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CE331,Spring2011

AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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20f

Checkthestrengthofeachtypeofmemberintheonestorysteelframebuildingbelow.

A
B
4@8ft
1

3@25ft

SideElevation

4
Plan View
32ft

20ft

Fy =50ksi allmembers
Fu=65ksi

Shape
Purlins
W12x40
Girders
W21x44
Columns
W16x36

FrontElevation

Loads:
3.5thicklightweightconcreteslab(unit
weight=120pcf)
LL=40psf
WL=30psf

LoadCombinations:
1.2D+1.6L
1.2D+1.6W

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AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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Identifypurlins(orjoists)andgirders.TheroofdeckshownbelowissupportedbytheZ
shapedpurlins,whichruntransversetothedeckcorrugations(seeexplodedbuildinginfigure
below).FortheexampleonPage1,theownerwantstoaddanotherstoryatalaterdate,so
theroofisa3.5inchthickconcretefloorslab.Floorsaresupportedbyjoists(inthiscase
W12x40steelwideflangebeams).Thejoistsareinturnsupportedbythegirders,whichrun
transversetothejoists.Thegirdersaresupportedattheirendsbythecolumns.

4@8ft

wtrib

Firstofall,theHshapedsymbolsrepresentthe
columns.

InthePlanViewatleft,weseethatsomeofthe
verticalmembersinthesketchareattached
directlytocolumns,

3@25ft

butthatsomeoftheverticalmembersareattached
attheirendstootherbeams.

Theendsofthehorizontalmembers,ontheother
hand,allattachtocolumns.

Therefore,thehorizontalmembersinthesketchare
girders,andtheverticalmembersarejoists.
4

PlanView

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AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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JoistmaxMu
Thejoistsarethreespancontinuousbeams.Loadingallofthespansofacontinuousbeammay
notcausethemaximumbendingmoment.Althoughthepositionofthedeadloadisgiven,the
positionofliveloadisvariableandthestructuralengineermustdeterminetheloadingcausing
themaximumbendingmoment.

Onewayofdeterminingtheloadingcausingthemaximumbendingmomentistoapplyall
possibleloadconfigurations,oneatatime,andselecttheloadingcausingthemaximumeffect.
Inthisclasswewilltakeashortcutthatprovidesthesameanswermostofthetime:wewill
assumethatthelocationofthemaximumbendingmomentduetodeadplusliveloadsisthe
locationwiththemaximumbendingmomentduetodeadloads.

LocationofmaxMD+L=LocationofmaxMD
Thestatementaboveistrueforcontinuousbeamswithequalspanlengths.

Ourprocedureforcalculatingthemaximummomentduetofactoredloadswillbe:
1. Applythedeadloadtoallspansandcalculatethemoment(MD)usingchartsfromthe
AISCmanual
2a.AssumethatthelocationofthemaxMD+L=thelocationofthemaxMD.Drawthe
influencediagramformomentforthislocation.
2b.Applytheliveloadtothespansindicatedbytheinfluencediagramandcalculatethe
moment(ML)usingtheAISCcharts.
3. CalculateMufrom1.2MD+1.6ML.

1.DeadLoads:
3@25ft

weightofslab=3.5/12/x120pcf=35psf
selfweightofW12x40joist=40plf
wtinplf

wD

Trib.

Width* LoadonJoist
slab 35psf 8ft
=(35psf)(8ft)=0.280klf

Joists 40plf
=0.040klf
0.080wL2
D
0.025wL2

w ==0.320klf

MD,k
*seesketchonbottomofPg.2

0.100wL2=20.0kft

MaxMD=0.100wL2fromAISCcharts
MD=0.100(0.320klf)(25ft)2
MD=20.0kft

CE331,Spring2011

AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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2.LiveLoads:

AssumeAT=areasupportedbyonespanofthejoist(conservative)

15
, 0.4 LLreduction 1.0(pg143FEReference)
LLreduc _ factor = 0.25 +

k
A
LL T

k LL = 2 (beams)

AT = tributary area ofjoist = (8 ft )(25 ft ) = 200 sf

15
LLreduc _ factor = 0.25 +

(2) (200 sf

= 1.00

Therefore
wL=(LLreduc_factor)(LL)(tributarywidth)=(1.0)(40.0psf)(8ft)/(1000lb/k)=0.320klf

