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and Electric Power Losses

J. S. Valdez Martnez1, P. Guevara Lpez2, J. J. Medel Jurez3

1,2

Escuela Superior de Ingeniera Mecnica y Elctrica, Unidad Culhuacn IPN, Mxico D.F.

Centro de Investigacin en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologa Avanzada IPN, Mxico D.F.

3

Centro de Investigacin en Computacin IPN, Mxico D.F., Mxico.

Telfono (55) 57296000 Ext. 73250 E-mail: jsvaldezmtz@yahoo.com.mx

2, 3

simulation of a Series Wound DC Motor, where the

model is linear, first order and with stationary parameters

(resistance) in variant time described in finite differences.

In addition, it includes losses which commonly affect the

electrical motor efficiency, these are: magnetic,

mechanical and electrical losses. At the same time,

random perturbations statistically limited were added,

these perturbations could be considered as temperature

rising in the DC motor when increasing the values of

some of the losses. Finally, were obtained a set of

simulations

using

Monte

Carlo

method.

velocity ( ) [1], [2], [3], [4].

( ) =

ea

R + k ( )

(2)

T ( ) = kia 2 ( )

Pm ( ) = ( ) T ( )

Pe ( ) = ea ia ( )

Pp ( ) = P( ) e Pm ( )

( ) =

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Pm ( )

Pe ( )

(7)

Where:

motor, series wound DC motors, compound wound DC

motor. In the case of series wound DC motors, the

electrical circuit is illustrated in the following figure:

Symbol

( )

ea

i ( )

Units

rad / s

volts

Ampers

R( )

T ( )

Ohms

Torque

Nm

J ( )

Kgm 2

Pe ( )

Moment of

Inertia

Coefficient of

viscous friction

Simulation

sampling interval

Time index of

sampling

Motor Constant

Mechanical

power

Electrical power

Pp ( )

watts

watts

( )

Efficiency

Non dimensional

Fig. 1. Diagram of a series wound DC motor. The dotted lines show the

electrical, mechanical and magnetic component.

k

Pm ( )

Initially an ideal model is proposed where there are no

disturbances of any kind and are examined the power

losses through the input and output power.

Meaning

Angular Velocity

Voltage

Armature current

Total resistance

(1)

ia ( ) =

losses.

I. INTRODUCTION

k i ( ) ea + RJ ( )

RJ + Rb + k 2 i 2 ( )

1073

Nm / rad / seg

sec onds

Non dimensional

Non dimensional

watts

Where:

Within the DC motor components (magnetic, mechanical

and electrical sections) energy is exchanged (From

electrical energy to magnetic energy and from magnetic

energy to mechanical energy) and in these mechanisms

exchange, there are power losses.

Symbol

Usually, the mechanical losses are found in surfaces in

contact and constant friction, where we find:

Se

Vcol

These losses are due to continuous friction, that exist in

the mechanism that allow the motor spin axis and is

defined by the following equation [5].

PRC = 0.52d g l g Vg

Dcol

Vcol =

Vg =

(9)

Length

dg

Diameter

n

PRC

Speed

Friction losses in

the slip bearings

[cm]

Dcol n

(16)

(17)

[cm]

[cm]

In the case of electric machines with very fast spinning

surfaces, it is estimated that could generate an air flow

capable of decreasing spinning power to the armature,

ventilation power losses are obtained by using the

following equation [5]:

(18)

PV = 1.1V VV 2

[RPM ]

watts

Units

[m / s]

V =

3

(12)

PRC = 45(d g ) n 3 *10 6

If the machine has rolling bearings, the following

equation is used.

( )

(13)

mechanical losses. Now, the total power loss PRC would

be based on the number of bearings used (in this case

two), so the result is multiplied by the number of

bearings, namely:

PRCT = nc PRC

(14)

3.1.2 Brush friction power losses PRE .

In a DC motor, it is common to find this type of loss

because the carbons that make contact with the terminals

of the armor are worn out by the friction generated by the

armature rotation. This can be defined by the following

equation [5]:

1000 te

(19)

coolant air flowing thru the DC motor (may be the

increase of temperature in interval time) measured in

C . The fan speed VV is calculated by:

VV =

[m / s ]

width and length must be known.

(11)

6000

lg

(10)

n dg

Meaning

Peripheral speed

[cm ]

S e = Brushes Surface

Where

Symbol

Vg

Kg / cm 2

6000

Where Brushes surface friction Se is:

Where,

Pm

n

l g = 2. 5d g

Units

Non dimensional

And:

(8)

d g = 2 .8 4

Meaning

Brushes friction

coefficient

Specific Brush

pressure

Brushes friction

surface

Collector

peripheral speed

Collector

diameter

DV n

6000

(20)

converted into heat are considered accordingly to the

electric machines efficiency. The electric input power to

an electric machine is:

Pe =

Pm

Efficiency (%)

(21)

(15)

1074

(22)

In an electric machine there are areas in continuous

friction that can contribute to heat emission either by

exposing to a long working time and / or by excessive

load. This heat is dispersed throughout the DC entire

motor, to such a degree that due to the emission of the

same phenomenon the field and/or armature of the motor

acquire part of this energy dispersed on the rubbing

surfaces. The heat in the iron core (field and armature) is

also transmitted to the copper wire conductors. The wire

conductor has a certain resistance, which is defined by

equation [7] [8]:

(27)

L

R=

A

In turn, the resistivity is given by the following equation:

Mechanical losses are determined using this equation

[5]:

PMR = PRC + PRE + PV

(23)

Where:

Symbol

PMR

PRC

PRE

PV

Meaning

Mechanical losses

Friction losses in

the slip bearings.

