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10/9/2011

MEX5272 Materials & Manufacturing


Engineering

OBJECTIVES
To give a basic overview in to Metrology

METROLOGY

METROLOGY

The branch of knowledge concerned with


measurements

EXERCISE
Why is Metrology important
in Production Technology ?

During manufacture of a product or

The science of measurements

component, measurements have to be taken in


various stages, during ( real-time), after (post
production) to ensure that the manufactured
product meets the required standard.

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FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES IN
METROLOGY

WHAT IS A MEASUREMENT ?

A procedure in which an unknown quantity


is compared to a known standard using an
accepted and consistent system of units

Length
Mass
Time
Electrical Current

Measurement

Quantity

Temperature

Numerical
Value

Light radiation

TERMINOLOGY

BRANCHES IN METROLOGY

Important parameters for satisfactory performance of


engineering components
Metrology

Scientific
Metrology
R & D work on
measurement
technique and
standards

Legal
Metrology
Units and methods of
measurements and types of
measuring instruments in
relation to mandatory technical
and legal requirements

Dimensional
Accuracy

Industrial
Metrology
Measurements
related to
activities in
industry

Geometrical
Accuracy

Standardization

Measurement of flatness

Standards of length

Measurement of parallelism

Length measuring
instruments

Surface
Accuracy

Measurement of
surface
texture finish
Measurement of straightness
Measurement of roundness

Measurements of
angles
Limits and fits
Limit gauges

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CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS

Accuracy
Precision
Calibration
Magnification
The ratio of instrument output to the

CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS

Resolution
Smallest dimension that can be read
on the instrument

Sensitivity
Smallest difference in dimension that
an instrument can detect

input dimension

Linearity

Speed of response

The accuracy of the reading over the


instrument's full working range

CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS

Stability
An instruments capability to maintain its
calibration over a period of time. Sometimes
referred to as Drift

Rule of 10 (Gauge makers rule)


An instrument or gauge should be 10 times more
accurate than the dimensional tolerance of the

SELECTION OF MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS
Apart from the above characteristics, following
factors also should be taken into account when
selecting a measuring instrument for a particular
job

Size and type of part being measured


Environment (Temp, humidity etc.,)
Operator skills required

part being measured. A factor of 4 is known as


the Mil standard rule

Cost of the instrument

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EXERCISE

ACCURACY & PRECISION


10 0.7

Accuracy
5 0.02

Degree to which the measured value

Comment on the applicability of using a steel ruler,


Vernier caliper and a micrometer to measure the
diameter and length of the above shown bar.
Dimensions are in mm

agrees with the actual value

Precision
the repeatability of a measurement
i.e. the closeness of agreement between the results of
successive measurements of the same parameter carried out
by the same observer, with the same measuring instrument, at
the same location at a short interval of time

MEASUREMENT
ERRORS

EXERCISE
Comment on the accuracy and precision of
the measurement
Actual value

Actual value

Actual value

Systematic Errors
Random Errors
Operator Errors

No. of measurements

Precise but not


accurate

No. of measurements

No. of measurements

Inaccurate and
not precise

Accurate and
precise

Application Errors

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SYSTEMATIC ERROR

EXERCISE

Description
An error in which, in the course of the number of measurements of
the same value of a given quantity, made under the same
conditions, with the same measuring instrument, remains constant
in absolute value and sign, or varies according to a known law
when the conditions change.

Indicate a systematic error on a graph similar to


the previous one

Cause

True value

Mainly due to instrumental errors such as, zero drift, non-linearity,


in accurate calibration, sensitivity change etc..

Examples
Error which occurs when taking measurements at 25 0C from a
steel ruler gauged at 0 0C.

RANDOM ERROR
Description
An error in which, in the course of the number of measurements of
the same value of a given quantity, made under the same
conditions, with the same measuring instrument, varies in an
unpredictable manner both in value and sign of the absolute value.

Cause

No of measurements

EXERCISE
Indicate a random error on a graph similar to the
previous one

True value

Mainly due to unidentified sources, such as changes in


environment, resistance inside measuring instruments etc...

