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# Stanford University Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AA200

## 9.1 The no-slip condition

9.2 The equations of motion
9.3 Plane, Compressible Couette Flow (Review)
9.4 The viscous boundary layer on a wall
9.5 The laminar incompressible boundary layer
9.6 Compressible laminar boundary layers
9.7 Mapping a compressible to an incompressible boundary layer
9.8 Turbulent boundary layers
9.9 Falkner-Skan boundary layers
9.10 Transformation between flat plate and curved wall boundary layers
9.11 The Von Karman integral momentum equation
9.12 Thwaites method for integrating the Von Karman equation,
discussion of M. Heads method for turbulent boundary layers

9.13 Problems

Slip velocity.

## At ordinary temperatures and pressures the mean

free path is very small.

## The upper wall moves at a velocity U while the lower

wall is at rest. The temperature of the upper wall is T .
The flow is assumed to be steady and extends to plus
and minus infinity in the x-direction. Therefore the
velocity and temperature only depend on y.

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The equations of motion reduce to

Both the pressure and shearing stress are uniform throughout the flow. The shearing
stress is related to the velocity through the Newtonian constitutive relation.

Where

Energy integral

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In terms of the friction coefficient and Reynolds number

## the wall friction coefficient for an adiabatic wall is determined in

terms of the Prandtl, Reynolds and Mach numbers.

Qw = 0

## 9.4 The viscous boundary layer on a wall

Reference: Boundary
Layer Theory by
Schlichting

The figure depicts the flow at low Reynolds number less than 100 or so.

## As the Reynolds number is increased to several hundred or more the velocity

profile near the wall becomes quite thin and the guiding effect of the plate leads to a
situation where the vertical velocity is small compared to the horizontal velocity.

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First consider the y - momentum equation.

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The energy equation

simplifies to

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Neglect the normal stress terms.

where

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Newtonian stress.

Fourier's law.

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Measures of boundary layer thickness.
Displacement thickness

Momentum thickness

## 9.6 The laminar incompressible boundary layer

The equations of motion reduce to

Boundary conditions

The pressure

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Introduce the stream function

U=
y

V =

## The continuity equation is identically satisfied and the

momentum equation becomes:

y xy x yy

dU e
= Ue
+ yyy
dx

Boundary conditions

( x, 0 ) = 0

y ( x, 0 ) = 0

y ( x, ) = U e

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The zero pressure gradient, incompressible boundary layer.

y xy x yy = yyy
Similarity variables

= ( 2U x ) F ( )
1/2

U
= y
2 x

1/2

Velocity components

Vorticity

Derivatives

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The Blasius equation

Boundary conditions

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Friction coefficient
Cf =

*
H=
= 2.5916

2
F ( 0 )
Rex

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Let
The Blasius equation can be expressed as

Let

Then

Vorticity at the edge of the layer decays exponentially with distance from the
wall. This support the approach where we divide the flow into separate regions
of rotational and irrotational flow.

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Numerical solution

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The Blasius equation is invariant under a dilation group and
this group can be used to generate the solution in one step!

F [ 0 ] = e3b ( 0.2 )

F [ 0 ] = 0.46965

y xy x yy = yyy

( x, 0 ) = 0

y ( x, ) = U e

y ( x, 0 ) = 0

x = ea x

y = eb y

= ec

## y xy x yy yyy = e2c a 2b y xy e2c a 2b x yy ec 3b yyy = 0

The equation is invariant if and only if

x = ea x

y = eb y

= ea b

## Transform boundary curves and boundary functions

At the wall

( x, 0 ) = 0 all x ea b ( ea x, 0 ) = 0 ( x, 0 ) = 0 all x

y ( x, 0 ) = 0 all x ea 2b y ( ea x, 0 ) = 0 y ( x, 0 ) = 0 all x

At

y ( x, ) = U

all x

ea 2b y ea x, = U

all x

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The governing equations and boundary conditions are invariant
under the group:

x = e2b x

= eb

y = eb y

## The infinitesimal transformation. Expand near b = 0

= 2x

=y

Characteristic equations

dx dy d
=
=
2x
y

Invariants

y
x

F=

= xF ( )

## Since the governing

equations and
boundary conditions
are invariant under
the group we can
expect that the
solution will also be
invariant under the
group.

Substitute.

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Apply a three-parameter dilation group to the equation.

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Free stream boundary condition.

For invariance

In summary

*
H=

0.0904

Homework 4

Shape factor

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9.8 Thwaites' method for approximate calculation of
boundary layer parameters.
From the momentum equation

## Nondimensionalize using and

Ue

Define

Thwaites argued that there should exist a universal function relating m and l(m).

## Thwaites suggests using

L ( m ) = 0.45 + 6m

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Thwaites functions can be calculated explicitly for the Falkner-Skan boundary layers

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N. Curle adjusted Thwaites' functions slightly especially near separation.

L(m)

## Several researchers of the era suggest using

which is consistent with the friction coefficient for the Blasius case

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The von Karman equation becomes

which integrates to

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Example - surface velocity from the potential flow about a circular cylinder.

Thwaites' method gives a finite momentum thickness at the forward stagnation point.
This is useful in a wing leading edge calculation.

The parameter m.

## 9.9 Compressible laminar boundary layers

The boundary layer admits an energy integral very
similar to the one for Couette flow.

Let
. Substitute into the energy equation.
Use the momentum equation to simplify and introduce
the Prandtl number

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Adiabatic wall, Prandtl number equals one.

## 9.10 Mapping a compressible to an

incompressible boundary layer

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Assume viscosity is linearly proportional to temperature

## Viscosity of the virtual flow is the viscosity of the gas

evaluated at the stagnation temperature of the gas.
Continuity and momentum equations

TS - Sutherland
reference
temperature,
110K for Air.