Brush friction loss

Ventilation losses

Units

watts

watts

watts

watts

= a 20 c [1 + [T 20 C ]]

That is:

PMR = PRC + PRE + PV =

(24)

These power losses are found in the iron motors core.

3.2.1 Eddy current losses Pf (t ) .

If in a ferromagnetic core, the magnetic field established,

varies with time, then a voltage is induced in the nucleus,

resulting in a current flow. The nucleus has a finite

resistance, and therefore dissipates energy due to losses

by Joule effect.

To calculate the instantaneous power loss due to eddy

current losses disregarding the surface effect the

following equation is considered [6]:

w2 [ea ]

Pf (t ) =

2

12 ( NA)

2

(25)

account the stacking factor, is the resistivity of the

material in [ mm 2 / m ] , N is the winding number, and w

the width of the plate in [m] . The stacking factor is the

ratio of effective area to the total area of cross section.

Usually these values are between 0.75 0.95 .

3.3 Electrical power losses Pcu .

When there is a flow current in copper lines of an electric

motor (in the armor as well as in the field), power loss

through the winding is dissipated [5].

3.3.1 Armature copper power loss

It is determined by the following equation [5]:

Pcu = Ria

R ( )

the power losses transformed into heat through the

equation (22). The percentage of mechanical power

losses is based on the power losses turned into heat.

(28)

L

a 20 c [1 + [T 20 C ]]

A

A

= R a 20 C [1 + [T 20 C ]]

=

(29)

length of the winding expressed in [m] , A is the cross

section of the copper wire and T the ambiental

temperature in [ C ] .In developing the mathematical

model, there are equations where the resistance and

resistivity of the material occurs. Then the following

equations are rewritten:

(t) =

k i(t)ea+ R( )J(t )

R( )J +[R( )b+ k2i2 (t)]

(30)

ia (t ) =

ea

R( ) + k (t )

(31)

equations are rewritten:

(32)

w2 [e( f )]2

Pf (t ) =

2

12 a 20 c [1 + [T 20 C ]](NA)

By the same token, in the case of electric losses the

copper loss is expressed as follows:

2

(33)

Pcu = R( )ia (t )

MOTOR

In this section there is a more complete analysis, and

random noises are added aside from considering to the

model, considering also the internal losses. The figures

show the random noises applied to the electric motor

model. In this case affect them, the angular velocity

behavior. And adding these two disturbances, the angular

velocity can be altered as shown below.

(26)

1075

deterministic disturbances.

PV

affect the angular velocity, but also the mechanical,

electrical and magnetic losses.

VI. RESULTS OF THE SERIES WOUND DC MOTOR

SIMULATION

A series of the most representative graphs of the motor,

were the results of the motor simulation. Curves such as

torque vs. angular velocity, torque vs. electric current,

angular velocity vs. electric current are given by DC

motor manufacturers that provide information that can be

used in choosing the best electric motor for a particular

task furthermore the behavior of the losses was obtained

and the way they interfere in the behavior of the

remaining parameters.

Fig. 3 Friction

(t ) .

Fig. 4 Brush friction power losses PRE .

1076

R( )

can be viewed in the following graphics: torque vs.

angular speed, torque vs. electric current, angular speed

vs. electric current.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

By including the powers losses in the series wound DC motor

simulation in addition to the disturbances a series of graphs

were obtained which give broader information of the possible

behavior of the system (in this case the electric motor) thru its

evolution laying down the guideline to possible ways of control

that allow visualize in these graphs and to decide thereby which

should be the best control to be applied.

VIII. REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

Fig. 10 Torque vs. Angular speed

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

1077

continua con capacidad de telecontrol y tele monitoreo, 1999

Beaty, Wayne Kirtley , James Ghai N. (2000), Manual del

Motor Elctrico, Mc Graw Hill, Primera edicin.

Liwschitz-Garik, Michael, Whipple, Clyde C. Mquinas de

corriente alterna, Dcima edicin, 1981

Langsdorf, Alexander, Principios de las mquinas de corriente

continua, 1992.

Vargas Prudente Pablo, Problemas Resueltos de mquinas

Sincronas: Conversin de Energa II

Gourishankar, Vembu, Conversin de energa

electromecnica, Representaciones y servicios de Ingeniera

Liwschitz-Garik, Michael, Whipple, Clyde C., Mquinas de

corriente Continua, CECSA 1980

Kosow I.L., Mquinas elctricas y transformadores,

Reverte 19

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