Examples
Error which occurs when taking measurements micro balances in
changing environments

No of measurements

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OPERATOR ERROR
Description

EXERCISE
Comment on the error indicated

An error in which occurs due to the fault of the operator.

Cause
Due to misreading of instrument, lapses in memory, boredom ,
inadequate knowledge in handling the instruments etc

True value

Examples
When taking a same reading over a long period of time.
No of measurements

APPLICATION ERROR
Description
An error in which occurs due improper selection and measuring
technique for measurements.

Cause
Lack of knowledge of handing and selecting measuring instruments
for a particular application

CALIBRATION
Operations carried for the purpose of determining
the values of errors in measuring instruments are
collectively termed Calibration
Adjustments
Gauging

Examples

scale graduation

When using a screw gauge to measure the thickness of the soft


sheet of metal strip the force exerted by the anvil on the surface
of the metal may cause faulty reading .

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LINEAR MEASUREMENTS

Fundamental quantity

STANDARDS OF LENGTH
How is it done?
Comparing the unknown quantity with
a with a standard on a appropriate
device.

LENGTH

Linear distance between internal or


external surfaces, points etc.

Against what ???


What is the system of units???

HIERARCHY OF STANDARDS

THE IMPERIAL STANDARD YARD GREAT


BRITAIN PRIMARY STANDARD
Standard of length is a metal bar

Primary
Ref. Std.
Transfer Std
Secondary Ref. Std.

Working Std.

Length is defined by the distance


between two lines on the bar
Bronze bar of 1 section, 38 long
and the datum lines are
engraved at 620F

Gauges, Instruments & Equipment used for


measurements

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THE IMPERIAL STANDARD YARD


GREAT BRITAIN

THE PROTOTYPE METER


FRANCE PRIMARY STANDARD
Meter One ten-millionth of the
distance between the north pole and
the equator
Marked (scratches) on a PlatinumIridium bar kept under controlled
conditions

THE PROTOTYPE METER


FRANCE

THE PROTOTYPE METER


FRANCE
1650763.73 wave length of the orange
radiation of Krypton isotope 86

Path traveled by light in vacuum


during a time interval of 1/299792458
of a second

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WORKING STANDARDS

SLIP GAUGES & LENGTH BARS

Line standards
Distance between two engraved/marked points
Steel rulers
Measuring tapes

End standards
Distance between two parallel faces
Slip gauges
Length bars

SLIP GAUGES

SLIP GAUGES

Made out of hardened high Carbon


steel

BS 4311 : 1968 provides 5 grades


of gauge block sets

Rectangular sections of 9mm x


30mm up to size of 10mm and 9mm
x 35mm for larger sizes

Calibration grade
Grade 00
Grade 0

Can be used individually or as a


combination of several (Wringing)
gauges

Grade I
Grade II

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SLIP GAUGES

SLIP GAUGES
Eg : Using Set M46/2 buildup 58.434 mm

Eg : Set M46/2
Size mm
Increment mm
2.001 2.009
0.001
2.01 2.09
0.01
2.1 2.9
0.1
1-9
1.0
10 - 100
10.0

No. of pieces
9
9
9
9
10

FEELER GAUGE

58.434
Eliminate the last decimal place 2.004
Eliminate the second decimal
place

2.03

Eliminate the third decimal


place

2.40

Eliminate the remaining


whole number

2.00

Remainder

50

FEELER GAUGE

This is a set of thin steel strips held


together in a holder
The accuracy will be not good as the
gauge blocks
Range of thickness from about
0.030mm 0.6mm can be found
The gauges can be combined to form a
variety of sizes

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EXERCISE 1

EXERCISE 2

What is the common feature found on


both slip gauges and feeler gauges in
the context of measurement?

How would you then measure an


intermediate sizes?

These are fixed size pieces of


equipment, and the intermediate sizes
have to be obtained by combination of
several blocks or sets.

