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Name:

_____________________________________________

Date:________________

HR:________

Chapter 6.4: The Building Blocks of Life (pages 166-171)


Organic Chemistry:
Life on earth is considered _______________-_______________.

Because carbon is such an essential element, scientist have devoted an entire branch of chemistry, called
_____________ ____________ to the study of _______________ ______________which are those compounds
containing __________________.

Carbon has _______ electrons in its outermost energy level, so one carbon atom can form ________ covalent bonds
with other atoms. These compounds can be in the shape of ___________________________________,
__________________________________, and _____________________________.







__________________________ molecule

_______________________ molecule

____________ molecule

Macromolecules:
Macromolecules are ____________________ molecules formed by _________________ smaller _____________
together. These large molecules are also called __________________, made up of repeating compounds called
____________________.
There are 4 major categories of biological macromolecules: ___________________, __________________,
__________________, and ____________________.

Carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates are made up of __________________, _____________________, and _____________________
atoms with a general formula of ___________________.
Simple sugars, or ___________________________, have 3-7 CH2O units. An example is _________________.
Two monosaccharides joined together form a __________________________. Two examples are _______________
and _________________. Longer carbohydrate molecules are called _________________________.
Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of __________________________________.

Lipids:
Lipids are made up of mostly _____________________ and __________________ atoms.

Three examples of lipids are: ________________, __________________ and _________________.

Living things use lipids to ___________________________________.


Types of lipids:
* ____________________________ and ______________________ fats

The basic structure of a lipid includes a polar head and _______________________ tails.

Lipids with only single bonds are called __________________________ fats

Lipids that have at least one double bond are called _______________________ fats.

Lipids with more than one double bond are called ________________________ fats.

* _______________________- A special lipid responsible for the structure of the ____________________________.


* _______________________- including substances such as ______________________ and ____________________

Despite its reputation as a _________ lipid, cholesterol provides the starting point for other necessary lipids.

Protein:
Proteins are compounds made of _______________________ which contain ________________________,
_________________, __________________, ____________________, and sometimes _________________.

Amino Acid Structure: (Use figure 29)

___________ side chain





|
___________group


-- C --
_________________group




|

___________atom

Protein Function:
Proteins make up about _______ of your total body mass. Your ______________, _______________ and __________
are made of protein. Proteins in your cells provide ______________________________, ___________________
substances inside the cell and between cells, ___________________ signals, _____________________ chemical
reactions and control ________________________.

Nucleic Acids:
Nucleic acids store and transmit ______________________ information.

Nucleic Acids are made up of repeating units composed of _______________, ______________, ________________

_______________________, and _______________________ called ________________________.

There are ______ major nucleotides which have three units- ___________________, _____________________ and a
________________________ .
Two types of nucleic acids found in living organisms are _______________________________________ (DNA) and
______________________________________ (RNA).
A nucleotide with three phosphate groups is _________________________________ (ATP) which is a store house of
___________________ that can be used in the cells.