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HIGH-VOLTAGE

MEASUREMENT

TECHNIQUES

 
 

b y

 

Arman d

Gregoir e

|Hali m

 

B.E.E. ,

Seattl e

University ,

Washington ,

197 8

A

THESI S

SUBMITTED

I N

PARTIA L

FULFILLMEN T OF

 

THE

REQUIREMENTS

FOR THE

DEGREE

OF

 

MASTER

OF

APPLIE D

SCIENCE

 

i n

 

THE

FACULTY

OF

GRADUATE

STUDIES

 

(Departmen t

o f

Electrica l

Engineering )

 

We

accep t

thi

s

thesi s

a s

conformin g

 

t o

th e

require d

standar d

 

THE

UNIVERSIT Y

OF

BRITIS H

COLUMBIA

 
 

June ,

198 0

 

( c )

Arman d

Gregoir e

Halim ,

198 0

In

presenting

thi s

thesi s

in

partia l

fulfilmen t

o f

the

requirements

for

an

advanced

degree

at

the Universit y

of

Britis h

Columbia,

I

agree

that

the

Librar y

shall

make

it

freel y

availabl e

for

reference and

study.

I

furthe r

agree

that

permission

for

extensive

copying

of

thi s

thesi s

for

scholarl y

purposes

may

be granted

by

the

Head

of

my Department

or

by

hi s

representatives .

It

i s

understood

that

copying

or

publicatio n

o f

thi s

thesi s

fo r

financia l

gain

shal l

not

be allowed

without

my

written

permission.

 

Depa rtment

 

The

Universit y

of

Britis h

Columbia

 

2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5

r.

-11

ABSTRACT

The Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of

British

Columbia acquired a high-voltage test set i n 1979 for teaching and

re -

search purposes. To make this test set useful for experiments which un-

dergraduate students can do themselves, various additions and modifications

had to be made.

This thesis describes these additions and modifications. First, a

Faraday cage had to be constructed with interlocking safety circuits. Ex-

periments were then developed to show basic high-voltage phenomena with

AC voltage, with DC voltage, and with impulse voltages. Considerable

modifications were required to eliminate noise i n the impulse measuring

system.

iii

 

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

 

ABSTRACT.

 

TABLE

 

OF

CONTENTS

 

»

LIS T

 

OF

TABLES

 

LIS

T

OF

ILLUSTRATION S

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

1

.

INTRODUCTION

 

1

. 1

Significanc e

 

1

. 2

Tes t

equipmen t

1

. 3

Scop e

o f

thi s

Thesi s

 

2 .

GENERATION

OF

HIG H

VOLTAGES

2

.

1

Introductio n

 

2

. 2

Alternatin g

Voltag e

 

2

. 3

Direc t

Voltag e

 

2

. 4

Impuls e

Voltag e

 

3 .

 

MEASUREMENTS

 
 

3

.

1

Introduction .

3

. 2

AC

voltag e

measurement s

 
 

3.2.

1

Objectiv e

 

3.2.

2

Measurin g

Device s

 

3

. 3

DC

voltag e

measurement s

.

.

 

3.3.

1

Objectiv e

 

3.3.

2

Measurin g

Device s

 

3

. 4

Impuls e

voltag e

measurement s

 
 

3.4.

1

Objectiv e

 

3.4.

2

Setu p

o f

Measurin

g

Syste m

3.4.

3

Nois

e

i n

Measurin

g

System s

1

1

1

1

1

^ l

v

i

vii

l

1

1

2

2

3

3

3

6

1 0

1

3

I

3

14

14

14

23

23

23

29

29

3 0

42

i v

4 .

EXPERIMENT

EXERCISES

.

4 8

4

.

1

Introductio n

.........

.

48

4

. 2

A C

tes

t

4 9

 

4.2. 1

 

Breakdow n

voltag e

o f

spher e

 

gap s

........

.

4 9

4.2. 2

 

Coron a

voltag e

o f

a

singl e

conducto r

 

an d

a

bundl e

 

conducto r

 

5 0

 

A • 3

DC

tes

t

••>»*•> •

••••>««

 

>

o

«

»«*'•>•«»««•

 

5 1

 

4.3.

1

Rippl e

measuremen t

.........

.

51

4.3.