By using measuring equipment that are


capable of taking variety of sizes, ie.
Variable size measuring equipment
Comment on the accuracy of these
types of equipment
Accuracy will be less than that of the Fixed
type equipment

ENGINEER'S RULE

ENGINEER'S RULE

The sizes are indicated by fine lines


scribed on a steel strip. (Line standard)
An accuracy about 0.25mm can be
obtained
The main cause of error is the Parallax
error i.e., incorrect positioning of the
eye in relation to the mark being used

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VENIRE CALIPERS

VENIRE CALIPERS

An instrument using End


measurement standard working on
the Vernier principal
Can take readings up to an accuracy
around 0.02 mm

VENIRE CALIPERS

VENIRE CALIPERS - ADVANTAGES


A large range of sizes can be
measured by one caliper
The wearing parts are the jaws and
usually these are hardened.
Therefore, provided that the jaws are
undamaged the loss of accuracy due
to usage is low

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VENIRE CALIPERS - LIMITATIONS

OTHER TYPES VERNIER DEPTH GAUGE

Cannot measure very small


measurements
The jaws are comparatively light and
may spring out of alignment if too
much pressure is applied

OTHER TYPES VERNIER HEIGHT GAUGE

MICRO-METER

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MICRO-METER

End measurements

COMPARATORS
What is the common feature that can
be found in the measuring equipment
studied so far?

Both external and internal

The measurements are made


without to any other datum

Readings up to 0.001 mm

Measures in themselves

COMPARATORS
Sometimes, it is necessary to know
the variation of size, rather than the
actual size or to find out how much the
dimensions of a given component
differ from that of a known datum

COMPARATORS
What is a Comparator?
A device that compares the size of a part
with that to which is set , and does not
directly indicate the actual size.

Comparators can be used for the


above task

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COMPARATORS
Types of comparators
Classification can be made according to
the type of magnification devices that are
employed
Mechanical comparators
Electrical comparators
Optical comparators
Pneumatic comparators

MECHANICAL COMPARATORS
The order of magnification possible
with these types of comparators are
around 1000
In mechanical comparators the
magnification of the small movement
of the stylus is accomplished by use of
gears, leavers or a combination of
both.

MECHANICAL COMPARATORS
Employs mechanical means for
magnifying the small movement of
the measuring stylus
Advantages being self contained,
robust design and no requirement of
no external power to operate.
Disadvantages being loss of accuracy
over a long period of time due to wear
of moving parts

MECHANICAL COMPARATORS
Dial Gauges
Two types
Plunger type
Lever type
Readings up to 0.001mm

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OPTICAL COMPARATORS

MECHANICAL COMPARATORS
Other types
Sigma comparators
Venwick comparators
Mikrokator comparators

Sigma

Mikrokator

ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS

INDIRECT METHODS

Angular Measurements

Fixed type angular gauges


Taper gauges
Plug gauges

Direct

Indirect

Ring gauges

Bevel Protractors
Fixed

Variable

Angle templates

Angle gauges

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INDIRECT METHODS

SINE BAR
How do we measure ???

Adjustable type angular gauges


Sine bars

SURFACE TEXTURE
What is surface texture?

WHAT IS SURFACE TEXTURE?

Surface irregularities
Surfaces of any manufactured component (machined)
consist of :

Importance
Form errors (Geometric errors)

Evaluation

Surface texture (Surface finish)

Measurement

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FORM ERROR

Form errors are generally not considered for measurement of

KINEMATICS' FAULTS

Slide-way wear

Worn out chuck

Worn out cutter spindle

Worn out bearings

Faulty machine alignment

Faulty machine settings

surface texture since its wave length is considerably higher


than that of surface texture quantities.
Cause
Due to general kinematic faults in machine tools

DETECTION
(MEASUREMENT)

SURFACE TEXTURE
Definition

Dial gauges

Straight edge

Sprit levels

Repetitive and/or random deviations from


nominal surface that forms the 3-D
topography of the surface
Defined by 4 elements
Roughness
Waviness
Lay
Flaws

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ROUGHNESS

WAVINESS

Roughness refers

Waviness refers to

to the small, finely

much larger

spaced deviations

spaced deviations

(irregularities)

(irregularities) than

from the nominal

roughness.

surface.

