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Series Wound DC Motor Modeling and

Simulation, Considering Magnetic, Mechanical


and Electric Power Losses
J. S. Valdez Martnez1, P. Guevara Lpez2, J. J. Medel Jurez3
1,2

Escuela Superior de Ingeniera Mecnica y Elctrica, Unidad Culhuacn IPN, Mxico D.F.
Centro de Investigacin en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologa Avanzada IPN, Mxico D.F.
3
Centro de Investigacin en Computacin IPN, Mxico D.F., Mxico.
Telfono (55) 57296000 Ext. 73250 E-mail: jsvaldezmtz@yahoo.com.mx

2, 3

Abstract. This paper presents the modeling and


simulation of a Series Wound DC Motor, where the
model is linear, first order and with stationary parameters
(resistance) in variant time described in finite differences.
In addition, it includes losses which commonly affect the
electrical motor efficiency, these are: magnetic,
mechanical and electrical losses. At the same time,
random perturbations statistically limited were added,
these perturbations could be considered as temperature
rising in the DC motor when increasing the values of
some of the losses. Finally, were obtained a set of
simulations
using
Monte
Carlo
method.

considering as input voltage ea and as output the angular


velocity ( ) [1], [2], [3], [4].

( ) =

ea
R + k ( )

(2)

T ( ) = kia 2 ( )
Pm ( ) = ( ) T ( )
Pe ( ) = ea ia ( )
Pp ( ) = P( ) e Pm ( )

( ) =

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Pm ( )
Pe ( )

(7)

Where:

There are three types of DC motors: shunt wound DC


motor, series wound DC motors, compound wound DC
motor. In the case of series wound DC motors, the
electrical circuit is illustrated in the following figure:

Symbol

( )
ea
i ( )

Units
rad / s

volts

Ampers

R( )
T ( )

Ohms

Torque

Nm

J ( )

Kgm 2

Pe ( )

Moment of
Inertia
Coefficient of
viscous friction
Simulation
sampling interval
Time index of
sampling
Motor Constant
Mechanical
power
Electrical power

Pp ( )

Total loss power

watts
watts

( )

Efficiency

Non dimensional

Fig. 1. Diagram of a series wound DC motor. The dotted lines show the
electrical, mechanical and magnetic component.

k
Pm ( )

II. SERIES WOUND DC MOTOR IDEAL MODEL


Initially an ideal model is proposed where there are no
disturbances of any kind and are examined the power
losses through the input and output power.

Meaning
Angular Velocity
Voltage
Armature current
Total resistance

From figure 1, we obtain the following equations

978-1-4244-4480-9/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE

(1)

ia ( ) =

Keywords - Motor, direct current, model, simulation,


losses.
I. INTRODUCTION

k i ( ) ea + RJ ( )
RJ + Rb + k 2 i 2 ( )

1073

Nm / rad / seg

sec onds
Non dimensional
Non dimensional

watts

III. SERIES WOUND DC MOTOR LOSSES

Where:
Within the DC motor components (magnetic, mechanical
and electrical sections) energy is exchanged (From
electrical energy to magnetic energy and from magnetic
energy to mechanical energy) and in these mechanisms
exchange, there are power losses.

Symbol

3.1 Mechanical Losses


Usually, the mechanical losses are found in surfaces in
contact and constant friction, where we find:

Se
Vcol

3.1.1 Friction losses in the slip bearings PRC .


These losses are due to continuous friction, that exist in
the mechanism that allow the motor spin axis and is
defined by the following equation [5].
PRC = 0.52d g l g Vg

Dcol

Vcol =

Vg =

(9)

Length

dg

Diameter

n
PRC

Speed
Friction losses in
the slip bearings

[cm]

Dcol n

(16)
(17)

[cm]
[cm]

3.1.3 Ventilation Losses PV


In the case of electric machines with very fast spinning
surfaces, it is estimated that could generate an air flow
capable of decreasing spinning power to the armature,
ventilation power losses are obtained by using the
following equation [5]:
(18)
PV = 1.1V VV 2

[RPM ]
watts

[m / s] for cooling the DC motor and is determined by:

Units

[m / s]

Where V is the amount of air needed given in

V =

It is possible to use the following equation:


3
(12)
PRC = 45(d g ) n 3 *10 6
If the machine has rolling bearings, the following
equation is used.