2

Polarit y

effec t

i n

a

Point-Plan e

ga p

......

.

53

 

4

. 4

Impuls e

tes t

54

 

4.4. 1

 

Preliminar y

Preparation s

 

54

4.4. 2

Nois e

Reduction s

 

57

5 .

CONCLUSIONS

 

60

LIS T

OF

REFERENCES

 

61

APPENDI X

I

62

APPENDIX

I

I

66

V

Table

LIST OF TABLES

Page

  • 1. Flashover voltages for AC voltages, fo r DC voltages of either polarity, and fo r full negative

standard

impulses and impulses with longer

 

.

16

  • 2. Breakdown voltages of a sphere gap of 10 cm

 

diameter

for different gap spacings.

.

.

49

  • 3. Corona onset voltages of a single conductor bundle conductor.

 

and a

51

  • 4. Percent ripples fo r different values of DC voltages. ?

• • 52 .

LIS T

OF

ILLUSTRATION S

 

Figur e

Pag e

  • 1. Effec t

o f

tim e

o n

withstan d

voltag e

2

  • 2. Single-stag e

tes t

transforme r

circuit s

 

4

  • 3. Three-stag e

tes t

transforme r

cascad e

 

5

  • 4. Serie s

resonan t

circui t

fo r

singl e

transformer /

 

reacto r

uni t

6

  • 5. Half-perio d

rectificatio n

 

wit h

idea l

 

circui t

 

element s

7

  • 6. Villar d

circui t

8

Greinache r

  • 7. doubler-circui t

 

8

  • 8. Zimmermann-Wittk a

circui t

 

9

  • 9. Greinache r

cascad e

circui t

 

9

  • 10. o f

Exampl e

cascad e

rectifie r

circuit s

 

10

  • 11. impulse-voltag e

Basi c

circuit s

 

11

  • 12. Multiplie r

circui t

afte r

Mar x

fo r

3

stage s

i n

circui t

li b

connectio n

•>

 

12

  • 13. voltag e

gap s

Spher e

fo r

measuremen t

 

17

  • 14. U^Q

Breakdow n

voltag e

o f

spher e

gap s

a s

a

functio n

 

o f

ga p

spacin g

s ,

fo r

variou s

spher e

diameter s

D .

17

  • 15. Pea k

voltag

e

measuremen t

 

accordin g

 

t o

Chub b

an d

 

Fortescu e

18

  • 16. Pea k

voltag

e

measuremen t

 

wit h

capacitiv e

divider -

20

  • 17. o f

Basi c

circuit s

voltag e

transformer s

 

22

  • 18. o f

Measuremen t

DC

voltag

e

b y

mean s

o f

a

high -

 

voltag e

resisto r

24

  • 19. DC voltag e

Measuremen t

o f

a

b y

mean s

o f

a

resistiv e

divide r

25

  • 20. Electrostati c

voltmeter s

 

fo r

hig h

voltage s

 

26

  • 21. Voltmete r

wit h

th e

sphere-plat e

electrod e

 

configuratio n

27

v i

i

22.

Circuit for measuring ripple voltages

.

.

28

23.

Jumping potential i n impulse generator

system

.

31

24.

Block diagram of impulse test facility

 

34

25.

Display

of a wedge-shaped impulse voltage

 

36

26.

Impulse waveshapes obtained with the capacitive divider of 4.14 yF lower capacitance value

 

.37

27.

Impulse voltage measuring system with resistive divider

39

28.

Connection of the capacitive voltage divider to a cathode-ray oscilloscope

40

29.

Compensation of signal cable capacitance by a complex cable termination

41

30.

Impedance matching for damped capacitive voltage dividers

41

31.

Impulse voltage generating and measuring

 

42

32.

Currents

induced i n the cable shields by

 

quasi-

stationary magnetic fields

 

45

33.

Correct measurement circuit layout, avoiding cable

 

34.

braid and cabinet current interference

 

46

 

.

52

35.

Polarity effect i n a point-plane gap

 

53

36.

Output of a compensated attenuator for different degrees of compensation

 

55

37.

Impulse voltage waveform obtained by using EMTP

 

.

56

38.

  • a. Impulse oscillogram of the circuit with ground loops and an ordinary coaxial cable

 

58

  • b. Impulse oscillogram of the circuit with reduced ground loops and a shielded cable

 

58

39.

