha (Parent
Partition). Tuy nhin l trc y k t phin bn Hyper-V version 1.0 phn
vng chnh v phn vng cha l tng ng khng cn s phn bit. Tt nhin l
ch c mt phn vng cha trn mt my vt l chy Hyper-V v s lng phn
vng con l ty thuc vo lng ti nguyn ang c v gn nh l khng gii hn.
Mi phn vng s hu ngun ti nguyn v b nh cng nh b x l c lp v
duy tr cc thng tin chnh sch v thit b s dng. Phn vng cha c ton quyn
truy cp b nh v thit b vt l mt cch trc tip , kch hot lp hypervisor.
Cng nh vic c trch nhim trong vic to v qun l cc phn vng con. Mi
phn vng con c th chy mt h iu hnh ring bit thng c gi l h iu
hnh my khch (Guest OS).

Phn loai H iu hanh my khch.

Ni n gin hn trong mc ny s tm hiu vic phn loi h iu hnh my


khch trn Hyper-V nh th no. Theo Microsoft sn phm Hyper-V ca h vi u
im tng thch cao vi mi h iu hnh trn th trng v c nhng h iu
hnh c ch bin t phn ra chng loi:
Hyper-V Aware Windows Operrating Systems tm hiu l nhng h iu
hnh thuc gia nh Windows tng thch Hyper-V cho php t c hiu sut
cao nht trong trin khai. C kh nng dng Integration Services khi to
Virtual Service Clients trong vic lin lc vi Virtual Service Providers (VSPs)
ang chy trn phn vng chnh thng qua VMBus.
Hyper-V Aware Non Windows Operating Systems tm hiu l nhng h
iu hnh khng thuc h Windows nhng tng thch vi Hyper-V v hon ton
ging Hyper-V Aware Windows Operating Systems cc mt.
Non Hyper-V Aware Operating Systems cng chnh l loi c bit nht
l nhng h iu hnh cha qua kim duyt cng nh thm nh v kh nng
thch, nhng vn c kh nng hot ng trn lp Hypervisor nhng s mt i tnh
nng Integaration Services lc ny h tr qu trnh hot ng ca n lp
Hypervisor s s dng chc nng m phng thit b cung cp kh nng truy
xut thit b v b x l. Do cc kh nng trong qu trnh hat ng ca loi
ny l thp nht cng vi nhiu hn ch.

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3.2.3 Mt s tnh nng chnh cua Hyper-V


Broad operating system support
Kh nng h tr a dng h iu hnh my khch bao gm c 32bit ln 64bit v a
dng v nn tng my ch nh Windows, Linux v nhng h iu hnh khc.
Extensibility
c h tr vi kh nng m rng ang k nh vic xy dng da trn Windows
Management Instrumentation (WMI) v application programming interfaces
(APIs) cho php cc nh sn xut phn mm v cc nh pht trin c th xy dng
nn nhng cng c h tr, cc tin ch v ci tin cho nn tng o ha ny.
Netwok Load Balancing
c trang b cc kh nng cho php chuyn mch o t cung cp cc tnh
nng Windows Network Load Balancing (NLB) cho cc my o ang chy trn
cc my ch vt l khc nhau.
Microkernelized architecture
Hyper-V c thit k da trn kin trc microkernwlized hypervisor 64bit cho
php cung cp mt chui cc thit b h tr cc phng thc ci tin hiu sut
cng nh vn bo mt.
Hardware assisted virtualization
Hyper-V i hi cao v vn h thng phi c h tr nn tng Intel VT hoc
AMD-V khi trin khai.
Hardware sharing architecture
Hyper-V bao gm kin trc Virtualization Service Provider (VSP) v
Virtualization Service Client (VSC) cung cp vic ci tin qu trnh truy xut v
s dng ti nguyn phn cng nh a cng, mng, video.
Quick migration
Hyper-V cng cung cp Quick Migration, kh nng di chuyn mt my qua i qua
cc cluster nodes m khng lm mt d liu vi s gin on dch v t nht.
thc hin iu ny, mt my o c t trong ch save, tnh trng b nh
active v b x l c capture n a, v t cch ti nguyn lu tr c chuyn
n mt node khc trn cluster. Trn mt node mi, tnh trng b nh active my
o v b x l c reload v qu trnh x l c resume. Tu vo lu tr c bn
v kch thc ca d liu, c qu trnh c c th mt vi giy hay vi pht.

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Kim sot truy cp s dng Authorization Manager


Hyper-V nng cp Authorization Manager (AzMan) cung cp kim sot truy
cp role-based n Hyper-V v cc my o. iu ny cho php to cc nh ngha
cng vic v translate chng vo mt role vi mt set hn ch cc hot ng v
nhim v. C th gn cho nhng ngi dng hay nhng nhm n l nhng role
ph hp, cho php chng hon thnh trch nhim cng vic ca mnh trong khi ch
hn ch cc truy cp ca chng n cc ti nguyn Hyper-V, cc hot ng v
nhim v.
H tr Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) trong Hyper-V cung cp cc backup
tnh trng, host-sie, b nhu cu load mt agent trong mi my o ring bit. Bt k
ng dng VSS-aware no, nh System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM)
2007 SP1, c th nng cp chc nng nu cung cp cc dch v backup
snapshot VSS nu n dng giao din tc gi VSS thc hin trong Hyper-V. Bt k
my o no chy mt h iu hnh guest Windows (Windows Server 2003 v sau
na) c th c backup trong trng thi live. Cc h iu hnh guest khc
(Windows 2000, Linux ..v..v) cn c lu trong trng thi trc snapshot VSS.
Bi v cc snapshot VSS c thc thi thng qua mt qu trnh kh nhanh (ch vi
giy), thi gian dng ca cc my o l nh nht. Ngoi ra, vi h tr VSS, s cc
bc cn trong hot ng archive v restore c gim xung v s thng nht
ca d liu c m bo.
Hyper-V h tr Windows Failover Clustering thc thi mt chin lc c tnh
sn sng cao m c th qun l c thi gian dng unplan v plan. C hai mc
c th thc thi mt failover cluster vi Hyper-V: mc h iu hnh guest, v
mc host o ho. Failover cluster mt h iu hnh guest yu cu cc ng
dng cluster-aware chy trong cc my o. Cng phi chy mt h iu hnh trong
my o h tr failover clustering, nh Windows Server 2003 (ln n 8-node
cluster) hay Windows Server 2008 Enterprise hay Datacenter edition (ln n 16node cluster). Mc failover cluster th hai cha hai hay nhiu hn na cc server
Windows Server 2008, mi ci c cu hnh lm mt cluster node. Dng cu
hnh ny cho php cung cp mt gii php c tnh sn c cao cho c cc h iu
hnh guest non-cluster-aware v cc ng dng chy trong cc my o.
Scalability
Hyper-V vi kh nng h tr nhiu b vi x l v nhn cng nh kh nng nng
cao truy cp b nh gia cc my o. t em li kh nng m ra mi trng o
ha vi tnh nng m rng s lng ln my o trn mt my vt l kt hp vi
tnh nng Quick Migration m rng trn nhiu my vt l.
Hyper-V vi s h tr a dng v b x l, nhn iu hnh cng nh kin trc ci
tin truy cp b nh trong cc my o em li mt my ch vi kh nng m

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rng nhiu my o hn trn mt my ch ng thi kt hp vi tnh nng Quick


Migration chp cnh thm cho vn m rng o ha ra cc host trong h tng.
Symmetric multiproccessor (SMP) support
Vi kh nng h tr 4 b vi x l cho mt mi trng my o t tn dng c
li th nhiu lng ng dng c x l trn mt my o.
Virtual machine snapshots
Chc nng snapshot Hyper-V cho php capture cu hnh v tnh trng ca mt
my o bt k thi im xc nh no, v cng cung cp kh nng reload li bt
h snapshot hin hnhno ch trong c vi giy. Cc snapshot Hyper-V c th rt
hu ch trong bi cnh cn thc hin nhng thay i gia tng n mt my o vi
kh nng quay ngc li tnh trng trc . Chc nng snapshot Hyper-V c
thit k c bit dng cho vic kim tra v pht trin cc mi trng, khng
phi trong cu trc lm vic.
4

KHAI THC SC MNH O HA


4.1

Xu hng ao hoa cua th gii ngay nay.