Caused by:
Caused by:
Machining process : feed rates, chatter
Material characteristics

Machine or work deflections


Vibration
Forces or temperatures sufficient enough to cause warping
Heat treatment

ROUGHNESS & WAVINESS

ROUGHNESS &
WAVINESS

Surface texture is the combined effects of


Waviness and Roughness

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LAY
(DIRECTIONALITY)

POSSIBLE LAYS OF A
SURFACE

Lay is the
predominant
direction or surface
pattern

Caused by:
Action of the cutting tool (Manufacturing method)

FLAWS
(DEFECTS)
Flaws are the
random irregularities
which occurs on the
surface

IMPORTANCE

Improved performance
Less friction on mating surfaces hence high
efficiency

Can be used as a QC parameter


Wear resistance property

Examples:
Cracks
Scratches

Appearance
Used as datum for measurements

Craters
Holes
Tears

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SURFACE ROUGHNESS
PARAMETERS

EVALUATION
How do we quantify the above qualitative
parameters??
Depending on the characteristics of the profile they
quantify..
Roughness

Amplitude Parameters
Determined solely by peak or valley heights or both,
irrespective of horizontal spacing

Spacing Parameters
Determined solely by the spacing of the irregularities
along the surface ( Spacing of local peaks)

Hybrid Parameters
Amplitude
Parameters

Spacing
Parameters

EXAMPLES

Amplitude Parameters
Centre Line Average CLA ( Ra)

Hybrid
Parameters

Determined by amplitude and spacing in combination

CENTRE LINE AVERAGE (CLA)


Arithmetic average value of the departure of the whole
of the profile. (Arithmetic average of the absolute
values of the roughness profile ordinates)

Ten point height of irregularities (Rz)


Line of profile peak/valley

Spacing Parameters
Spacing of local peaks (s)
Spacing of profile irregularities (sm)
RMS parameter of roughness (Rq)

Hybrid Parameters
Profile bearing length ratio (tp)

Sampling length (l)

i
Ra Z x dx
l0

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TEN POINT HEIGHT OF IRREGULARITIES

Average distance between the five lowest valleys and five


highest peaks within the sampling length

SPACING OF PROFILE
IRREGULARITIES
The mean distance between the more prominent irregularities
of the effective profile

MEASUREMENT

MIRO-INTERFEROMETER

Surface inspection by
comparison methods
Reflection
Arm

Touch inspection
Visual inspection
Scratch inspection

Reference
Arm

Miro-interferometer
Direct measurements
using instruments

Imaging
Leg
Test Arm

Transmission
Arm

Stylus probe instruments


Profile meter

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MICRO-INTERFEROMETER
IMAGE

STYLUS PROBE INSTRUMENT

TOLERANCE

LIMITS & FITS

the allowable deviation from a standard,


eg: the rage of variation permitted in
maintaining a specified dimension in a
machined piece
Webster

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TOLERANCE AS APPLIED IN MANUFACTURING

Allowance for specific variation in the size


and geometry of a part

WHY IS IT NECESSARY?

It is impossible to manufacture a part or


component to an exact size or geometry.
Since variation from the drawing is
inevitable, acceptable degree of variation
must be applied.
Large variation may affect the functionality
of the part.
Small variations may affect the economy of
the part.

CONSEQUENCES

HOW IS TOLERANCE SPECIFIED?

Cost generally increases with Smaller


(tighter) tolerances.
Parts with Smaller tolerances often require
special methods of manufacture.
Parts with Smaller tolerances often require
greater inspection and call for rejection of
parts .

Tolerance

Dimensional
Limits specifying the
allowed variation in
each dimension
(length, height, width
etc) are specified on
the drawing

Geometrical
Allows for specification for
the geometry of a part
separate from its size
GDT (Geometric
Dimensioning &
Tolerancing) uses special
symbols to control the
different geometric features
of a part

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DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCING

GEOMETRIC TOLERANCES

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing

Definition

(GD&T) is a method of defining parts based


the total amount by which a specified dimension

on how they function, using standard ANSI


symbols.
Concentricity Symbol

is permitted to Vary

Feature Control Frame

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)