Impulse oscillogram of the circuit with reduced

 

ground loops and a shielded cable. is inside a metal box

Oscilloscope

 

59

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APPENDIX I SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE EXPERIMENTS

Experiments with high voltages could become particularly hazar-

dous for the participants should the safety precautions be inadequate.

To give an idea of the required safety measures, as an example

the

safety regulations of the High-Voltage Institute of The Technical

2

University of Braunschweig shall be described below.

These supplement

the appropriate safety regulations and as far as possible prevent

risk

to persons.

Strict

observance i s therefore the duty of everyone

working i n the laboratory. Here

any voltage greater than

250 V against

earth i s understood Fundamental Rule:

to be

a:.high voltage.

Before entering a high-voltage setup everyone must convince himself by personal observation that al l

the conductors which can assume high potential lie in contact zone are earthed, and that al l

and

the main leads are interrupted.

Fencing

A l l

high-voltage setups must be protected against unintentional

entry of

the danger zone.

This i s appropriately done with the aid of

metallic fences.

When setting up the fences for voltages up to 1 MV

the following minimum clearances to the components at high-voltage

should not be

reduced:

for alternating and direct voltages

50

cm

for every

100

KV

for

impulse voltages

20

cm

for every

100

KV

However, for voltages less than 100 KV a minimum clearance of

50 cm has

to be maintained,

independent of the type of voltage.

63

For voltages over

1 MV, i n particular for switching impulse voltages,

the values quoted could be inadequate; special protective measures must

then be introduced.

The fences should be reliably connected with one another conduc-

tively, earthed and provided with warning boards inscribed: "High-volt-

age!

Caution!

Highly dangerous!"

I t i s

forbidden to introduce conduc-

tive objects through the fence whilst

the

setup i s i n use.

Safety-Locking

In high-voltage setups each door must be provided with safety

switches; these allow the door to be opened only when al l the main leads

to test setup are interrupted.

Instead of direct interruption, the safety switches may also operate

the no-voltage relay of a power circuit breaker, which, on opening the

door, interrupts al l the main leads to the setup. These power circuit

breakers may only be

switched on again when the door i s closed. For

direct supply from a high-voltage network (e.g. 10 KV city network), the

main leads must be interrupted visibly before entry to the setup by an

additional open isolating switch;

The switched condition of a setup

must be indicated by a red lamp

"Setup switched on" and by a green lamp "Setup switched off".

Earthing

A high-voltage setup may be entered only when al l the parts which

can assume high-voltage i n the contact zone are earthed. Earthing may

only be effected by a conductor earthed inside the fence.

Fixing the

.64

earthing leads onto the parts

t o be earthed should be done with the ai d

of insulating rods.

Earthing switches with a clearly visible operating

position, are also permissible. I n high-power setups

with direct supply

from the high-voltage network, earthing i s achieved by earthing isolator. Earthing may only follow after switching the current source off , and may

be removed only when there i s no longer anyone present within the fence

or i f the setup i s vacated after removal of earth.

Al l metallic parts

of the setup which do not carry potential during normal service must be

o

earthed

reliably and with an adequate cross section of at least 1.5 mm .

Circuit

and Test Setup

Inasmuch as the setup i s not supplied from ready wired desks,

clearly

marked isolating switches must be provided i n al l leads t o the low-voltage

circuits of high-voltage transformers and arranged a t an easily identi-

fiable position outsider.the fence. and before entering the setup.

These must be opened before earthing

All

leads must be laid so that there are no loosely hanging

ends.

Low voltage leads which can assume high potentials during breakdown or

flashovers and lead out of the fenced area, e.g. measuring cable,^control cable, supply cable, must be laid inside the setup i n earthed sleeving.

All components of the

must be either rigidly fixed or suspended so

.. that they cannot topple during operation or be pulled down by the leads.

setup

For al l setups intended fo r research purposes, shall be fixed outside the fence i n clearly visibly

a circuit diagram position.

A test setup may be put into operation only after the circuit

has been checked and permission to begin

work given

by an authorized

person.

Conducting the Experiments

65

Everyone carrying out experiments in the laboratory is personally

responsible for the setup placed at his disposal and for the experi-

ments performed with it. For experiments during working hours one

should

try, in the interest of personal safety, to make sure that a

second

person

is present in the testing room.