o ha c th xem nh mt phn ca xu hng ca cc doanh nghip cng ngh


thng tin bao gm in ton t ng, trong bi cnh m, cc mi trng cng
ngh thng tin c th t qun l chnh n da trn cc hot ng nhn thc v
cng dng ca my tnh, tc l nng lc x l ca my tnh c nhn nhn nh l
mt cng dng m cc client ch phi tr khi cn n. Mc tiu ca o ha thng
l trung tm ha cc tc v qun tr trong khi vn ci thin kh nng m rng v
khi lng cng vic. Ngy nay phn cng x86 c thit k chy mt h iu
hnh n v mt ng dng n. Kt qu l hu ht cc my u chy khng ht
cng sut. o ha cho php chy nhiu my o trn mt my vt l, vi mi my
o chia s ti nguyn ca my vt l kia thng qua nhiu mi trng. Cc my o
khc nhau c th chy nhiu h iu hnh khc nhau v nhiu ng dng trn cng
mt my tnh vt l. o ha dng nhng phn mm bin i hay o ha ti
nguyn phn cng ca cc my tnh kin trc x86 - bao gm CPU, RAM, a cng
v network controller - to ra mt my o y tnh nng m c th chy h
iu hnh v ng dng ca chnh n nh mt my thc. Mi my o cha mt
h thng hon chnh, loi b xung t tim n. o ha hot ng bng cch chn
mt lp phn mm mng trc tip vo phn cng my tnh hay trn mt h iu
hnh chnh. N cha mt phn mm gim st my o (VMM - virtual machine
monitor) hay hypervisor m phn b ti nguyn phn cng mt cch ng v
minh bch. Nhiu h iu hnh chy ng thi trn mt my tnh vt l v chia s

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ti nguyn phn cng vi nhau. Bng cch ng gi ton b mt my, bao gm


CPU, b nh, h iu hnh v thit b mng, mt my o hon ton thng thch
vi tt c cc h iu hnh, ng dng v trnh iu khin ca thit b chun x86.
Bn c th chy mt cch an ton, nhiu h iu hnh v ng dng trong cng mt
thi im trn mt my tnh, vi mi h iu hnh v ng dng truy cp vo ti
nguyn khi chng cn. o ha mt my tnh vt l ch l bt u. Ta c th xy
dng c mt h tng o, quy m thng qua hng trm kt ni gia cc my tnh vt
l v thit b lu tr vi nn tng o ha c s dng nh mt nn tng xy
dng private v public cloud. Khng cn cn phi phn pht my ch, lu tr hay
bng thng mng vnh vin cho mi ng dng. Thay vo , ti nguyn phn cng
ca bn c cp ng bt c lc no v bt c ni u cn chng trong private
cloud. ng dng u tin nht ca bn lun lun c nhng ti nguyn cn thit m
khng cn lng ph tin bc vo nng cp phn cng qu mc m ch s dng vo
mt vi thi im. Kt ni private cloud ny vo public cloud to ra hybrid cloud,
em li cho cng vic tnh linh hot, kh dng v kh nng m rng cn thit
pht trin mnh. Khng ch c o ha nhng th mi quan trng. Cn phi cn
nhng cng c qun l chy nhng my v kh nng chy mt lng ln
nhng ng dng v h tng dch v m cng vic ca bn ph thuc vo. o ha
cho php tng tnh kh dng ca dch v trong khi loi b nhng tc v d b li.
Vn hnh cng ngh thng tin hiu qu hn vi o ha. Nhn vin c th x l
gp i hoc gp ba s my ch, mang li cho ngi dng kh nng truy cp vo
dch c h cn trong khi vn duy tr iu khin tp trung. My o l g? My o l
mt software container c cch ly cht ch m n c th t chy h iu hnh
v ng dng ca mnh ging nh n l mt my vt l. Mt my o c x ging
ht nh mt my tnh vt l v cha nhng thnh phn o ca n (tc l, da trn
phn mm) nh CPU, RAM, a cng v network interface card (NIC). Mt h
iu hnh khng th ch ra c s khc nhau ca mt my o v mt my vt l,
cng khng th vi nhng ng dng hay my tnh khc trong mt mng. Thm ch
mt my o ngh n l mt my tnh tht. Tuy nhin, my o bao gm ton b
phn mm v khng cha bt k mt thnh phn phn cng no. Kt qu l my
o c th a ra mt s li th khc bit so vi my vt l:
Tng thch: Cng ging nh mt my vt l, mt my o cng s hu nhng ng
dng v h iu hnh ring, v c tt c mi thnh phn c th tm thy trong mt
my tnh vt l (motherboard, VGA card, network card controller, v.v...). Kt qu
l my o tng thch hon ton vi mi h iu hnh, ng dng v trnh iu

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khin thit b chun x86, v th c th s dng my chy cng mi ng dng


m c th chy trn mt my vt l x86.
Cch ly: Trong khi my o c th chia s ti nguyn vt l ca mt my tnh n,
chng vn duy tr s cch ly hon ton vi cc my khc nh l mt my vt l
ring bit. Nu, v d, c 4 my o trn 1 my ch vt l v 1 trong s my o ny
crash, 3 my cn li vn duy tr hot ng. Cch ly l l do quan trng v sao tnh
kh dng v bo mt ca ng dng chy trong mi trng o vt tri kh xa so
vi ng dng chy trong mi trng truyn thng, h thng khng o ha.
ng gi: My o v bn cht l mt software container m bc li hay ng
gi ton b mt b ti nguyn phn cng o, cng nh mt h iu hnh v ton
b ng dng ca n, vo bn trong mt gi phn mm. ng gi lm cho my o
c tnh di ng n khng ng v d dng qun l. V d, c th di chuyn v sao
chp mt my o t mt ni ny ti mt ni khc ch nh bt k tp tin phn mm
no khc, hay lu mt my o trn bt c mt chun lu tr d liu thng thng
no, t mt th nh USB flash b ti, n mt mng lu tr (SANs- storage area
networks) doanh nghip.
c lp phn cng: My o hon ton c lp vi phn cng vt l nm bn di
chng. V d, c th cu hnh mt my o vi cc thnh phn o (v d, CPU, card
mng, SCSI controller) m hon ton khc bit vi cc thnh phn vt l ang
hin din lp phn cng bn di. My o trn cng mt my ch vt l thm
ch cn c th chy cc loi h iu hnh khc nhau (Windows, Linux, v.v...).
Khi i cng vi c tnh ng gi v tng thch, c lp phn cng em li s t
do di chuyn mt my o t mt my tnh loi x86 ny ti mt my tnh khc
m khng to ra bt k thay i no n trnh iu khin thit b, h iu hnh hay
ng dng. c lp phn cng cng c ngha l c th chy hn hp khng ng
nht cc h iu hnh v ng dng trn mt my tnh vt l.S dng my o nh
vin gch xy dng nn h tng o:
+ My o l vin gch nn mng ca mt gii php ln hn: h tng o. Trong khi
my o ti hin ti nguyn phn cng ca ton b mt my tnh, h tng o ti
hin kt ni ti nguyn phn cng ca ton b mt h tng IT - bao gm cc my
tnh, thit b mng v cc ti nguyn lu tr c chia s.

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+ H thp chi ph vn v vn hnh v ci thin tnh hiu qu v linh hot ca vn


hnh. Tin ti xa hn hp nht my ch v trin khai mt nn tng o ha chun
t ng ha ton b h tng IT. Khch hng khai thc sc mnh ca o ha
qun l tt hn sc cha cng ngh thng tin, cung cp nhng mc dch v tt
hn v hp l ha nhng x l cng ngh thng tin. Chng ta to ra mt iu
khon cho o ha h tng IT - ta gi l h tng o.
+ Mt h tng o cho php chia s ti nguyn vt l ca nhiu my thng qua ton
b h tng. Mt my o cho php chia s ti nguyn ca mt my tnh vt l thng
qua rt nhiu my o cho hiu qu ti a. Ti nguyn c chia s thng qua nhiu
my o v cc ng dng. Cng vic cn mt lc iu khin pha sau nh x t ti
nguyn vt l ng ca h tng ti ng dng - thm ch nhng iu ny cng
cn tin trin v thay i. Tng hp cc server x86 cng vi mng v lu tr vo
mt vng tr ti nguyn IT hp nht m c th s dng bi cc ng dng bt c
u v khi no chng cn. S ti u ha ti nguyn ny dn ti tnh linh hot v
kt qu trong vic h thp chi ph vn v vn hnh tuyt vi hn trong mt t
chc.
Mt h tng o gm c cc thnh phn sau y:
- Lp trn hypervisors khi to y o ha ca mi my tnh x86.
- Cc dch v h tng o nh l qun l ti nguyn hay sao lu hp nht ti u
ha ti nguyn kh dng trong cc my o.
- Cc gii php t ng cung cp cc kh nng c bit ti u ha mt tin
trnh IT c th nh l d on v phc hi s c.
- N tch ri mi trng phn mm vi h tng phn cng bn di v th ta c
th tp hp nhiu my ch, h tng lu tr v mng vo trong mt vng cha ti
nguyn c chia s. Sau cung cp ng nhng ti nguyn ny, mt cch an
ton v tin cy, ti ng dng cn thit. Cch tip cn khai thc ny cho php khch
hng s dng nhng khi xy dng ca cc my ch chun cng nghip tn km
xy dng mt trung tm d liu t ti u ha v cung cp hiu dng, tnh kh
dng, t ng v tnh linh hot cp cao.Mang li ch ca h tng o ti trung tm
d liu: Thu c li ch ca o ha trong quy m sn xut mi trng IT bng
cch xy dng h tng o vi nn tng o ha dn u. H tng o hp nht nhng
ti nguyn ring bit to ra mt nn tng ng c chia s, trong khi cung cp

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tnh kh dng, bo mt v m rng cho ng dng. N h tr cc mi trng h


iu hnh v ng dng c phm vi rng, cng nh l h tng mng v lu tr.
Chng ta thit k gii php thc hin chc nng c lp ca phn cng v h
iu hnh v th ta c mt la chn nn tng rng ri. Gii php ca chng ta cung
cp mt im key tch hp cho phn cng v cc nh cung cp qun l h tng v
khch hng chuyn giao gi tr khc bit m c th p dng mt cc ng nht
thng qua mi mi trng h iu hnh v ng dng.
4.2

Gi tr cua ao hoa

Tn dng nhiu hn ti nguyn ca bn: Hp nht ti nguyn h tng thng


thng v ph v quan nim lc hu mt ng dng ti mt my ch vi s
hp nht my ch.