2a.AssumemaxMD+LoccursatlocationofmaxMD

InfluenceDiagramforMatSupport2:
wLL

2b.Spanloadingtocausemax.MatSupport

maxML=0.1167(0.320klf)(25ft)2=23.3kft

MLL
0.1167wL2 =23.3kft

ML=23.3kft

3.Mu=momentduetofactoredloads

UseLoadCombinationforgravityloads(deadandliveloads)frompage1:1.2D+1.6L

Mu=1.2(20.0kft)+1.6(23.3kft)
Mu=61.3kft

CE331,Spring2011

AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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Joistunitycheck
Theunitycheckistheratioofthedemand(Muinthiscase)overcapacity(Mn)
isthestrengthreductionfactorforflexure,andMnisthenominalflexurestrength.Mnis
calledtheavailableflexurestrength.
Wewillconsidertwofailuremodesforsteelbeams:

materialfailure(yielding)and
buckling(lateraltorsionalbucklingorLTB)inwhichthecompressionflangebuckles
laterallyandcausesthebeamtotwist.
Thecontrollingfailuremodedependsonthelateralunbracedlengthofthebeams
compressionflange,Lb.Largeunbracedlengthsleadtostabilityfailure(LTB).Iftheunbraced
lengthisshortenoughtopreventLTB,thenthebeamscrosssectionwillyieldcompletely
formingaplastichingeinthebeam.TheavailableplasticmomentstrengthisdenotedMp.

TheequationsfromtheFEReference
forcalculatingMnareshownat
right(pg150):

Sincethejoistcompressionflangeisbracedlaterallycontinuouslybytheroofdiaphragm,Lb=0.
So:Lb=0<LpandMn=Mp

Mp=214kft,[AISCTable32,pg154FERef.]

Mu
61.3k ft
U .C. =
=
= 0.29 < 1.0, OK
M n 214k ft

CE331,Spring2011

AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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GirdermaxMu
Sinceallofthegirdersarethesamesize,thegirderwiththelargestunitycheckwillbethe
girderwiththelargestloads.Therefore,analyzeagirderfroman
interiorframe.Theloadsonthisgirderareindicatedinthesketch
below,where
Pext=theloadsonthegirderfromexteriorjoistsand
Pint=theloadsonthegirderfrominteriorjoists

4@8ft
Pext

Pint

Pint

Pint

Pext
Atribforloadon
girderfrom
exteriorjoist
Atribforloadon
girderfrom
interiorjoist

25

Thetributaryareasusedtocalculatetheseloadsareshowninthesketchatright.Sinceonly
theinteriorloadswillcausebendingofthegirderforthisexample,weonlyneedtocalculate
Pint.

DeadLoads:

weightofslab=35psf
selfweightofjoist=40plf
selfweightofW21x44girder=44plf
wtinplf

Trib.Areaor

Trib.Length
LoadonJoist
slab
35psf
=(8ft)(25ft)=200sf
=(35psf)(200sf)=7.00k

Joists 40plf
25ft
=(40plf)(25ft)=1.00k

Girder 44plf
8ft
=(44plf)(8ft)=0.352k

PD==8.35k

CE331,Spring2011

AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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LiveLoads:
Sincethegirderisasinglespan,thereisnoneedtoconsiderspanloadpatternsforliveload.

Forliveloadreduction,tributaryarea(At)equalstributarywidth(25)timesthespanlength
(32).
At=25ftx32ft=800sf
18k
18k
18k
15
LLreduction = 0.25 +
= 0.625 (between
sf
(2) (800 )
0.4and1.0,OK)
27k
27k

PL=(40psf)(0.625)(25ft)(8ft)=5.0k
27k

9k
Mu:
V
8

k
k
k
Pu=1.2(8.35 )+1.6(5.0 )=18.0
288kft

Afterdrawingtheshearandmomentdiagrams(at
right),
M

Mu=288kft

Girderunitycheck
Usethesameequationsonpg150oftheFEreferenceaswereusedforthejoist.
Thetopflangeofthesimplyconnectedgirderisincompression.Thejoistsareconnectedto
thetopflangeofthegirderandprovidelateralrestraint.Thereforetheunbracedlengthofthe
compressionflange,Lb,equals8ft.
Lp=4.45ft,Lr=13.0ft[AISCTable32,pg154FERef.]
Lp<(Lb=8ft)<Lr
Mn=Cb[MpBF(LbLp)]<Mp

Cb=1.0(alwaysforthisclass)
Mp=358kft[AISCTable32,pg154FERef.]
BF=16.8k[AISCTable32,pg154FERef.]
Mn=(1)[358kft16.8k(8ft4.45ft]
Mn=298kft(<358kft=Mp)

Mu
288k ft
=
UC =
=0.97<1,OK
M n 298k ft

[pg150,FERef.]