SPECIFICATION OF DT

EXERCISE 1

Bilateral

20 0.5

2.505
2.495

200.5
0.5

20.05
19.95

1. Express in the form


2. Tolerance?

Unilateral

2000.5

3. Type?

0.005
X ?? 2.50.005

|( -0.005) (0.005)| = 0.01

Bilateral

20.05
20.00

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EXERCISE 2

EXERCISE 3

2.50.010
0.005

1. Type?

Bilateral

1. Type?

|( -0.005) (0.010)| = 0.015

2. Tolerance?

2.50.0
0.005

2. Tolerance?

Unilateral
|( -0.005) (0.0)| = 0.005

2.510
3. Express in limit form

2.495

Tolerances

2.50.001
0.005

1. Type?

2.495

APPLICATION

EXERCISE 4

2.500
3. Express in limit form

Unilateral

2. Tolerance?

|( -0.005) (-0.001)| = 0.004

Single
Component

MuliComponent

2.499
3. Express in limit form

2.495

In unilateral tolerance variation can be only in


one direction. That is either Negative or Positive

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SINGLE COMPONENT (PARTS)

DEFINITIONS
Basic Size

Single
Component

The size to which the tolerances are


applied

Nominal Size
The general size

Shafts

Holes

Limits of size
The two extreme permissible sizes of a part between which the
actual size should lie

Convention to
designate all external
features of a
component or part

Convention to
designate all internal
features of a
component or part

DEFINITIONS
Minimum limit of size
The smaller of the two limits of size. Sometimes referred as the
Lower limit as well

Tolerance
The algebraic difference between the Maximum and Minimum
limits of size

Deviation

Maximum limit of size


The greater of the two limits of size. Sometimes referred as the
Upper limit as well

DEFINITIONS
Lower Deviation
The algebraic difference between the Minimum limit of size and
the corresponding Basic size

Zero Line
In the graphical representation of limits and fits, the straight line
to which the deviations, limits are refers is know as the Zero
line. This is the line of Zero deviation and often refers to the
basic size

The algebraic difference between a size ( actual, basic ,


maximum etc)

Upper Deviation
The algebraic difference between the Maximum limit of size
and the corresponding Basic size

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SHAFTS

INTERCHANGEABILITY

Basic Size

Minimum Material Condition

Minimum Limit of Size

Tolerance
Maximum Material Condition

Maximum Limit of Size

L. D

U. D

Line of Zero Deviation

Limits & Fits for


Muli-components

DEGREE OF INTERCHANGEABILITY

If from a batch conforming to the same


dimensions, surface finish and material

From a batch of 1000 components only

properties, anyone can be selected in

750 managed to assembled and perform

random to be used in place of another, with

the intended task. What would be the

equal probability that the selected part will

DOF?

75%

assemble and function satisfactory, then


the parts in the batch are said to be
interchangeable.

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ZERO INTERCHANGEABILITY

TYPES OF DOIS

DOI

Zero

Universal

As a result when components are made


to suit
Local

Components are fitted by a skilled


mechanic often in a fitting room
Subsequently, if a replacement is
needed, it must also be machined to suit
and then fitted as above

UNIVERSAL INTERCHANGEABILITY

LOCAL INTERCHANGEABILITY

When factors affecting the


interchangeability of a component are
specified by a drawing, the
components are said to have a
universal interchangeability

When the interchangeability of a


component is controlled by workshop
practices and not simply by confirming
to drawings, the components are said
to have a local interchangeability

That is, by making components


confirming to a specific drawing, it is
possible to manufacture them
independent of skill, tooling or knowledge
within a particular work-shop

That is, a set of tools and gauges are


made so that repeated adjustments or
refinements can be made for each
components or during production
checking that will confirm to the
required standard within the workshop

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DEFINITIONS

DEFINITIONS

Allowance

Deviation

The specified difference in dimensions between mating parts. ( ie


the difference between the Hole dimension and the Shaft
dimensions).

The algebraic difference between a size and the corresponding


basic size

Upper Deviation

NOTE: Sometimes referred as;

The algebraic difference between the maximum limit size and the
corresponding basic size

o Functional dimension
o Sum dimension

Lower Deviation
Fit
The algebraic difference between the minimum limit size and the
corresponding basic size

The range of looseness of tightness that can result from the


application of specific combination of allowance and tolerance
in designing of mating part features of an interchangeable
system

BS 4500: (I.S.O. SYSTEM OF LIMITS & FITS)

Fundamental Deviation

U. D

Max .L .S

L. D (F. D)

Min .L .S

L. D
Line of zero deviation

Min .L .S

(F. D)
U. D

Max .L .S

That one of the two deviations which is conveniently chosen to


define the position of the tolerance zone in relation to the zero
line

Basic size

DEFINITIONS

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MORE DEFINITIONS.