Gim chi ph trung tm d liu bng cch hn ch h tng vt l v ci thin


my ch ti mc qun tr: Ch vi my ch v phn cng cng ngh thng tin
c lin kt ngha l gim c i hi v khng gian, nng lng v bin
php lm mt. Nhng cng c qun l tt hn cho php ci thin my ch ti
mc qun tr ha v th cng c th gim c i hi v nhn vin.

Tng tnh kh dng ca phn cng v ng dng ci thin tnh lin tc ca


cng vic: Sao lu mt cch an ton v di chuyn ton b mi trng o ha
m khng b gin on dch v. Loi b thi gian cht v phc hi ngay lp tc
nhng bt ng xy ra.

Li ch t vn hnh linh hot: Phn hi vi s thay i ca th trng vi vic


qun l ti nguyn ng, cung cp server nhanh hn v ci thin vic trin khai
my tnh bn v cc ng dng.

Ci thin tnh qun l v bo mt ca desktop: Trin khai, qun l v gim st


mi trng bo mt ca desktop m ngi dng c th truy cp cc b hay c
quyn iu khin, c hay khng c kt ni mng, trn hu ht bt c chun
desktop, laptop hay tablet PC no.

My o c th c s dng hp nht khi lng cng vic ca rt nhiu


my ch hot ng khng ht cng sut n ch mt vi my, c th l mt
my n (hp nht server). Li ch (qua kinh nghim hay thc t, nhng
thng c trch dn bi nh sn xut) l tit kim trn phn cng, chi ph
ca mi trng, qun l v qun tr ca h tng my ch.

Nhu cu s dng cc ng dng c c phc v tt bi my o. Mt ng dng


c c th n gin l khng chy c trn phn cng v/hoc h iu hnh
mi hn. Thm ch k c khi n c th chy, n c th lm my ch chy
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khng ht cng sut, v th nh trn, n c ngha cng c rt nhiu ng dng.


iu ny c th rt kh nu khng c o ha chng hn nh l ng dng
thng khng c vit cng tn ti trong mt mi trng thc thi n.
-

My o c th c s dng cung cp s bo mt, nhng sandboxies


c cch ly chy nhng ng dng khng c tin tng. Bn thm ch cn
c th to ra mt mi tng thc thi ng nh l bn ti xung th g t
Internet v chy n. Bn c th ngh n vic to ra nhng s , chng hn
chng bao hm a ch en. o ha l mt khi nim quan trng trong xy
dng nn tng bo mt my tnh.

My o c th c s dng to ra h iu hnh, hay mi trng thc thi


vi ti nguyn gii hn, mang li mt lch trnh ng, bo m ti nguyn.

My o c th cung cp nh o ca phn cng, hay cu hnh phn cng m bn


khng c (chng hn nh thit b SCSI, a x l,...). o ha cng c th c
s dng m phng mng hay cc my tnh c lp.

My o c th c s dng chy nhiu h iu hnh cng mt lc: cc


phin bn khc nhau hay thm ch cc h iu hnh khc nhau, m c th l d
phng nng. Mt s h thng v d c th kh hoc khng th chy c
trn cc phn cng tht mi hn.

My o cho php c ch sa li mnh m v gim st hiu nng. Bn c th


t vo mt s cng c v d nh l virtual machine monitor (VMM). H iu
hnh c th sa li m khng lm mt mt hiu sut, hay thit lp nhng kch
bn sa li phc tp hn.

My o c th cch ly vi nhng g n chy, v th n c th ngn chn thiu


st v li. Bn c th ch ng t li vo phn mm nghin cu cch x l
tun t ca n.

My o lm cho phn mm di chuyn d dng hn, v th nhng ng dng tr


gip v h thng c tnh di ng.

Bn c th i x vi ng dng ng b nh l nhng dng c bng cch


ng gi v chy tng ng dng trong my o.

My o l cng c tuyt vi th nghim l thuyt. T khi chng cung cp s


cch ly, chng c th lm vic an ton hn. Chng ng gi ton b trng thi
ca h thng ang chy: bn c th lu trng thi, kho st n, sa i n, np
li n v v.v... Trng thi cng cng cung cp mt s tru tng ha ca khi
lng cng vic ang chy.

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o ha c th khi to h iu hnh c sn chy trn nhng b nh a x l


c chia s.

My o c th c s dng to ra cc kch bn test ty , v c th dn n


vi tng rt sng to, cht lng, hiu qu.

o ha c th c s dng b sung nhng tnh nng mi trong h iu


hnh sn c m khng phi lm vic qu nhiu.

o ha c th to ra cc tc v nh l di chuyn h thng, sao lu v phc hi


d dng hn v c th qun l hn.

o ha c th l mt phng tin hiu qu cung cp tng thch nh phn.

4.3

Xu hng ng dng cng ngh ao hin nay.

4.3.1 o hoa phn cng:


o ha phn cng hay o ha nn tng hng ti vic to ra mt my o c th
hot ng nh mt my tnh thc vi mt h iu hnh. Phn mm thc thi trn
nhng my ny tch bit vi ti nguyn phn cng bn di. V d, mt my tnh
ang chy Microsoft Windows c th cha mt my o trng nh mt my thc
vi h iu hnh Ubuntu Linux. V sau, cc phn mm c s Ubuntu c th chy
trn cc my o .Trong o ha phn cng, thut ng host machine nhc n mt
c my tht m trn o ha ang din ra. Thut ng guest machine, tuy nhin,
nhc n mt my o. Cng ging nh vy, tr danh t thm vo host v guest
c dng gip nhn ra phn mm chy trn my tnh thc vi mt phn mm
chy trn my o. Phn mm hay firmware m to ra my o trn phn cng
my ch c gi l hypervisors hay Virtual Machine Monitor
Cc loi khc nhau ca o ha phn cng bao gm:
a. o ha ton phn (Full virtualization): S m phng gn nh hon ton ca phn
cng thc cho php phn mm, l thnh phn c trng ca mt guest OS, chy
m khng c thay i.
Trong khoa hc my tnh, o ha ton phn l mt k thut o ha thng cung
cp mt loi mi trng my o no , c th l, mt trong s l mt s m
phng hon ton ca phn cng bn di. o ha ton phn yu cu mi tnh
nng ni bt ca phn cng phi c phn x vo mt trong nhiu my o - bao
gm mt b cu lnh y , vn hnh nhp/xut, ngt, truy cp b nh v bt c
phn t no khc m c s dng bi phn mm chy trn my trn, v l
mc ch chy my o. Trong mt mi trng nh vy, bt c phn mm no
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v, trong trng hp c bit, bt c h iu hnh no c kh nng thc thi trn