( )

PRC = 150 d g 3 n *10 6

(13)

In this case, the use of rolling bearings greatly reduces the


mechanical losses. Now, the total power loss PRC would
be based on the number of bearings used (in this case
two), so the result is multiplied by the number of
bearings, namely:
PRCT = nc PRC
(14)
3.1.2 Brush friction power losses PRE .
In a DC motor, it is common to find this type of loss
because the carbons that make contact with the terminals
of the armor are worn out by the friction generated by the
armature rotation. This can be defined by the following
equation [5]:

Losses transformed int o heat


1000 te

(19)

Where te is the temperature rise experienced by the


coolant air flowing thru the DC motor (may be the
increase of temperature in interval time) measured in
C . The fan speed VV is calculated by:

VV =

PRE = 9.81 e P S e Vcol

[m / s ]

If 6 are equal their surfaces are added, and thereby the


width and length must be known.

(11)

6000

lg

(10)

n dg

Meaning
Peripheral speed

[cm ]

S e = Brushes Surface

Where
Symbol
Vg

Kg / cm 2

6000
Where Brushes surface friction Se is:

Where,
Pm
n
l g = 2. 5d g

Units
Non dimensional

And:

(8)

d g = 2 .8 4

Meaning
Brushes friction
coefficient
Specific Brush
pressure
Brushes friction
surface
Collector
peripheral speed
Collector
diameter

DV n
6000

(20)

Where DV is the fan diameter in [cm]. The power losses


converted into heat are considered accordingly to the
electric machines efficiency. The electric input power to
an electric machine is:

Pe =

Pm
Efficiency (%)

(21)

Then, the power losses will be:

(15)

1074

Plosses transformed int o heat = Pe Pm

(22)

3.4 Additional losses


In an electric machine there are areas in continuous
friction that can contribute to heat emission either by
exposing to a long working time and / or by excessive
load. This heat is dispersed throughout the DC entire
motor, to such a degree that due to the emission of the
same phenomenon the field and/or armature of the motor
acquire part of this energy dispersed on the rubbing
surfaces. The heat in the iron core (field and armature) is
also transmitted to the copper wire conductors. The wire
conductor has a certain resistance, which is defined by
equation [7] [8]:
(27)
L
R=
A
In turn, the resistivity is given by the following equation:

3.1.4 Mechanical losses of the machine:


Mechanical losses are determined using this equation
[5]:
PMR = PRC + PRE + PV

(23)

Where:
Symbol
PMR
PRC
PRE
PV

Meaning
Mechanical losses
Friction losses in
the slip bearings.
Brush friction loss
Ventilation losses

Units

watts
watts
watts
watts

= a 20 c [1 + [T 20 C ]]

That is:
PMR = PRC + PRE + PV =

(24)

= 0.52d g l g Vg 3 + 9.81 E P S E Vcol + 1.1 V VV 2

3.2 Magnetic power losses.


These power losses are found in the iron motors core.
3.2.1 Eddy current losses Pf (t ) .
If in a ferromagnetic core, the magnetic field established,
varies with time, then a voltage is induced in the nucleus,
resulting in a current flow. The nucleus has a finite
resistance, and therefore dissipates energy due to losses
by Joule effect.
To calculate the instantaneous power loss due to eddy
current losses disregarding the surface effect the
following equation is considered [6]:

w2 [ea ]
Pf (t ) =
2
12 ( NA)
2

(25)

Where the iron core area value A , is used taking into


account the stacking factor, is the resistivity of the
material in [ mm 2 / m ] , N is the winding number, and w
the width of the plate in [m] . The stacking factor is the
ratio of effective area to the total area of cross section.
Usually these values are between 0.75 0.95 .
3.3 Electrical power losses Pcu .
When there is a flow current in copper lines of an electric
motor (in the armor as well as in the field), power loss
through the winding is dissipated [5].
3.3.1 Armature copper power loss
It is determined by the following equation [5]:

Pcu = Ria

Then, equation (27) is rewritten

R ( )

Where the input power is calculated by equation (21) and


the power losses transformed into heat through the
equation (22). The percentage of mechanical power
losses is based on the power losses turned into heat.