MORE DEFINITIONS
Clearance

Limit System

The difference between the size of Hole and the Shaft, before
assembly, and when this difference is positive.

System of Standardized tolerances and deviations.

Clearance = Hole - Shaft

Fit System

Hole - Shaft > 0

System of fits comprising shafts and holes belonging to a specific


limit system

Hole > Shaft


Interference
The difference between the size of Hole and the Shaft, before
assembly, and when this difference is Negative.

Interference = (- Clearance)
Hole - Shaft < 0
Hole < Shaft

CLEARANCE FIT

TYPES OF FITS

The shaft will always be smaller than the hole which it

is going to fit

Fits

Maximum Clearance

Max .L .S

Min .L .S

Interference
Min .L .S

Transition

Max .L .S

Clearance

Basic size

Minimum Clearance

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INTERFERENCE FIT

CLEARANCE FIT

The shaft will always be larger than the hole which it


Clearance will always be positive. (ie. Clearance >0)

is going to fit
The fit will always give a negative clearance

Cmax > Cmin> 0

The minimum interference = The negation of the


This types of fits allows rotation or sliding between the

maximum clearance

mating parts

Imin = - ( Cmax ) = - ( Hmax Smin )


Similarly, the maximum interference
Imax = - ( Cmin ) = - ( Hmin Smax )

INTERFERENCE FIT

INTERFERENCE FIT

Clearance will always be Negative. (ie. Clearance <0)

Imax

Cmax < Cmin < 0

Imin

Max .L .S

transmitted.
Min .L .S

Basic size

Min .L .S

Max .L .S

For components where motion, power has to be

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TRANSITION FIT

SYSTEM OF FITS

A fit resulting the maximum clearance to take a positive

value while the minimum clearance gives a negative


value.

Cmin <0

Systems

Cmax >0

Max .L .S

Min .L .S

Basic size

Min .L .S

Max .L .S

Hole Basis

INSPECTION

System of fits in which the


different clearances and
interferences are ascertain in
associating various shafts with a
single hole ( or, possibly, with
holes of different grades but
having always the same
fundamental deviation)

Shaft Basis
System of fits in which the
different clearances and
interferences are ascertain in
associating various holes with a
single shaft ( or, possibly, with
shafts of different grades but
having always the same
fundamental deviation)

GAUGING

Inspection is a procedure in which a product or

Gauging determines whether the part

part characteristic, such as a dimension is

characteristics meets or not meet the design

examined to determine whether or not it

specification, ie. The parts passes or fails the

conforms to the design specification

inspection
- Gauging is usually faster than measuring
- Does not give a actual value of the
characteristic of interest

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INSPECTION METHODS

Depending on the quantities of products/parts


involved and the method of feedback used from

INSPECTION METHODS

Complete Method
This method is used when the quantities involved are
very small and the cost of gauging is not justified

the inspection department to the manufacturing


department, methods can be broadly classified
as,
Complete Method
Statistical Quality Control
Use of Limit gauges

LIMIT GAUGES

Statistical Quality Control


This method is used when the quantities involved are
large and feedback is necessary regarding the
machines

Use of Limit gauges


Every component is inspected with the aid of a limit
gauge which indicates whether the dimensions being
checked are within the limits specified

LIMIT GAUGES

A limit gauge (or a pair of limit gauges) consists of


GO and NOT GO gauges

Limit Gauges

GO gauge
A GO gauge should pass over or through a correct
feature. It checks the maximum material condition of
the part

NOT GO gauge
A NOT GO gauge should not pass over or through a
correct feature. It checks the minimum material
condition of the part

Checking External
Dimensions
Snap Gauges

Checking Internal
Dimensions
Plug Gauges

Ring Gauges

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GAUGES FOR EXTERNAL DIMENSION

Snap Gauges

Gauges for Internal Dimension

Plug gauges

Limit Gauges.

~ END ~

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