phn cng th u c th chy trn my o. Bi kim tra r rng ca o ha l d
mt h iu hnh c mc ch cho mt s dng c lp th c th chy thnh cng
bn trong mt my o hay khng. Mt dng khc l o ha nn tng ch cho php
phn mm c th hoc c thay i chy trong mt my o. Khi nim o ha
ton phn c thit lp tt trong cc ti liu, nhng khng phi lun lun gi
bng thut ng c trng ny; ta thy o ha nn tng cng l mt thut ng.Mt
v d quan trng ca o ha ton phn c cung cp bi chng trnh iu khin
ca h iu hnh CP/CMS ca IBM. N c chng minh ln u tin vi h
thng nghin cu CP-40 ca IBM vo nm 1967, sau c phn phi thng
qua m ngun m ca CP/CMS t 1967-1972, v c ti thc hin trong VM
family ca IBM t 1972 ti nay. Mi ngi dng CP/CMS c cung cp mt
my tnh c lp, c m phng. Mi mt my o ny hon ton c kh nng ca
my bn di, v (cho nhng ngi dng ca n) my o khng th phn bit t
mt h thng ring. M phng ny c th ton din, v da trn sch hng dn
Principles of Operation cho phn cng. N v th bao gm nhng phn t nh b
cu lnh, b nh chnh, ngt, ngoi l v truy cp thit b. Kt qu l mt my n
c th ghp nhiu ngi s dng. o ha ton phn ch c th mang n nhng
phn t kt ni ng ca phn cng v phn mm. V d, n khng c kh nng
vi hu ht serie System/360 ca IBM ngoi tr IBM System/360-67; cng nh
khng c kh nng vi h thng System/370 trc y ca IBM n khi IBM b
sung b nh phn cng o vo series System/370 vo nm 1972. Tng t, o ha
ton phn cng khng c kh nng vi nn tng x86 cho n 2005-2006 vi s m
rng ca AMD-V v Intel VT-x (xem o ha x86). Nhiu nn tng my o cho nn
tng x86 tr nn rt ng v yu sch o ha ton phn thm ch trc khi c
thm AMD-v v Intel VT-x. V d bao gm Adeos, Mac-on-Linux, Parallels
Desktop for Mac, Parallels Workstation, VMware Workstation, VMware Server
(trc y l GSX Server), Virtual Box, Win4BSD, v Win4Lin Pro. VMware, v
d, mn mt k thut gi l binary translation t ng thay i phn mm x86
ang chy thay th cu lnh c l my o bng mt lnh khc, my o lu
li th t cc cu lnh, k thut ny cung cp hnh thc ca o ha ton phn. Th
thch chnh ca o ha ton phn l s ngn chn v m phng ca nhng vn
hnh c quyn, nh l nhng cu lnh nhp/xut. Hiu ng ca mi vn hnh
thc hin trong my o c mang ti phi c gi trong my o - vn hnh
o khng th c php thay i trng thi ca bt k my o, chng trnh iu
khin hay phn cng no. Vi cu lnh my c th c thc thi trc tip bi phn

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cng, t khi ton b hiu ng ca chng c cha trong nhng phn t c


qun l bi chng trnh iu khin, nh l vng nh hay thanh ghi s hc. Nhng
cc cu lnh khc m c l my o khng th c php thc thi trc tip;
chng phi thay th c by v m phng. Nhng cu lnh nh th ny truy cp
hoc nh hng n trng thi ca thng tin bn ngoi my o. o ha ton phn
chng minh s thnh cng cho:

Chia s mt h thng my tnh cho nhiu ngi dng.


Cch ly ngi dng vi nhng ngi dng khc (v vi chng trnh iu
khin).
M phng phn cng mi t c s ci thin tin cy, bo mt v
hiu sut.

b. o ha cc b (Partial virtualization): Mt vi nhng khng phi tt c mi trng


mc tiu c m phng. Mt vi chng trnh guest, thnh ra, c th cn s thay
i chy trong mi trng o ny.
Trong o ha cc b, bao gm o ha khng gian a ch, my o m phng rt
nhiu i tng ca mi trng phn cng bn di, c bit l khng gian a
ch. Thng thng, iu ny c ngha l ton b h iu hnh khng th chy
trong my o - c du hiu o ha ton b - nhng nhiu chng trnh c th chy.
Dng chnh ca o ha cc b l o ha khng gian a ch, trong mi my o
gm c mt khng gian a ch c lp. Kh nng ny i hi phn cng ti nh
v a ch, v hin din trong hu ht cc v d thc t ca o ha cc b. o ha
cc b c mt mc lch s quan trng trn con ng ti o ha ton phn. N
c dng trong h thng chia s thi gian CTSS th h u tin, trong h thng
trang th nghim IBM M44/44X, v ngi ta c th cho rng h thng nh MVS
v Commodore 64 (cp chng trnh chuyn tc v). Thut ng ny cng c
s dng miu t bt k h iu hnh no cung cp nhng khng gian a ch
khc bit cho tng ngi dng hay chng trnh ring l, bao gm nhiu th m
ngy nay khng cn c xem xt trn cc h thng my o. Th nghim vi o
ha cc b, v gii hn ca n, dn n s to ra h thng o ha ton phn u
tin (CP-40 ca IBM, php lp u tin ca CP/CMS, m cui cng tr thnh VM
family ca IBM). (Nhiu hn nhng h thng gn y, nh Microsoft Windows v
Linux, cng nh l nhng mc cn li bn di, cng s dng hng tip cn c
bn ny. o ha cc b thc hin d dng hn ng k so vi o ha ton phn.
N cung cp nhng my o hu ch, mnh m, kh nng h tr nhng ng dng

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quan trng. o ha cc b chng t s thnh cng ln trong chia s ti nguyn


my tnh cho nhiu ngi dng. Tuy nhin, khi so snh vi o ha ton phn, hn
ch ca n l trong nhng tnh hung yu cu tng thch ngc hay tnh di ng.
C th kh khn nu mun d on chnh xc tnh nng no c s dng bi mt
ng dng c mang ti. Nu nhng tnh nng phn cng c th khng c m
phng, th bt k phn mm no s dng nhng tnh nng ny u s li.
c. o ha song song (Paravirtualization): Mi trng phn cng khng c m
phng; tuy nhin, chng trnh guest c thc thi trn min cch ly ca chng,
ging nh chng ang chy trn mt h thng khc bit. Chng trnh guest cn
s thay i mt cch c bit chy trong mi trng ny.
Trong in ton, o ha song song l k thut o ha trnh by mt giao din phn
mm ti my o m tng t nhng khng ng nht vi phn cng bn di.
Mc ch ca giao din thay i l gim t l thi gian c dng thc hin vn
hnh nhng thc thi ca guest m v bn cht kh chy hn trong mi trng o
ha nu so snh vi mi trng khng o ha. o ha song song cung cp nhng
mc ni c bit xc nh cho php guest v host yu cu v bo nhn nhng tc
v ny, m mt khc s thc thi trong domain o (ni hiu nng thc thi t hn).
Mt nn tng o ha song song thnh cng c th cho php gim st my o
(VMM) n gin hn (bng cch ti nh v s thc thi ca nhng tc v quan
trng t domain o n domain host) v/hoc gim s suy gim hiu nng tng th
ca nhng thc thi my bn trong virtual-guest.
o ha song song yu cu h iu hnh guest ported mt cch r rng cho API
song song - mt phn phi OS tiu chun khng nhn thc o ha song song khng th chy trn nh ca mt VMM o ha song song. Tuy nhin, thm ch
trong trng hp ni m h iu hnh khng th thay i, cc thnh phn c th
vn kh dng v khi to nhiu li th hiu nng ng k ca o ha song song; v
d d n XenWindowsGplPv cung cp mt b trnh iu khin thit b nhn thc
o ha song song, bn quyn di iu kin ca GPL, c mc ch ci t vo
trong mt virtual guest Microsoft Windows chy trn mt Xen hypervisor. o ha
phn cng-h tr l mt cch ci thin hiu qu ca o ha phn cng. N bao
gm vic mn nhng CPU v thnh phn phn cng c thit k c bit c
th gip ci thin hiu nng ca mi trng guest.o ha phn cng khng c
hiu nhm vi gi lp phn cng: Trong gi lp phn cng, mt phn ca phn
cng m phng cc phn khc, trong khi i vi o ha phn cng, mt
hypervisor (mt phn ca phn mm) m phng mt phn c th ca phn cng
my tnh hay nhn chung l ton b my tnh. Ngoi ra, mt hypervisor khng
c hiu nhm vi mt emulator. Hai th ny c nh ngha tng t nhau: C

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hai u l nhng chng trnh m phng phn cng, nhng min ngn ng s
dng ca chng khc nhau.

4.3.2

o hoa Desktop:

o ha desktop l khi nim phn chia mt desktop logic t mt my vt l.


Mt dng ca o ha desktop, h tng desktop o (VDI - virtual desktop
infrastructure), c th xem nh mt dng tin tin ca o ha phn cng: Thay v
tng tc trc tip vi my host thng qua bn phm, chut v mn hnh c kt
ni vo , ngi dng tng tc vi my host thng qua mt kt ni mng (nh
l mng LAN, Wireless LAN hay thm ch l mng Internet) s dng desktop ca
ngi khc hoc mt thit b di ng. Ngoi ra, my host trong trng hp ny tr
thnh mt my server c kh nng lm my ch ca nhiu my o trong cng mt
thi im cho nhiu ngi dng.Mt dng khc, o ha phin, cho php nhiu
ngi dng kt ni v ng nhp vo mt my tnh mnh v c chia s thng
qua mng v s dng n cng mt lc. Mi ngi s c cung cp mt mn
desktop v mt th mc c nhn trong h c th lu tr tp tin ca mnh. Thin
clients, c nhn nhn trong o ha desktop, l mt my tnh n v/hoc r c
thit k ch yu kt ni vo mng: chng c th thiu ng k khng gian lu
tr a cng, RAM hay thm ch l nng lc x l.
4.3.3 o hoa Phn mm:
o ha OS-level, lu tr ca nhiu mi trng o ha trong l mt mu h iu
hnh n. o ha OS-level l phng thc o ha server, ni m nhn (kernel)
ca h iu hnh cho php nhiu i tng khng gian ngi dng c cch ly,
thay v ch mt. Nhng i tng nh th ny (thng c gi l containers,
VEs, VPSs, hay l jails) c th trng v cm thy ging nh mt server thc, t
quan im ca ngi s hu. Trn h thng Unix, cng ngh ny c th xem nh
l s b sung tin tin ca chun cng c chroot. Ngoi ra cch ly vi b phn
c hc, kernel cung cp tnh nng qun l ti nguyn gii hn s xung t ca
mt hot ng ca mt container ny vi mt container khc.o ha ng dng v
o ha khng gian lm vic, s lu tr ca nhng ng dng ring l trong mt mi
trng tch bit vi h iu hnh bn di. o ha ng dng kt hp cht ch vi
khi nim ng dng di ng (portable applications).o ha ng dng l mt thut
ng bao trm miu t cc cng ngh ci thin tnh di ng, tnh qun l v tnh
tng thch ca ng dng bng cch ng gi chng vi h iu hnh bn di
ni m chng ang thc thi. Mt ng dng o ha y khng c ci t theo
ngha truyn thng, mc d chng vn thc thi nh l chng c . ng dng
nh la thi gian chy tin rng n giao din trc tip vi h iu hnh gc v mi
ti nguyn c qun l bi n, trong khi thc t th khng. Trong ng cnh ny,

