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virtual AP ...

max 128
noise floor

interference

frequency

What are wireless retransmits and where to check them?


To check if the wireless connection has wireless retransmissions you need to com
pare two fields in the wireless registration table: frames and hw-frames. If the
hw-frames value is bigger than frames value then it means that the wireless lin
k is making retransmissions. If the difference is not so big, it can be ignored,
but if the hw-frames count it two, three or four times or even bigger than the
frames count then you need to troubleshoot this wireless connection.
antenna

'ZERO'

antenn
(heading)
|0 (North)
|
-----------|------------90 (E)
|
|
180
180
# CCQ
Tx/Rx

+180
-180

interference
signal strength chain0, chain1

channel
data rate (HT MCS)
signal strength

antenna alig

* EIRP
===
EIRP is the actual amount of signal leaving the antenna, measured in dB.
EIRP = Tx power (dBm) + antenna gain (dBi) - cable loss (dB)
[interface wireless> set frequency-offset=+25]
** Wireless Tools

"Scan List"

**

Scan List (Operating frequency range)


----------Scan-list is used in multiple modes that either gather information for list of c
hannels.
default
channel-1
channel-11
scan
country, band
channel width
default
chann
super channel
channel
scan
channels
Example;
(I) /interface wireless> set scan-list=2412,2432-2484
(II) 2500-2700:20 (20MHz
(version v6.35

scan
version

)
command line

DFS - This property has effect only in "AP mode".


===
Dynamic Frequency Selection from the list of frequencies specified in the Scan L
ist.
- used for APs to dynamically select frequency at which this AP will operate.
none : disables DFS.

no-radar-detect : Select channel from scan-list with the lowest number of detect
ed networks. In 'wds-slave' mode this setting has no effect.
frequency
scan list
radar-detect : Select channel with the lowest number of detected networks and us
e it if no radar is detected on it for 60 seconds. Otherwise, select different c
hannel.
This setting may be required by the country regulations.
( radar
detect
)
WMM : Wi-Fi MultiMedia
===============
WMM works by dividing traffic into 4 access categories: background, best effort,
video, voice.
Priority
1,2 - background
0,3 - best effort
4,5 - video
6,7 - voice
Data Rates
=======
Basci Rates
supported Rates
data rates
HT MCS
HT MCS
=====
HT MCS

rate
support

manual
default
802.11n devices

devices

rates
configured
data rates

rates
data rate ->

rate

HT
==
Tx Chains: chain 0 , chain1
Rx Chains: chain 0 , chain 1
Tx Power
======
TX-power-mode tells the wireless card which tx-power values should be used.
Tx Power Mode: (default | card rates | all rates fixed | manual)
The tx-power default setting is the maximum
s taken from the cards eeprom.
In case of MikroTik Radio devices the power
itten in the eeprom.
For most of the cases if you want to change
ded to use the tx-power-mode=card-rates and
o raise tx-power.

tx-power that the card can use and i


will not be higher that the power wr
the tx-power settings it is recommen
it is recommended to lower and not t

WDS tab (Wireless Distribution System)


=====
WDS Mode: (disable | dynamic | dynamic mesh | static | static mesh)
- static only allows WDS links that are manually configured in wds (
ss
wds add
)
- dynamic also allows WDS links with devices that are not configured in wds, by
creating required entries dynamically. Such dynamic WDS entries are removed aut
omatically after the connection with the other AP is lost.
(interface->wireless
wds add
)

WDS li

WDS Default Bridge : [


]
When WDS link is established and status of the wds interface becomes run
ning, it will be added as a bridge port to the bridge interface specified by thi
s property. When WDS link is lost, wds interface is removed from the bridge. If
wds interface is already included in a bridge setup when WDS link becomes active
, it will not be added to bridge specified by , and will (needs editing)
WDS Ignore SSID = yes/no
wds-default-cost (Default: 100) : Initial bridge port cost of the WDS links.
WDS cost Range : Default [50-150]
Bridge port cost of WDS links are automatically adjusted, depending on m
easured link throughput. Port cost is recalculated and adjusted every 5 seconds
if it has changed by more than 10%, or if more than 20 seconds have passed since
the last adjustment. Automatic adjustment does not work for WDS links that are
manually configured as a bridge port
wds-ignore-ssid (yes | no; Default: no) : By default, WDS link between two APs
can be created only when they work on the same frequency and have the same SSID
value.
###

static wds <--> static wds (ok)


dynamic wds <--> dynamic wds (ok)
static wds <--> dynamec wds (ok)