(28)

L
a 20 c [1 + [T 20 C ]]
A
A
= R a 20 C [1 + [T 20 C ]]
=

(29)

Where R is the winding resistance in [] , L is the


length of the winding expressed in [m] , A is the cross
section of the copper wire and T the ambiental
temperature in [ C ] .In developing the mathematical
model, there are equations where the resistance and
resistivity of the material occurs. Then the following
equations are rewritten:

(t) =

k i(t)ea+ R( )J(t )
R( )J +[R( )b+ k2i2 (t)]

(30)

For the electrical current:

ia (t ) =

ea
R( ) + k (t )

(31)

In the case of the losses previously mentioned, the


equations are rewritten:
(32)
w2 [e( f )]2
Pf (t ) =
2
12 a 20 c [1 + [T 20 C ]](NA)
By the same token, in the case of electric losses the
copper loss is expressed as follows:
2
(33)

Pcu = R( )ia (t )

V. GENERALIZATION OF A SERIES WOUND DC


MOTOR
In this section there is a more complete analysis, and
random noises are added aside from considering to the
model, considering also the internal losses. The figures
show the random noises applied to the electric motor
model. In this case affect them, the angular velocity
behavior. And adding these two disturbances, the angular
velocity can be altered as shown below.

(26)

1075

Fig. 2 Angular velocity curve

( ) with deterministic and no

deterministic disturbances.

Fig. 5 Ventilation power losses

PV

It is worth noting that external disturbances not only


affect the angular velocity, but also the mechanical,
electrical and magnetic losses.
VI. RESULTS OF THE SERIES WOUND DC MOTOR
SIMULATION
A series of the most representative graphs of the motor,
were the results of the motor simulation. Curves such as
torque vs. angular velocity, torque vs. electric current,
angular velocity vs. electric current are given by DC
motor manufacturers that provide information that can be
used in choosing the best electric motor for a particular
task furthermore the behavior of the losses was obtained
and the way they interfere in the behavior of the
remaining parameters.

Fig. 3 Friction

Fig. 6. Eddy current power losses Pf

(t ) .

Fig. 7 Electrical power losses Pcu .

power losses in the slip bearings PRC .

Fig. 8 Temperature fluctuation (Close up)


Fig. 4 Brush friction power losses PRE .

1076

Fig. 9 Armature resistance fluctuation

R( )

Quantities that vary with respect to the system evolution


can be viewed in the following graphics: torque vs.
angular speed, torque vs. electric current, angular speed
vs. electric current.

Fig. 2Angular speed vs. Electric current

VII. CONCLUSIONS
By including the powers losses in the series wound DC motor
simulation in addition to the disturbances a series of graphs
were obtained which give broader information of the possible
behavior of the system (in this case the electric motor) thru its
evolution laying down the guideline to possible ways of control
that allow visualize in these graphs and to decide thereby which
should be the best control to be applied.

VIII. REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
Fig. 10 Torque vs. Angular speed
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

Fig. 11 Torque vs. Electric Current

1077

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continua con capacidad de telecontrol y tele monitoreo, 1999
Beaty, Wayne Kirtley , James Ghai N. (2000), Manual del
Motor Elctrico, Mc Graw Hill, Primera edicin.
Liwschitz-Garik, Michael, Whipple, Clyde C. Mquinas de
corriente alterna, Dcima edicin, 1981
Langsdorf, Alexander, Principios de las mquinas de corriente
continua, 1992.
Vargas Prudente Pablo, Problemas Resueltos de mquinas
Sincronas: Conversin de Energa II
Gourishankar, Vembu, Conversin de energa
electromecnica, Representaciones y servicios de Ingeniera
Liwschitz-Garik, Michael, Whipple, Clyde C., Mquinas de
corriente Continua, CECSA 1980
Kosow I.L., Mquinas elctricas y transformadores,
Reverte 19