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Expt. No.

Date:

CALIBRATION OF STANDING WAVE FLUME


Aim:
1. To determine the coefficient of discharge (Cd) for a given standing wave flume both
by calculation and graphically.
2. To calibrate the standing wave flume by preparing a calibration curve for it.
Introduction: Venturi flume is an artificial construction provided in a channel for the
purpose of measuring the discharge passing through it. Venturi flume is similar to a
venturimeter which is used for measuring the discharge passing through a pipe. The formula
for the discharge passing through the venturi flume can be derived exactly in the same
manner and as it was derived for the venturimeter i.e. by applying Bernoullis equation along
with the continuity equation.
When the flow through the venturi flume occurs under critical condition (i.e. when the
specific energy is minimum for a given discharge or discharge is maximum for a given
specific energy.) then a hydraulic jump or standing wave flume is formed on the downstream
side of the diverging portion of the venturi flume under the favorable conditions. The
venturi-flume is then called as Standing wave flume or Critical Depth flume. Provision of
a hump in the throat portion of the venturi flume ensures the formation of hydraulic jump
over a wide range of discharge variation, so that the venturi flume essentially functions as a
standing wave flume. The advantage of the standing wave flume is that the discharge can be
obtained by measuring the depth of flow in the channel only at the upstream side.
Theory: Formula for discharge in case of a venturi flume can be obtained by applying
Bernoullis equation along with
E1 = E2,
y1

V1
2g

V 22
2g

(y1 - y2) =

y2

V2
2g

+
V 12
2g

From continuity equation;

a1v1 = a2 v2,
a2

v1= a
1 V
y1- y2 =

V2
2g

a2
V
a1 2

( )
2g

( )

v2
a
1 22
2g
a1
v 2=

= y1- y2

a 1 2 g ( y 1 y 2)

a a
2

2
2

Q = a1 v2,
Q=

a1 . a2 2 g ( y 1 y 2 )

a a
2

2
2

V 12
V 22
y1+
= z + y 2 +
2g
2g
a1 a2 2 g ( y 1( y 2 + z ) )

Q=

y1 +

2
1

a22

V 12
V 22
= y2 +
=E
2g
2g

V 22
=E . y 2
2g
V2 =

2 g(E y 2 )

Q = b y 2 2 g (E y 2)
Q=b

2 g(E y

Q=b

2 g ( E y2 y2

2
2

y 23 )

1
3 2

For Qmax ,
Q
=0 ,
y2
1

Q
=
y2

b 2 g y 2 ( 2 E . y 23 y 22 ) 2

2Ey2 3y22= 0,
2E

y
2

= 3y2,

E y y
2

y=

2
E
3

v2 =

2g .

v2 =

v2 =

2g

( 32 y y )
2

y2
,
2

g y2

v2
=1
g y2
Qmax = b

(Fr=1)

2 2 2
2g E. E E
3
3

) ( )

= 1.705 b E3/2

Experimental set up : It consists of glass walled (Perspex sheet made) rectangular tilting
bed flume 5m long , 10.3 cm wide and 60 cm deep into which water is supplied by a pump. A
sluice is fitted in the upstream side of the flume. A pointer gauge is used to measure the depth
of water in the channel.
Procedure:1. Set up the tilting flume to zero bed slopes.
2. Obtain bed reading of flume at a section just on the u/s by installing pointer gauge.
3. Switch on the centrifugal pump and allow all discharge to pass through the flume by
closing the valve.
4. Ensure the formation of standing wave i.e. hydraulic jump on D/s as standing wave
flume.
5. Measure the depth of flow in flume by taking the water surface reading at D/s section
with pointer gauge.
6. Measure the discharge passing through the flume with the help of measuring tank of
the flume.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for sufficient no. of observations.
Experimental data:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Width of tilting flume = T =


Width of throat of standing wave flume = B =
Height of hump of standing wave flume = z =
Bed slope of tilting flume = So =
Bed Reading of tilting flume (Initial Pointer gauge reading) = h1 =
Area of the tank (Al) =

Observation table:Sr. No.

Final pointer

Height

of

water Time to collect water in

gauge Reading
(FPGR) h2 (cm)

collected in tank
h (cm)

tank t

(sec.)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Calculation table: Sr.


No.

Depth of
flow at D/s
Y1
(m)

Actual
Discharge
Qact
(m3/sec)

Velocity
V

Specific
Energy
E
(m)

(m/sec)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Formulae:
1. IPGR = h1
2. Depth of flow at c/s= Y1= FPGR- IPGR = h2 h1 =
3. Actual Discharge = Qact =

4. Velocity of flow= V=

A1 h
t 1000
1
BY

Qact .

Q act .
A

5. Specific Energy = E = y1+

V 12
2g
3

6. Theoretical Discharge = Qth = 1.7053 B E 2


7. Coefficient of Discharge = Cd=

Q act
Qth

Theoretical
Discharge
Qth
(m3/sec)

Coefficient of
Discharge
Cd