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Before the Romantic poets, childhood had not been an important literary theme in English literature. To Blake, though, writing less then thirty years after the publication of Rousseau’s novel Emile (1762), which had advecared {he education of children through their natural impulses and intereste the child represented ‘innocence’. From then on and throughout the ninetcendh century the child was a symbol ofthe artist's dissatisfaction with an unfeelin chilGren, so childhood tended to become a symbol of nostalgic retreat for adults unwilling to grow up. At ts best, though, the Victorian artists interest in children served as an Sempt to provide a fundamental criticism of contemporary life. It wes Sccepied that children were not merely the imperfect adults they were {ekarded asin previous centuries. They had their own kinds of experience values which could be dramatised in fiction, p2:1. Charles Dickens began his career as a journalist. In his novels, which were Gharies Dickens published serially in weekly and monthly periodicals, he stacker nr injustic OBte-rETIO) many Social systems (such as education and the law) and the inequeion, Geigen the rich and the poor. His titles ince Oliver Ts (1837: 1939) Copperfield (1889-1850) and Bleak House (1852-1853), armup The following extracts are rom the early chapters of Dicke’s Gat Exettin (0861), Do you knov what the novel is about? Can you guess hens de RE, & Young boy and the narrator ofthe story, has been brought up by his sister nd brother in-law, Joe Gargery, a humble blacksmith. The scene ic tre, ‘marshlat between the River Thames and the River Medway in the southeast ot England. * Which of these words apply to Joe Gargery, which to Mrs Gargery? ‘meek, simple-minded, domineering ‘What are Pips feelings towards his sister and brother-in-law? Esily next morning Pip sets off from home having stolen some bread and cheese. a pork pie and some brandy, which he has taken fron bottle in the the equivalent amount of water from aj ‘What do you imagine his feelings are? Kitchen cupboard and replaced with GLOSSARY my (LD: frosty goblin 0.2) evi ugly Tooking fairy pare (4); small amount of lammy (6 old ane Hulls (12) targe ships “used as prisons. dyes (115) ditches rte (119) deck scart ‘Phubbered 12): cried ings 1.25) backlogs cuossaRy - sll room for Pay 12) ried nh 9 ven i at of fositheend danas.) one part tinge contest ucieachcion smartngly touche up (23). stung gas (113) pricks Itwas a rimy morning, and very damp. I had seen the damp lying ‘on the outside of my little window, as if some Goblin had been cry- ing there all night, and using the window for a pocket-handkerchief. ‘Now I saw the damp lying on the bare hedges and spare grass, ike ’ coarser sort of spiders’ webs; hanging itself from twig to twig and 5 blade to blade, On every rail and gate, wet lay clammy, and the ‘marsh-mist was so thick, that the wooden finger on the post di- ecting people to our village ~ a direction which they never accepted, for they never came there ~ was invisible to me until 1 was quite close under it. Then, as [looked up atit, while it dripped, itseemed 10 to my oppressed conscience like a phantom devoting me to the ‘Hulks.The mist was heavier yet when I got out upon the marshes, 80 that instead of my running at everything, everything seemed to Fun at me. This was very disagreeable to a guilty mind. The gates and dykes and banks came bursting at me through the mist, as if is they cried as plainly as could be, ‘A boy with Somebody-clse's ‘pork pie! Stop him!The cattle came upon me with like suddenness, Staring out of their eyes, and steaming out of their nostrils, Holloa, young thief!’ One black ox, with a white cravat on — who even had tomy awakened conscience something of aclericalair—fixed meso 2 obstinately with his eyes, and moved his blunt head round in such an accusatory manner as I moved round, that I blubbered ont to him, ‘I couldn't help it, sir! It wasn't for myself I took it!” Upon which he put dowm his head, blew a cloud of smoke out of his Rose, and vanished with a kick-up of his hindlegs and a flourish of his tail, — {) How are we made aware of Pip’s feelings? ii) Find an example of personification. What effect does it have? iii) Comment on the way the atmosphere is created. Pip gives the convict the food and retums home. For Christmas lunch the Gargery household is joined by Mr Wopsle, a church clerk, Mr Hubble, a wheelwright (a person who makes wooden carts), Mrs Hubble and Uncle Pumblechook, Joe's uncle, Among this good company Ishould have felt myselfeven ifThadi't 1 robbed in the pantry, ina false position. Not because {was squeezed {mat an acute angle of the table-cloth, with the table in my chest, and the Pumblechookian elbow in my eye, nor becatse I was not allowed to speak (I didn’t rant to speak) nor because Twas regaled + ‘with the scaly tips of the drumsticks of the fowls, and with those obscure corners of pork of which the pig, when living, had had the least reason to be vain. No; I should not have minded that if they ‘would only have left me alone. But they wouldn't leave me alone. ‘They seemed to think the opportunity lost, if they failed to point 10 into me. I might have been an unfortunate little bull in a Spanish arena, got so smartingly touched up by these moral goads. 