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Partial derivatives

= ??

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Partial derivatives of the stream function from the chain rule.

Velocities

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Convective terms of the momentum equation

Cancel terms

Now

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At the edge of the boundary layer

Now

Note that

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Viscous term. Note

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The boundary layer momentum equation becomes

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Drop the common multiplying factors

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Now the momentum equation is expressed entirely in tildaed variables.

=0

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For an adiabatic wall, and a Prandtl number of one the factor in brackets
is one and the equation maps exactly to the incompressible form.

Skin friction

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In order to solve for the physical velocity profiles we need to
determine the temperature in the boundary layer. Look at the case

## The energy equation was integrated earlier

Use

and

We need to relate wall normal coordinates in the real and virtual flow

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The spatial similarity variable in the virtual flow is

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Spatial similarity variables in the two flows are related by

Now

## Impirical relations for the thickness of the incompressible case,

useful over a limited range of Reynolds number.
Or for a wider range of
Reynolds number

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The incompressible wall friction coefficient

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An impirical form of the velocity profile; the so-called 1/7th power law

The problem with this profile is that it fails to capture one of the most
important features of the turbulent boundary layer profile which is
that the actual shape of the profile depends on Reynolds number.
A much better, though still impirical, relation is the law of the wake
developed by Don Coles at Caltech coupled with the universal law of
the wall. In this approach the velocity profile is normalized by the
wall friction velocity.

## Define dimensionless wall variables

Reference: D. Coles,
The Law of the Wake
in the Turbulent
Boundary Layer, J.
Fluid Mech. Vol 1,
1956

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The thickness of the boundary layer in wall units is

and

## Once the Reynolds number is known most of the important

properties of the boundary layer are known.

Velocity profile

## Viscous sublayer - wall to A

Buffer layer - A to B

C = 5.1

= 0.4

## Measurements of velocity in the logarithmic layer can be used

to infer the skin friction from the law of the wall.
C increase with increasing roughness Reynolds number

ks
ks u *
<3

k u*
Res = s > 100

Res =

Roughness height
Hydraulically smooth
Fully rough

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The method of M. Head 1960 applied to incompressible
turbulent boundary layers
Ue ( x )

x
At any position x the area flow in the boundary layer is

Q = U dy
0

## This can be arranged to read

U
Q = U dy = U e dy U e 1 dy = U e ( * )
0
0
0
Ue

Entrainment velocity

d
Ve =
U e ( * )
dx

## Reference: M.R. Head, Entrainment in

the Turbulent Boundary Layer, Aero.
Res. Council. R&M 3152, 1960

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Head defined the boundary layer shape factor

)
(
=
*

H1

## His model consists of two assumptions:

1) Assume

Ve
1 d
=
U e ( * ) = F ( H 1 )
U e U e dx
2) Assume

H1 = G ( H )

*
H=

## In addition he assumed that the skin friction followed the

impirical formula due to Ludweig and Tillman

Cf =

0.246
10 0.678 H R 0.268

R =

U e

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H1 =

We will use

F ( H1 ) =

0.0306

( H1 3.0 )

0.6169

0.8702
G ( H ) = 3.0445 +
( H 1.1)1.2721

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Several classical references recommend different functions for F and G
Calculation of Separation Points in Incompressible Turbulent Flows
T. CEBECI, G. J. MOSINSKIS, AND A. M. O. SMITH
Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, Calif.
J. AIRCRAFT VOL. 9, NO. 9

Also
Boundary Layer Theory H. Schlichting

Recommend

+3.3 is missing

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Cebeci - Schlichting

H
G

dG
dH

Gap

Discontinuity

H
I prefer a single smooth function
G ( H ) = 3.0445 +

0.8702
( H 1.1)1.2721

H
dG
dH

dG
0.8702 1.2721
=
dH
( H 1.1)2.2721

Comparison

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Typical range of H vs Rex for turbulent boundary layers

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Recall the von Karman integral momentum equation

## For given initial conditions on theta and H and known

free stream velocity distribution Ue(x) this equation is
solved along with the auxiliary equations

0.246
C f = 0.678 H 0.268
10
R
1 d
0.0306
U

H
=
F
H
=
( e 1) ( 1)
U e dx
( H1 3.0 )0.6169
0.8702
H 1 = G ( H ) = 3.0445 +
( H 1.1)1.2721

R =

U e

## Zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer Cp = 0

R initial = 0.664 ( Rx min )

1/2

Rx min = 10,000

Rex

( )

Rex
Cf =

Ln C f

0.0592
Rex1/5

Ludweig-Tillman
Blasius

Ln ( Rex )

## Potential flow about a circular cylinder

Thwaites' method gives a finite momentum thickness at the forward stagnation point.
This is useful in a wing leading edge calculation.

R initial

0.664

=
Rcylinder
12

1/2

Rcylinder =

U R
= 10 5

separation = 151

Rex

Cf

Rex

( )

Ln C f

Rex

Ln ( Rex )

R initial

0.664

=
Rcylinder
12

1/2

Rcylinder =

U R
= 10 7

separation = 166

Rex

Cf

Rex

( )

Ln C f

Rex

Ln ( Rex )

## 9.12 Transformation between flat plate and

curved wall boundary layers
Boundary layer equations

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Transform variables by adding an arbitrary function of x to the
y coordinate

U dg U
U
U Pe xy
dg U Pe xy
U
U Pe xy

+ V
+

= U

V
+
U
+

U
+

V
+

x dx y
x
y
x
y
dx y x
y
x
y x
y

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Insert the transformations of variables and derivatives into the
equations of motion. The result is that the equations are
mapped to themselves.

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Viscous-inciscid interaction algorithm

in Figure 9.29