CE331,Spring2011

AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

ColumnmaxPu(criticalcolumn=interiorcolumn)

DeadLoads:
weightofslab=35psf
wtjoists=40plf
wtgirder=44plf

8/11

16

25

slab

35psf

Trib.Areaor
Trib.Length
=(16ft)(25ft)=400sf

Joists

40plf

25ft

Girder 44plf

16ft

LiveLoads:

At=(32'/2)(25)=400sf

15
LL reduction = 0.25 +

( 4) ( 400 sf

PL=(40psf)(0.625)(400sf)=10.0k

Pu=1.2(17.2k)+1.6(10.0k)

2.5

LoadonJoist
=(35psf)(400sf)=14.00k

=(40plf)(25ft)(2.5joists)=2.50k

=(44plf)(16ft)=0.704k
PD==17.20k

= 0.625

Pu=36.6k

CE331,Spring2011

AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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Columnunitycheck

UnbracedLengths:
Theaxialstrengthofthecolumndependsonitsunbracedlengths.Thecolumnisbracedonat
itsendsforbucklingaboutitsX(strong)axis(seefiguresbelow).Thegirtbracesthecolumnat
midheightforbucklingaboutitsY(weak)axis.Therefore,Lu_x=20ft,andLu_y=10ft.

Y(weakaxis)

X(strongaxis)

Lu_y

Lu_x
X

BucklingaboutX
(strong)axis

BucklingaboutY
(weak)axis

CE331,Spring2011

AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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TherelevantsectionpropertiesforthecolumncanbelookedupinatableintheFEReference.

A = 10.6 in 2 , rx = 6.51in , ry = 1.52 in , [Table1 1,pg153FE Refer]

Thecolumnbucklingstrengthisafunctionoftheslendernessratio(KL/r);thehigherthe
slendernessratio,thelowerthebucklingstrength.Theslendernessratiomustbecalculated
forbucklingabouteachaxis,withthelargestslendernessratiocontrolling.

k x Lu _ x
rx
k y Lu _ y
ry

(1.0)(20
=

12 in
1 ft

)
= 36.9

6.51in
(1.0)(10

ft

in
ft 12

1 ft

1.52 in

)
= 78.9

controls

KL/r=79(roundup)

Fcr=28.5ksi[AISCTable422,pg157FERef.]
Pn=FcrA=(28.5ksi)(10.6in2)=302k

UC =

Pu
36.6 k
=
= 0.12 <1.0,OK(butoverdesigned)
Pn 302k

EndWallCrossBracingmaxTuduetoWindLoads

Letsfollowthewindloadsappliedtoalongwallofthebuilding(seesketchbelow).Assume
thatthewallactslikeasimplysupportedbeamspanningbetweenthefoundationsonthe
bottomandtheroofdiaphragmonthetop,thenhalfofthewindloadgoestothefoundations
alongthebottomofthewall,andtheotherhalfisdistributedtotheroofdiaphragm.

RoofDiaphragm

WindLoad
WindLoad
Foundation
EndWall

Theroofdiaphragmactslikeabeaminthehorizontalplane:itsupportsthedistributedload
fromthetopofthewall,andisinturnsupportedatitsendsbytheendwalls.Assumethatonly

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AnalysisofSteelBracedFrameBldg

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theendwallsarebracedagainstsidesway(xbracingontheinternalframeswouldrestrictthe
useofthebuilding).Thenhalfofthewindloadtotheroofdiaphragmisappliedtothetopof
eachendwall.

Theendwallactslikeaverticalcantileverbeam:thehorizontalforceappliedtoitsfreeend
resultsinahorizontalreactionatitsbaseandacouple(calledtheoverturningmomentdue
towindload).Ratherthanspecifyonediagonalbracethatcancarrytensionorcompression
(dependingonthewinddirection),structuralengineersusuallyspecifyxbracingandassume
thatthediagonalbraceincompressionbuckleselastically.Thereforethehorizontalwindload
atthetopoftheendwallisresistedbythehorizontalcomponentofthetensiondiagonal
brace.

Theportionofthelongwallareathatcollectsthewindloaddistributedtothetopofanend
wallisindicatedinthesketchbelow.

wallareacollectingwindload
appliedtoleftendwall

h/2

Lbldg/2

IsometricView

Forthecurrentexample,theforceatthetopoftheendwallduetofactoredwindload(see
loadcombinationonPage1)is:

h
Length of Bldg
20' 75'
PUWend wall = (1.6)(WL)( col )(
) = (1.6)(30 psf )( )( ) = 18.0 k
2
2
2 2

18kC

ft

21.2 T
EndWallElevation

37.7ft

20

32ft

Thetensionforceinthediagonalbraceduetofactoredwindloadsistherefore:
TUendwallbrace=21.2k
TUendwallbrace=(18k)(37.7ft/32ft)