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thut ng o ha nhc n s gi ng gi-encapsulated (ng dng), ci m kh


khc bit vi o ha phn cng, nhc n s gi trch xut-abstracted (phn cng
vt l).o ha khng gian lm vic l cch phn phi ng dng n cc my tnh
client s dng o ha ng dng tuy nhin n cng bc rt nhiu ng dng cng
nhau vo trong mt khng gian hon chnh. N l s tip cn m ng gi v cch
ly l ton b mt workspace ca my tnh. mc ti thiu, workspace bao gm
mi th trn li h iu hnh - ng dng, d liu, thit lp v bt k h iu
hnh con khng u tin no i hi cung cp mt mi trng chc nng my tnh
desktop. Bng cch ny, cc ng dng trong workspace c th tng tc vi cc
ng dng khc, khi to chng lm mt vi th l thi quen ca ngi s dng
v nhng th thiu trong o ha ng dng chng hn nh l nhng mt bng tnh
Microsoft Excel vo vn bn Microsoft Word. Ngoi ra, workspace cha nhng
thit lp ng dng v khi to d liu ngi dng ngi dng chuyn qua mt
h iu hnh khc hay qua mt my tnh khc m vn bo qun c ng dng,
thit lp v d liu trong mt n v lm vic hon chnh. Su hn v o ha
khng gian lm vic, engine o ha thi hnh nhng module code c quyn v
ton b h iu hnh con thng qua kernel-mode Workspace Virtualization Engine
(WVE).
4.3.4 o hoa b nh:
o ha b nh, tp hp ti nguyn RAM t h thng mng vo trong mt vng
cha b nh n. Trong in ton, o ha b nh tch bit ti nguyn RAM kh
bin vi h thng ring trong datacenter, v sau tp hp nhng ti nguyn
vo trong mt vng cha b nh o sn sng cho bt c my tnh no trong nhm.
Vng cha b nh c truy cp bi h iu hnh hay nhng ng dng chy trn
nh h iu hnh. Vic phn b vng cha b nh c th c cng dng nh l mt
b nh cache tc cao, mt lp thng bo, hay mt ti nguyn b nh ln, c
chia s cho mt ng dng CPU hoc GPU.B nh o, mang n mt chng trnh
ng dng gy n tng rng n c mt b nh lm vic lin k, cch ly n vi b
nh vt l thc thi bn di. Trong in ton, b nh o l mt k thut qun l b
nh pht trin cho cc nhn a tc v (multitasking kernels). K thut ny o ha
mt lu tr d liu my tnh (nh l RAM v a cng) vi v s dng kin trc
my tnh, cho php mt chng trnh dng nh l c thit k ch c mt loi
b nh, b nh o, c x ging nh trc tip kh lp a ch c/ghi b nh.
4.3.5 o hoa lu tr:
o ha lu tr l s tng hp ca nhng lu tr vt l t cc thit b lu tr trn
nhiu mng vo mt th m xut hin nh mt thit b lu tr n c qun l t
mt giao din iu khin trung tm. o ha lu tr thng c s dng trong

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Storage Area Network (SANs).o ha lu tr, qu trnh trch xut ton b ca lu


tr logic t lu tr vt l. o ha lu tr l mt khi nim v thut ng c dng
trong in ton. Tiu biu, h thng lu tr c th s dng khi nim o ha nh
mt cng c khi to cc chc nng tt hn v cc tnh nng tin tin hn trong
h thng lu tr. Ni rng ra, mt h thng lu tr c bit n nh mt mng
lu tr hay a lu tr hay mt filer. H thng lu tr in hnh s dng nhng
phn cng v phn mm c bit vi a trong yu cu cung cp lu tr cho my
tnh v x l d liu rt nhanh v ng tin cy. H thng lu tr l rc ri, v c
th c xem nh l mt my tnh c mc ch c bit c thit k cung cp
kh nng lu tr vi cc tnh nng bo v d liu tin tin. a ch l mt yu t
trong h thng lu tr, cng vi phn cng v phn mm nhng c mc ch c
bit trong h thng. H thng phn b tp tin, trong my tnh, mt h thng phn
b tp tin hay h thng mng tp tin l bt c h thng tp tin no cho php truy
cp ti tp tin t nhiu host chia s thng qua mng my tnh. iu ny to ra kh
nng cho nhiu ngi dng trn nhiu my chia s tp tin v ti nguyn lu tr.
Mt nt client khng c truy cp trc tip vo khi lu tr nm bn di nhng
c tng tc thng qua mng s dng mt giao thc. iu ny to ra kh nng
hn ch truy cp ti tp tin h thng ph thuc vo danh sch truy cp hay sc
cha trn c cc my ch v my trm, ph thuc vo giao thc c thit k nh
th no. Ngc li, trong mt h thng tp tin a chia s, mi nt c quyn truy
cp ngang nhau ti vng nh ni tp tin h thng c nh du. Trn h thng
ny, iu khin truy cp phi lu tr trn my trm. H thng phn b tp tin c
th bao gm nhng phng tin ti to r rng v kh nng chu li. Tc l, khi
mt s nt gii hn trong h thng offline, h thng vn tip tc lm vic m
khng c bt c mt mt mt d liu no. S khc nhau gia mt h thng phn
b tp tin v mt lu tr phn b d liu kh m h, nhng DFSes thng khp
vi s dng trn LAN. Storage hypervisor, trong my tnh, mt storage hypervisor
l mt chng trnh phn mm di ng chy trn mt nn tng phn cng vt l,
trn mt my o hay l trn c hai. N c th cng c tr vi gim st my o
(virtual machine supervisors) hay c iu khin dnh ring ca nn tng ca n.
S di ng t nhin ca phn mm storage hypervisor nhc n tnh linh hot ca
n chy trn my o hoc c lu tr trn nhiu nn tng khc nhau trong mt
phn cng c lp cch thc tng t nh virtual server hypervisors. Mt storage
hypervisor, mt chng trnh phn mm gim st qun l mt cch trung tm,
cung cp mt b ton din ca iu khin lu tr v chc nng gim st m vn
hnh nh mt lp o trong sut thng qua mt vng cha a hp nht ci thin
tnh kh dng, tc v hiu dng ca chng. Storage hypervisor gia tng mt t
hp gi tr ca nhiu h thng a lu tr, bao gm nhng mu khc nhau v
khng tng thch, bng cch cung cp kh nng ring bit ca chng vi d liu
m rng, bo v d liu, ti to v gia tng hiu nng dch v. Ngc li, phn
mm nhng hay firmware iu khin a gii hn ti h thng gi lu tr hay ng