##@ wds-slave - (wds-slave

wds

frequency

) @##

## You must disable DFS setting if you have more that one AP in bridge/ap-bridge
mode in your WDS network
---------------------------- Bridge Mode (enable | disable) : permissible for customers Using the station b
ridge (option is active only in modes AP).
RouterOS AP accepts clients in station-bridge mo
de when enabled using bridge-mode parameter.
- Mode station-bridge
This mode works only with RouterOS APs and provides support for transparent prot
ocol-independent L2 bridging on station device. RouterOS AP accepts clients in s
tation-bridge mode when enabled using bridge-mode parameter. In this mode AP mai
ntains forwarding table with information on what MAC addresses are reachable ove
r which station device.
- Default AP TX Rate: The speed limit by the AP for connections that are not in
the Access List (bits / sec., 0 - no limit).
- Default Client TX Rate: The speed limit on the client side for connections tha
t are not in the Access List (bits / sec., 0 - no limit).
- Default Authenticate: For AP mode, this setting determines whether to accept c
onnections from clients that are not in the Access List. For client mode - to co
nnect to a AP, which is not in the Access List.
- Default Forward: Whether to allow the routing of customers that are not in the
Access List.
----------------------------------Mesh
===
HWMP+

mode
- reatcive mode
- proactive mode
traffic

mesh

reactive mode

traffic
proactive mode

proactive mode
mesh portal

mode - (ap-bridge)
wds - (dynamic-mesh/static-mesh)
### static-mesh
ssid
frequency
wds default bridge (mesh
create
wds
mesh
wds

WDS links

manually configure

mesh interface

name)

wds
mesh
mesh

## Default Hoplimit: (mesh -> HWMP ->)


Reoptimize Paths
mesh

proactive mode

wds interface

loop

(R)STP

(network topology

ethernet interface
HWMP

HWMP+
mikrotik
Hybird Wireless Mesh Protocol + Protocol Is Not IEEE HWMP Standard , This Proto
col Is Mikrotik Layer 2 Routing Protocol , That can Route Path In Layer 2 Networ
k .
Hardware Protection Mode (Frame protection support property)
================
Wireless->Advanced->Hardware Protection Mode:
none - for no protection (default)
rts-cts (rts - request to send , cts - clear to send)
RTS/CTS based protection
device
RequestToSend frame
RTS or CTS frame
802.11 compliant devices
transmit
(eg; point-to-multipoint
hidden node
res-cts
cts to self - device
CTS frame
(P-t-P
device willing to send frame sends CTS frame "to itself". "CTS to self" based pr
otection has less overhead, but it must be taken into account that this only pro
tects against devices receiving CTS frame (e.g. if there are 2 "hidden" stations
, there is no use for them to use "CTS to self" protection, because they will no
t be able to receive CTS sent by other station - in this case stations must use
RTS/CTS so that other station knows not to transmit by seeing CTS transmitted by
AP).
nstream - CSMA
=====
nstream
nv2
nv2
==
nv2
TDMA
time slot
- AP to client

, polling
hidden node problem

(nv2 is nstream v2.0)


client
down link

- client to AP
up link
up-link
time slot
nv2
nv2

ROS v4
ROS

nv2

nv2

AP
AP

time slot
support

scan

any
->
nv2 nstream 802.11

- nv2

client

-> station

AP-Bridge (wds)

nv2

Station-wds

wireless protocol

(station-wds
(

- 802.11

wds

Nv2) frequency

overlap

------AP
access-list
AP
tx-limit
mikrotik
client

tx limit

(mikrotik client

Management Protection (##proprietary##)


===============
- management protection
RouterOS
- in AP mode, default management protection key can be overridded by key specifi
ed in access-list or RADIUS attribute.
AP

management protection key

AP
--disable
disable
disable

Client
-----disable (
allow (
required

allow
allow
allow

disable (
allow (
required (

required
required
required

management protection

Encryption
=======
Static key
----------WEP
EAP:
---EAP Method

st

)
)
(

)
)
) key

allow (management protection key


required
(
) key
n
disable (
)

Authentication types:
WPA PSK, WPA EAP
WPA2 PSK, WPA2 EAP
Encryption

allowed

aes ccm , tkip

Dynamic key
-------------TKIP , AES-CCM (AES with CTR with CBC-MAC)
aes
tkip
aes
strong

-> eap-tls , passthrough

TLS Mode: -> no certificates, don't verfiy certificate, verfy certificate


TLS Certificate: ->
eap passthrough
eap-tls

radius

radius