If this

is not possible,

then at least

the times of the beginning and end of an experiment should

be communicated to a second person.

When working with high-voltages outside working hours, a second

person familiar with the experimental setups must be present in the

same room.

Explosion and Fire,

..

Risk,

Radiation Protection

In experiments with oi l and other

easily inflammable materials,

special care is necessary owing to the danger of explosion and fire.

In each

room where work is carried out with these materials, suitable

fire extinguishers must be

to hand, ready for use.

Easily inflammable

waste products, e.g. paper

or

used cotton waste, should always be dis-

posed of

immediately in metal cans. Special regulations must be

observed when radioactive sources are used.

APPENDIX I I

FORMULA OF MODE OSCILLATIONS

The

formula of mode oscillations i n a rectangular

resonator

can be derived from MAXWELL's equations:

,

xH=E

|

I

VxE .-w f

66

After an extensive manipulation of these differential equations,

the electric and the magnetic fields o f

TM modes and TE

modes ar e

obtained

 

for the boundary conditions x = 0, x = a and y = 0, y = b:

TM modes:

 

\

-i 3mir

 

"

n

E

ox-^

m

r

(x,y)

J

 

=

r

Re { -fh — C

h a

z

mn]_

.mirx. „. ,mry. i (wt-gz)

2

) SinC-r b -) e

J

Cos( a

_

 

} a

x

n

t

\

T ,

r - j 3mr

_

„ .

,mT7x

x

_

/nTry.

 

j (wt-gz) -,

*

   

E

oyi (

x

'

y

)

=

R

e

<

h^b"

Cmn-L SinC^ ) Cos(-^-) e J

 

}

a y

E OZi (x,y ) =

Re

{ C

^

Sin(^ )

Sin(^ ) e^"

 

^

}

a z

 

C m n i Sin(^ ) Cos(^ ) «J

 

}

a x

 

H oyi (x,y ) = Re

 

(

^f

f

C m n i

Cos(=? )

Sin (52*)

e^"

^

>

a y

where:

 

C m n

 

corresponds t o the particular mode defined by

a

given choice of m

and n.

(m, n ar e integers)

B z = yew - (—r - (-;-)

a

b

h 2

= (-) a

2

+ (^) b 2

The electri c

 

fields

 

traveling

 

in

 

the

opposite

direction

are:

E OX2 (x,y r )

n

\

=

rt

R e

 

-f

i

~j

—j-

Bmn

C m

n

2

n

/HITTX .

Cos(— )

„ Sin(-^-) . /niry.

 

e j (cot+Bz)

J

\

i

/

T? Eoy 2 (x,y )

\

=

T>

R

{

-iBnir

J

2 b

/imrx. Cmn 2 Sln ( — )

/niry.

Cose

J

j

(cot+Bz)

}

 

e

h

Applying

boundary

 

condition

 

z

=

0

and

z

=

C,

the

 

following

obtained:

 
 

z=0 :

 

E OXl (x,y )

 

+

E OX2 (x,y )

=

0

 

(Mi

 

+

M 2 )

Cos

(2^ a )

 

SinC

b ^ )

5

 

Si n

cot

=

0

where:

 

K l =

h^a

C m n i

x

Therefore,

 

M-^ =

-

M 2

 

z =

 

C

;

E

oxl

(

x ' y

)

+

E o x 2 ( x . y )

=

0

 

M

{

Sin (tot

-

 

BC)

-

Si n (cot

+

BC)

}

..

1

Cos(— a ) S±n(~^-) b

     
 

-2

Cos cot

Si n

BC

 
 

Sin

BC =

 

0

BC =

PTT

where:

 

p

i s

 

an

integer

 

- ax

ay

i s

=

0

C

T>

^

rP-

2

-

,mi7.2

(— )

a

 

,1117.2

 

But

g

=

yec o

-

(— )

b

 
 

Therefore,

 

,

=

U

I

(—) 2

+

(£1) 2 +

(SE) 2

 

/u7

V

a

b

c

 

or

f =

\ /

c^) 2 +

<ir ) 2

+ c^-) 2

 

2i7/ye"

 

y

The same expression can derived from E TE modes.

 

(x,y )

and E

(x,y ) and from