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dng, storage hypervisor v chc nng ca n ko di nhng mu v nhn khc


nhau v cc loi lu tr [bao gm SSD (solid state disks), SAN (storage area
network) v DAS (direct attached storage) v Unified Storage (SAN v NAS)] bao
ph mt khong gi tr, c im hiu sut hay tng rng. Nhng thit b bn di
khng cn tch hp r rng vi mi thit b khc cng nh khng b buc vi
nhau. Mt storage hypervisor khi to phn cng hon i. Phn cng lu tr nm
di mt lp storage hypervisor vn ch nm trong cng mt cch vi s quan
tm n hiu nng v sc cha. Trong khi cc tnh nng bn di c th qua
c hypervisor, li ch ca mt storage hypervisor n di kh nng trnh din
ng nht thit b o v dch v t nhng phn cng khng ging nhau v khng
tng thch ca n, v th lm cho cc thit b ny c th hon i. S lin tc
hon i v thay th ca lu tr vt l bn di c th din ra, m khng thay i
hay gin on mi trng lu tr o ang c trnh din. Storage hypervisor
qun l, o ha v iu kin mi ti nguyn lu tr, cp pht v cung cp nhng
thuc tnh cn thit (hiu nng, tnh kh dng) v dch v (d liu, sao chp, ti
to t ng) hoc trc tip hoc qua mng lu tr, cng nh yu cu phc v nhu
cu ca mi mi trng ring bit.Thut ng hypervisor trong storage
hypervisor c ti tn bi v n trn mc gim st (supervisor), n c quan
nim l mc cao hn mt supervisor v v th hot ng nh mt mc tip theo
cao hn ca qun l v thng tin m trn v ko di iu khin ca n qua b
iu khin mc thit b lu tr, mng a v o ha phn trung gian.Mt storage
hypervisor cng c th nh ngha nh mt cp cao hn ca phn mm o ha lu
tr, cung cp mt b ton din ca iu khin lu tr chc nng gim st vn
hnh nh mt lp o trong sut thng qua vng cha a hp nht ci thin tnh
kh dng, tc v hiu dng ca chng. Thut ng ny cng c nhc ti
dng trong trng hp bao gm s cp ca n ti vai tr ca n vi o ha lu
tr trong phc hi s c v, trong mt trng hp gii hn hn, c nh ngha
nh l mt kh nng di chuyn dung lng thng qua SANs.
4.3.6 o hoa d liu:
o ha d liu, s trnh din ca d liu nh l mt lp c trch xut, c lp
vi h thng, cu trc v lu tr c s d liu bn di. o ha d liu l qu
trnh trch xut, bin i, lin kt v gi d liu c cha trong v s ngun
thng tin v th chng c th c truy cp bi ng dng chi phi hay ngi dng
khi c yu cu m khng quan tm n lu tr vt l hay cu trc phc tp ca
chng.Khi nim v phn mm ny thng c s dng trong cc dch v d
liu: tch hp d liu, tin tc cng vic, kin trc nh hng dch v; in ton
m my, tm kim doanh nghip, qun l d liu chnh v qun l d liu chnh
o.o ha c s d liu, s tch bit vi lp c s d liu nm gia lp lu tr v
ng dng trong hng i ng dng. o ha ti lp c s d liu cho php ti

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nguyn phn cng m rng cho php chia s ti nguyn tt hn gia ng dng
v ngi dng, mt n ca v tr vt l v cu hnh ca c s d liu t chng
trnh truy vn, cng nh khi to in ton quy m rng hn.
4.3.7 o hoa mang:
o ha mng, sn phm ca o ha khng gian a ch mng trong hoc thng qua
mng con. Trong my tnh, o ha mng l qu trnh kt ni ti nguyn phn cng
v phn mm mng chc nng mng vo trong mt thc th n, qun tr da trn
phn mm, mt mng o. o ha mng bao hm o ha nn tng, thng kt ni
vi o ha ti nguyn.o ha mng c phn loi thnh external, kt ni nhiu
mng, hay nhiu phn ca cc mng, vo trong mt n v o ha, hoc l
internal, cung cp chc nng ging nh mng n nhng software container trn
mt h thng n. D l internal hay external u ph thuc vo s b sung cung
cp bi nh sn xut h tr cng ngh ny.o ha mng: l phng thc kt ni
cc ti nguyn sn c trong mng bng cch chia bng thng sn c ca mng
thnh cc knh, m trong mi knh ny c lp vi cc knh khc, v mi
knh ny c th c phn pht (hay phn pht li) ti mt server c th hay thit
b trong thi gian thc. tng l s o ha bin i s phc tp ca mng
bng cch tch n thnh tng phn c th qun l, cng ging nh phn vng a
cng th d qun l file hn.
4.3.8 o hoa Server:
o ha server l mt n ca nhng ti nguyn server, bao gm s lng v tnh
ng nht ca nhng server vt l ring bit, b x l v h iu hnh t ngi
dng server. Ngi qun tr server s dng phn mm ng dng chia mt
server vt l vo trong nhiu mi trng o c cch ly. Nhng mi trng o
ny i khi c gi l my ch ring o (VPS-virtual private servers) nhng
chng cng c bit n nh l khch, v d, containers hay emulations.C 3
hng tip cn o ha server ph bin: kiu my o, kiu my o song song v o
ha OS-level. My o da trn m hnh host/guest. Mi guest chy trn mt m
phng o ca lp phn cng. Hng tip cn ny cho php h iu hnh guest
chy m khng thay i. N cng cho php qun tr vin to ra cc guest s dng
nhng h iu hnh khc nhau. Guest khng c hiu bit v h iu hnh host bi
v n khng nhn thc c rng n khng chy trn mt phn cng thc. Tuy
nhin, n yu cu ti nguyn my tnh thc t host - v th n s dng mt
hypervisor phi hp cu lnh n CPU. Hypervisor gi l mt gim st my o
(VMM -virtual machine monitor). N hp thc ha mi vn cu lnh CPU ca
guest v qun l bt k code thc hin no yu cu b sung c quyn. C
VMware v Microsoft Virtual Server u s dng kiu my o. Kiu my o song

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song (PVM - Paravirtual machine) cng da trn m hnh host/guest - v n cng


s dng mt gim st my o. Tuy nhin, trong kiu my o song song, VMM
thc s thay i code h iu hnh guest. Nhng thay i ny gi l porting.
Porting h tr VMM v th n c th s dng mt h thng c quyn gi l
sparingly. Ging nh kiu my o, kiu my o song song c kh nng chy nhiu
h iu hnh. C Xen v UML u s dng kiu my o song song. o ha OSlevel lm vic c khc mt cht. N khng da trn m hnh host/guest. Trong
kiu OS-level, host chy mt kernel h iu hnh n nh l nhn ca n v xut
nhng tnh nng ca h iu hnh ti mi guest. Guest phi s dng cng mt h
iu hnh nh host, mc d nhng phin bn khc cng mt h thng c chp
nhn. Kin trc phn b ny loi tr h thng gi gia cc lp, m hn ch ph tn
s dng CPU. N cng yu cu mi phn vng cn li cch ly nghim ngt vi
hng xm ca n mt li hay l hng bo mt trong mt phn vng khng th
nh hng n bt k phn vng no khc. Trong kiu ny, h nh phn v th
vin chung trn my vt l ging nhau c th c chia s, cho php mt server o
ha cp h iu hnh c th lu tr hng ngn guest cng mt thi im. C
Virtuozzo v Solaris Zones u s dng o ha cp h iu hnh.o ha server c
th xem nh mt phn trong xu hng o ha trong doanh nghip IT bao gm: o
ha lu tr, o ha mng, v qun l khi lng cng vic. Xu hng ny l mt
thnh phn trong vic pht trin in ton t ng, m mi trng server c kh
nng t qun l da trn hot ng nhn thc. o ha server c th s dng
loi b s bnh trng server, to ra s s dng ti nguyn hiu qu hn, ci thin
tnh kh dng ca server, gip phc hi s c, kim tra v pht trin, v tp trung
ha vic qun tr server.
5

BO MT TRONG O HA
5.1

Nhng iu ng lo ngai t s ao hoa

Khi c hi v vic doanh nghip ca bn cm thy lo ngi nh th no v vn


bo mt trong cc mi trng o ha, cc cu tr li c a ra nh sau:

* Rt lo ngi hoc cc k lo ngi: 32.7%


* Hi lo ngi: 36%
* t lo ngi: 23.7%
* Khng h lo ngi: 7.6%
Ngun: Cuc iu tra ca TheInfoPro vi 214 chuyn gia bo
mt, thng 11/2010.

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Chanani v cc ng s ca ng hin ang c khong 200 my ch o, hot ng


di dng ti liu, in n, hoc trong mt s trng hp l cc my ch ng dng.
Tuy nhin, v l do bo mt, ng khng s dng o ha cho h thng ERP, c s
d liu hoc th in t cho cng ty ng.
Michael Israel, CIO ca Six Flags Inc. li th hin mi quan ngi kha cnh
khc. Theo ng, vin cnh ng lo ngi nht chnh l vic cc nh qun tr lu c
chuyn cc my ch o t phn c bo mt sang cc phn khng c bo mt
ca my ch thng thng, hoc to ra cc my ch o mi m khng c cp
php v tch hp. ng cho bit iu cui cng ti mong mun tm ra l 25 my
ch bn ngoi m ti khng bit l chng hin ang tn ti.
John Kindervag, chuyn gia phn tch ca Forrester Research Inc. cho bit, ng
c nghe mt s cu chuyn t cc khch hng c phn mm qun l vCenter
ca VMware b xm nhp, t , nhng k tn cng c th sao chp mt my o
v s dng my o ny xm nhp d liu. ng cho hay, Khi bn nh cp
mt phn mm VM, bn c th xm nhp vo trung tm d liu v nh cp c
mt phn ca thit b phn cng. y thc s s tr thnh mt thm ha.
Venu Aravamudan, gim c tip th sn phm ca Vmware Inc. cho bit: Chng
ti tin hnh nghin cu cng vi khch hng trong nhiu nm gii quyt
vn ny. Theo ng, hu ht ngi d dng xc nh nhng ri ro dng ny nh
vo vic tun th nhng chun mc thc hnh tt nht, v d nh nh vo vic to
ra mt phn mng li tch bit qun l ngun lc v iu khin vic trup nhp
da vo chc v.
Vic tch hp vo cc my ch o gip doanh nghip tit kim c rt nhiu chi
ph nh vo tnh ng nht v tnh hiu qu c ci thin, nhng khi s o ha
tiu tn ngy cng nhiu my ch sn xut th mt vi gim c cng ngh
thng tin li bt u cm thy lo lng. Liu c iu g b b qua y hay khng?
Liu mt s xm nhp tri php no c th ph hy cc trnh ng dng quan
trng, hay thm ch l ton b trung tm d liu hay khng?
Kris Lovejoy, ph ch tch chin lc ca IBM Security Solutions v cng l mt
chuyn vin t vn v vn bo mt cho bit: Mt ngy no , cc khch
hng thc dy v nhn ra rng 50% trong s cc trnh ng dng kinh doanh quan
trng ca mnh ang nm trn c s h tng o v bn khon t hi: iu ny
c an ton hay khng?. y l mt thc trng kh ph bin".
Vn khng phi nm ch rt kh bo v c s h tng o m l ch rt
nhiu cng ty vn khng th thch ng c vi nhng chun mc thc hnh tt