4) Which of the following altematives is wrong? He twas given the worst fod / ignored /forced to be silent / taunted. ii) How does Dickens convey the gap between Pip and the adults? 45 Appreciation Charles Dickens Mrs Hubble asks Pip's sister if he has been any trouble to her Can you guess what her reaction is? Answer at least one of the following; §) How is Pip shown in relation to other people? How does Dickens keep us sympathetic to him? ii) Comment on Dickens's descriptions of places and people’s physical characteristics. What is their role? ili) How does Dickens make us laugh? Dicken's father was a government official who liked to live prosperously. His sudden pover and imprisonment for debt was a great shock to the ¥ of the novels contain prison themes and describe the misery of childhood in the urban, industrial environment of early Victorian England, ‘The novels also reflect the profound social ‘changes which took place throughout the nineteenth century as new manufacturing towns sprang up around the coal mines and the north of England. Instead of the old village and family stability, we see a new industrialism which brought with it widespread corruption and a lack of concern for the emotional and imaginative lives of individuals, particularly children. (Chien working ina factory inthe 18405 Dickens is still the most popular of English novelists. He has an astonishing range of characters of all classes and is a master of many styles of language - notably poetic prose and comic dialogue. His narrative inventiveness is unique and his graphic, tragi-comic vision of the world (which sometimes slips into sentimentality) has great appeal. Asa man he was reputed to be full of charm, enthusiasm and exuberance. He had a large family with his wife Catherine, whom he married in 1836 but was separated from in 1858. In 1867-1868 he visited the USA for a second time, for a strenuous reading tour. He died suddenly in 1870, leaving unfinished his last novel The Mystery of Edwin Drood. 16 1 Reading and Writing Standards Activities ACTIVITY 7 STORY MAP N Date: Title: Author: Seem Publisher and year: —_ SETTING ‘Where: - When: CHARACTERS Protagonist: eee Description (3 Qualities): 1. eee 2 2 3. 2 Antagoni Description (3 Qualities) | Hh 2. 3, CONFLICT i eee eee PLOT EVENTS OF STORY READER'S FEELINGS OR MOOD Feeling: _._._Happening in Books Feeling: Happening in Book: ONE-SENTENCE THEME From What a Novel Idea! © 1997 Katherine Wiesolek Kuta, Teacher Ideas Press. 1-800.237-6124, (a nereenm S S SET SSY 32 / Reading and Writing Standerds Activities ACTIVITY 15 WRITING AN ADDITIONAL CHAPTER FORA NOVEL Name: Date: Title: Author: Publisher and year: 1. Write about a career choice, relationship, or lifestyle choice for a main character either immediately after the end of the book or five years in the future. 2. Write about how another problem in the book was handled by a minor character who may ‘not have been used sufficiently by the author. 3. Write about « new situation that a character becomes involved in so that this new plotline would be a setup for a possible sequel, 4. Write about the next day or the next week of a character's life that would expand upon the resolution of the story, dvestions that remain unanswered at the conchision of the bool. Choose one and decide how it should be answered in your additional chapter, Brainstorm end write some possibilities for addi Uiaaeuscioesioanreuminentsensnacmiseni aan 34 / Reading and Writing Standards Activities ACTIVITY 16 WRITING A NEW ENDING Name: Date: Title: Anthor: - Publisher and year: = Directions: After finishing the novel, write a new ending for the book. You have the opportunity to be creative and change the resolution (ending) of the story. The restrictions are that you must stay in the point of view of the author, and the characters must retain their character traits, The new ending must make sense and be believable. Here are some suggestions for ideas that may or may not apply to your book: 1, The problem could be resolved differently than the author resolved it. 2. The main characters learn (or do not leern) from their experiences, 3, The ending can be changed from happy to tragic. 4. Changing the decision of a particular character could change what happens to other people. 5. Irony could be introduced in the story with a strange or unexpected turn of events, 6. New information about a protagonist or antagonist that you reveal can help create a new ending. 7. New evidence or facts can be disclosed that solve a mystery or suspense story in a different way. 8. The story can end in.an_open-ended way. that makes the reader want some questions answered (possibly in a sequel), 9. The focus of the ending can be on # symbol of importance that may not have been obvious earlier in the novel. Of course, you can come up with an idea of your own.