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nht (trong trng hp h c cc chun mc thc hnh ny) trong cc mi


trng mi.
5.2

Nhng vn tn tai

S o ha i hi cn c cc cng ngh - bao gm cc dng phn mm mi v s


kim sot. Ngoi ra cn c cc nhn t mi nh s chuyn i o nhm gip cc
lu lng trn mng gia cc my ch o s lu thng theo cc cch c th c
theo di bi cc cng c c thit k theo di lu lng trn cc mng thng
thng.
Hn na, s o ha cng gip ph v nhng s phn quyn truyn thng trong
ngnh cng ngh thng tin thng qua vic cho php cc qun tr vin ring r c
th cho chy cc my ch o ha ch nh mt nt n m khng cn phi c s
chp thun t b phn mua hng hay qun l u vo, kho lu gi, cc nhm duy
tr cng vic kinh doanh hay nhm bo mt cng ngh thng tin.
Trong khi , theo Lovejoy, cc cng ngh bo mt da vo o ha v cc chun
mc thc hnh tt nht th vn ang c pht trin. Th trng cc cng ngh ny
pht trin rng ri n mc khch hng khng th theo kp vi cc chun mc
thc hnh. Vn cn thiu kh nhiu hiu bit v k nng trong lnh vc ny.
Bill Trussell, gim c qun l nghin cu bo mt ca TheInfoPro, mt hng
nghin cu th trng cng ngh thng tin New York cho bit, cc cu hi v
vn bo mt trong mi trng o c tp trung xung quanh vic thiu kh
nng nhn bit, thiu s kim sot v nhng lo ngi v cc vn cn tim n.
Mt gim c cng ngh thng tin khc li t ra lo ngi v vic liu c th c k
no tn cng c s h tng o ca cng vic kinh doanh v s dng c s h
tng ny xm nhp tt c cc my ch o nm trn ? Hay liu mt k tn
cng c th xm nhp mt my ch o v s dng my ch ny nh mt nn tng
tn cng my ch o khc, v d nh cc trnh ng dng thc hin thanh ton
nm trong cng mt phn cng, m khng mt qun tr vin no pht hin ra
khng?
ng Eric Baize, gim c bo mt c s tng ca RSA cho rng, lo ngi v cc
vin cnh ng s nh trn vn ko di dai dng mc d trn thc t, vn cha c
mt v tn cng c s h tng o ha no c xc nhn.
Khi TheInfoPro tin hnh nghin cu i vi 214 chuyn gia bo mt hi u nm
nay, h pht hin ra rng 1/3 trong s cc chuyn gia cm thy rt lo ngi hoc
cc k lo ngi v vn bo mt trong mt mi trng o ha.

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Nhng lo ngi v mt v tn cng ny sinh sau khi xut hin phn mm gi Blue
Pill ca Joanna Rutkowska ti hi ngh Black Hat nm 2006. Tuy nhin, k t khi
, ngnh cng ngh thng tin pht trin cng vi s xut hin ca cc cng
ngh phn cng m bo s tch hp ca cc c s h tng, v d nh cng
ngh o ha Virtualization Technology ca Intel cho Directed I/O (thng c
bit n di tn gi VT-d). Rutkowska, nh sng lp v gim c iu hnh ca
Invisible Things Lab, mt hng nghin cu bo mt cng ngh thng tin cho
rng Ngy nay, hu cc cc b x l Core i5 v i7 ca Intel u c cc cng
ngh ny v cc nh cung cp phn mm o ha chuyn sang h tr nhng
tnh nng ny.
Rutkowska cng t cm thy nghi ng v vic liu s c ngi thc s s dng
cc rookit dng Blue Pill xm nhp cc my ch o. B cho rng: Nhng k
tn cng khng tht s c mc tiu s dng cc rookits tinh vi ny, c bit l v
cc cng ngh rootkit ni ting t nhng nm 90 vn hot ng kh tt trong vic
tn cng cc h iu hnh truyn thng.
Trussell cho bit: Mi ngi ang lo ngi v nhng vin cnh mang tnh l
thuyt hn l nhng vin cnh c thc s coi l cc vn cn tn ti.
Nhng s o ha cng mang theo nhng ri ro nu nh c s h tng o khng
tun th v tng thch vi cc chun mc thc hnh tt nht. Cc nh t vn v
vn bo mt cho bit hc va pht hin ra mt lot vn bo mt trn cc
trang web ca khch hng. Lovejoy ang nhn thy s tn ti cc phn mm gi
mo cc vn c lin quan gia cc trang web ny sinh do vic to dng khng
c hiu qu cc my o. B cho bit: Nhn chung, nhng my o ny s
cha phn mm gi mo hoc cha nhng li c th d dng b pht hin. iu
ny tng xy ra mt ln. gi y, cc my o ang c s dng trn lan v
to ra kh nhiu rc ri cho ngi s dng.
Mul ca RSA cho bit thm: Chng ti ang nhn thy c rt nhiu vn
cha c lm r. ng cho bit ng thng xuyn nhn thy cc chun mc
qun l lng lo i vi my o, cng nh tn ngi s dng v mt khu c th
d dng suy on trong cc chng trnh qun l cho php truy nhp hon ton
vo c s h tng. Thm vo , chng ti cng i khi nhn ra cc cng c
qun l thit b o nm sai v tr ca bc tng la.
S dng mt khu mc nh khi to mi cc my ch o l iu rt ph bin,
Harold Moss, CTO chin lc bo mt m my ca IBM Security Solutions cho
bit, v nhng ngi chu trch nhim qun tr cc my mi khng thng xuyn

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thay i cc mt khu . Nhng k xm nhp c th truy cp vomt my, on


mt khu v c c ton b quyn kim sot.
Bn cnh , v cc hnh nh thit b o l cc d liu, cc m chng trnh c
lu gi trong a cng. Nhng chng trnh ny phi c bo v. Vauda
Jordan, chuyn gia bo mt ca chnh quyn thnh ph Phoenix cho bit: Bn
khng mun c ai s kim sot c ton b my ch ch bng mt chic
USB.B cho rng thnh ph ang s dng kt hp cc chng trnh bo mt
thng thng, kim sot truy nhp kho lu gi mng, theo di tch hp ti liu
bo v cc thit b o.
5.3

Lam gi bao v tt hn mi trng my chu ao

Cng ngh o ha ngy cng c ng dng rng ri trong mi trng CNTT


trong doanh nghip. N em li nhiu hiu qu cho doanh nghip, bn cnh
vic qun l, sao lu d liu da vo phng php tip cn truyn thng c th
gp rt nhiu phc tp v tn thi gian. Bng vic p dng cng ngh bo v d
liu da trn hnh nh, cc qun tr vin c th to ra mt h thng n gin trong
mi trng o ha, sp xp hp l, tng tin cy trong vic bo v d liu mt
cch hiu qu v khi phc cc my o.
Khi doanh nghip bt u chuyn h thng mng ca mnh sang mi trng o
ha, cc nhn vin qun tr u tin phi quan tm n n cc vn sau nh:
lm th no lp k hoch v trin khai o ha trn my ch mt cch tt nht,v
cng c c s h tng vt l, gim chi ph. Nhn chung gii quyt cc vn
ny tng i n gin, v nhiu doanh nghip c th t c li ch m h
mong mun.
uy nhin khi doanh nghip bt u ng dng cng ngh o ha trong mi trng
CNTT ca mnh, th cc nhn vin qun tr li gp nhng thch thc l lm sao
iu hnh mi trng mi c hiu qu, v nhng vn ny dng nh khng
d gii quyt. Vic thit lp cc my o s nhanh hn, d dng hn, gim chi
ph nhiu hn v mang li hiu qu cao hn dn c thay th my ch vt l
trong h thng mng trong doanh nghip. Vi cng ngh my o ngy cng pht
trin mnh m v c th dn n s bng n ca my o.
Mt vn trng tm m cc doanh nghip thng quan tm trong vic ng dng
cng ngh o ha l vic bo v d liu sao cho an ton nht. Phng php tip
cn bo v d liu mt cch tt nht l trin khai cc i l sao lu trn my o

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v sau s dng tp tin c sao lu phc hi li hnh nh ca chnh n.


Vi phng php tip cn ny mang li nhiu hiu qu trong vic bo v d
liu trong mi trng o ha, nhng bn cch n cn c mt s hn ch,
khc phc c nhng hn ch ny th cc qun tr vin cn da trn h thng ca
Dell.
-Nhng Thch Thc Trong Vic Sao Lu Theo Cch Tip Cn Truyn Thng
Vic sao lu theo cch truyn thng t mang li hiu qu hn trong mi trng o
ha. Vi cch tip cn theo phng php truyn thng ny, khi thc hin phc hi
li h thng khi gp s c s gp rt nhiu kh khn, mt rt nhiu thi gian.
Ngoi ra vic chia s ti nguyn trong mi trng o ha cng rt phc tp, vic
lp lch cho cng vic sao lu c th khng c linh ng hay trong mt s
trng hp khng thc hin c. Vic sao lu i hi qun tr vin phi xc nh
chnh xc my ch o no dng thc hin trong vic sao luvi nhng th
thch trn cho ta thy vic bo v d liu trong mi trng o ha theo phng
php tip cn truyn thng l rt kh khn v phc tp.
Mt cu hi c t ra l lm th no di chuyn d liu sao lu t my o
sang h thng lu tr. Trong mi trng vt l, my ch chuyn lm nhim v
backup thng c kt ni vi mi my client thc hin vic di chuyn d
liu . Vi phng php tip cn ny c th c p dng trn my ch o,
nhng tt c cc d liu sao lu phi c a ln mng LAN v u ny c th
lm gin on h thng mng. khc phc iu ny th cc doanh nghip c th
s dng mt h thng sao lu ring bit v u ny s lm tng chi ph v lm
phc tp thm c s h tng mng. V vy vi tnh nng VMware Consolidated
Backup (VCB) l sn phm ca VMware vStorage s khc phc c ton b
nhng kh khn trn v ng thi gip doanh nghip bo v d liu mt cch an
ton trong mi trng o ha.
Storage chuyn cung cp nhng phn mm gip tng hiu qu trong vic backup
d liu trong mi trng o ha. Hnh nh di y m t vic bo v d liu mt
cch hiu qu da trn phng php tip cn sao lu hnh nh.

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M Hinh Tng Hiu Qua Bao V D Liu Trong Mi Trng o Hoa


Vi phng php tip cn ny, n gip tng tc qu trnh thu d liu, gim cc tc
ng bn ngoi n h thng, ng thi n gip tng tc phc hi v tin cy
ca qu trnh phc hi d liu.
- u im Cua Vic Bao V D Liu Da Trn Cch Tip Cn Sao Lu Hinh
nh
Khi c thit k tt, cch tip cn da trn nn tng sao lu hnh nh, cung cp
mt phng php ng tin cy hn trong vic x l d liu so vi phng php
truyn thng. Vi phng php ny gip m bo tnh ton vn cho cc cc d
liu c sao lu, ng thi m bo vic sao lu mt cch lin tc.
Vi cch tip cn ny c th gip khc phc c cc nhc im trn, gip h
thng x l d liu mt cch nhanh chng. ng thi trong qu trnh sao lu gip
tao ra cc bn sao d liu vi dung lng nh hn so vi phng php truyn
thng gip gim c b nh lu tr, v gip gim nhng nguy c sai st c th
xy ra.
Trong iu khon ca tnh nht qun d liu ng dng, v chp mt hnh nh bao
gm tt c ca mt ng dng ca d liu t mt im duy nht trong thi gian l
nh ngha ca mt sao lu d phng da trn hnh nh, phng php ny gip
lm gim ng k t l sai st ca cc bn sao lu d liu ti mt s im khng
ph hp. Ngay c trong khng trng hp d liu khng nht qun, cc qun tr
vin vn c th phc hi v khi ng li ng dng.
- Tng Cng Hiu Qua Bao V D Liu Trong Mi Trng o Hoa
Vizioncore gii thiu phin bn h tr Backup 2.0, gip cc doanh nghip hiu
c lm th no bo v d liu ca h mt cch hiu qu bng cch tip da

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trn phng php mi. iu my cng gip cc qun tr vin ng dng rng ri
phng php mi ny thc hin vic sao lu da trn my ch o, gip khc
phc c ton b nhc im da trn phng php truyn thng. T gip
doanh nghip tng cng bo v d liu mt cch hiu qu nht.

5.4

Nhng san phm h tr bao mt trong ao hoa.

Fortinet
Phin bn o ha ca 4 thit b c thit k bo v lung d liu di chuyn gia
cc my o.
Fortinet cho bit cc thit b FortiGate, FortiManager, FortiAnalyzer v FortiMail
tng thch vi mi trng o ha VMware, gip m rng mc bo mt cng
nh kh nng qun tr v bo co lung d liu di chuyn gia cc my o.
FortiGate l thit b qun l bo mt hp nht (unified threat management - UTM)
c cc chc nng bo mt nh tng la, mng ring o VPN v bo v chng
xm nhp. Phn mm FortiGate c th trin khai trn cc my o VMware, vi
bn quyn cho 2, 4, 8 b x l CPU o ha.
Mt tnh nng khc trn thit b FortiGate l vng o ha (virtual domain), c kh
nng to vng qun tr v tng la ring bit ch trn mt thit b. Fortinet ni
rng Fortigate o ha cng h tr cc vng o ha.
FortiManager l nn tng dng qun tr cc thit b Fortinet; FortiAnalyzer l cng
c phn tch v bo co, v FortiMail l cng c qut bo mt cho email.
Hng cho bit cc sn phm khi chy trn my o cng c cc chc nng tng t
nh trn thit b vt l. Chng c th kim sot, bo co lung d liu di chuyn
gia cc my khch trn my lu tr (host machine).
Hin nay trn th trng c cc nh cung cp phn mm bo mt dng trn my o
ha gm Catbird, Reflex Systems, Check Point, Altor, Stonesoft, Vyatta v mt s
hng khc. Cisco s ra mt nn tng bo mt o ha trong thi gian sp ti.
FortiGate Virtual Appliance, bn 2 CPU c gi 9.995 la M (9.995 USD,
~190.000.000 ng), bn 4 CPU gi 14.995 la M (14.995 USD, ~285.000.000
ng), v bn 8 CPU c gi 29.995 la M (29.995 USD, ~570.000.000 ng).
FortiManager Virtual Appliance, giy php s dng cho 5.000 thit b/120.000
my khch FortiClient c gi 22.495 la M (22.495 USD, ~427.000.000 ng).
FortiAnalyzer Virtual Appliance s c mt trn th trng vo Qu 4 nm 2010, v

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FortiMail Virtual Appliance s c mt trn th trng vo Qu 1 nm 2011.


Fortinet hin cha cng b gi ca 2 thit b ny.
Check Point
Gii php bo mt o ha ca Check Point cung cp mt b rng cng ngh o
ha c th bo v mi trng o khi cc mi e da ni b v bn ngoi, thay th
nhiu cng an ninh vt l vi cc phin bn o ha, v cung cp mt o ha my
tnh c nhn an ton cho ngi s dng thit b u cui.

Cc gii php nhm n mc tiu bo v cho h thng o ha c an ton ca


Checkpoint c th k n nh:
Security Gateway Virtual Edition(VE)

Kin trc phn mm Blade cung cp an ninh ton din cho cc my o

Thc thi an ninh trong reconfiguration/migration/addition

Giao din qun l duy nht cung cp cho mt s thng nht ca mi trng vt l
v o ha.
VPN-1 Power VSX

Cng c cc cng bo mt vt l thnh mt cng o lu tr trn mt nn tng


phn cng duy nht.

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La chn trin khai linh hot bao gm mt phin bn phn mm duy nht,
cng nh mt dng thit b y tnh nng.

Kin trc qun l an ninh n im (single-point security)


Check Point Abra

o khng gian lm vic, gi d liu di ng an ton

Ngay lp tc bin bt k my tnh no ca bn vo my tnh bn ca doanh


nghip ni bn ang lm vic.

Rt l tng cho ngi dng di ng, nh thu v khc phc s c.

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1]. http://www.vmware.com
[2]. http://www.google.com
[3]. http://www.wikipedia.com
[4]. http://www.microsoft.com
[5]. http://www.nhatnghe.com/forum
[6]. http://www.fpt.edu.vn/technology-news/ao-hoa-he-thong-de-khai-thac-triet-dephan-cung-may-tinh

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