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The Arming of Asia

(see page 7)

The Thai Navy's new aircraft carrier - a sign of the increasing and costly 'modernisation '
of Asia s military forces,

In this issue: �
• Inspector General whitewashes GCSB 2
• Waihopai admits MPs but keeps its secrets 4
• Canada needs more spies? 5
• British cut nuclear weapons 6
• The arms race in Asia - What is going on? 7
• New Zealand trains Indonesia's military 13
• US Government role in 1965f massacre 14
• Britain's nuclear shambles contaminates Scandinavia
and the Arctic ;5
• The perversity of US weapons procurement 16
• The US CIA and the drugs trade 17
• Spooky Bits - from the world of intelligence 18
Inspector-General Whitewashes GCSB
"I am satisfied that the collection and reporting rules and others In the region. ("The equipment IS equally
[of the GCSB] are valid and appropriate. 1 am capable of receiving signals transmitted by radio and
satisfied that the operation of those rules more than satellite which do not include foreign Intelligence and
adequately ensures that the GCSB collects and which are domestic concerning and involving NZ
f!)
reports on foreign communication only. I am sure that citizens.
the rules and their operation have no adverse or
improper Impact on the privacy or personal security of Greig's report IS a preliminary one because the vast
New Zealand citizens." new expansion of Waihopai will soon give the GCSB
the capability to intercept telephone calls. (It currently
This is the conclusion of the report of Lawrence Intercepts e-mail, faxes and telexes.) With a second
Greig, New Zealand Inspector-General of Intelligence dish and radome (to be operational In September) the
and Security, prepared at the request of former Prime potential for uncontrolled spying on New Zealanders
Minrster Jim Bolger, and released in a preliminary Will be increased Immeasurably . The Inspector­
report in June. But critics of the GCSB will no! feel General believes that Walhopal " does not
satisfied witl1 thiS Investigation Greig " . .relied 00 Intentionally intercept the communications of NZ
information obtained in VISits to the stations at Citizens or collect information of a domestic nature".
Waihopal and Taogimoana and the bnelrngs He accepts that information is collected
received on the operations in each station " He " "unintentionally" but that the rules for dealing with
discussed wrth a number of staff there the operations information picked up in this way ensure NZ Citizens
[and] visited GCSB headquarters In Wellington." do not suffer. Readers will Immediately note that an
He also " . considered El number of documents organisation that we were formerly told never
pertaining to the definition and operation of the intercepted NZ communications now has rules for
collection and reporting rules." dealing Wllll these inte rce ptl ons l

In an odd reversal of Hollywood courtroom fiction this One of the worst features of this report is its total lack
former High Court Judge took in all the defence of defmition of "foreign intelligence". The spy
evidence and failed to hear the prosecution case. It is organisation's brief to target "foreign
hard to believe that he never talked with Nicky Hager, communications" is consistently used to defend its
author of " Secret Power', at any stage Hager's book, operations (implying domestic communications are
which created considerable furore in Europe, details separate) GCSB director Parker has refused to
most of the reasons for shutting down Waihopai. and respond to questions on what "foreign intelligence"
makes public much information critical of the GCSB means over Inany years. But the GCSB's big brothers
from insiders who gave a very different perspective to in Canada and the USA work to a definition of foreign
those Greig talked to. intelligence that regards any communication with one
leg outside the country as "foreign". The assumption
Furthermore there is no diversion from a very narrow that this must be standard practice for the GCSB is
brief which does not allow consideration of evidence not examined in Grelg's report It should be noted that
of the illegalitles of the GCSB's sister organisations all these organisations have "similar though not
(For instance, one Canadian Communications Identical" rules and common poliCy and operation
Security Establishment officer resigned In the early according to his report. Until it is clearly demonstrated
nineties because she objected to listening to the that communications between NZ citizens and
conversations citizens were haVing with the Korean overseas respondents are not being targeted the
and other embaSSies that were being targeted.) denials of the GCSB staff should be regarded as
standard practice" not eVidence
The Inspector-General states he was impressed by
the explanations of the staff and their desire to ensure To state that". any rnatenal which is Identified as
compliance with the rules; that he is convinced they being a New Zealand communication [emphasis
concealed nothing 01 did not mislead him added] is destroyed" does not address the issue
Presumably they would have told him if they had files Havll1g "ru!es" for the of "information
marked "Not For Minister's Eyes" (Inspector­ collected unrntent,onally" IS n()t enough I The fact that
"
General's eyes?) as the Joint Intelligence Committee where there there is CO!lection of intelligence or
did In Bntaln. if the GCSB IS indeed an
Even rn8terial in which New Zealand entities are identified
organisation that is remarkably free from all the fauits thelr identiftcation is in the finished
of similar spook it should have been Intelligence reports "is The rules
emphaSised that It commands the technology to regardinq utilisation of intelligence Involving New
intrude comprehensively and into the Zealand citizens or e ntities ,. may be excepted in
activities of and in this Gountry search and rescue operations and !n the search and

Peace Researcher 2
Identification of signals sources and devices". officers bugging Kuwait offices on behalf of
They may also be excepted where " . . . the Britain, in competition with Australian companies,
information relates to terrorism and other criminal or Canadian and American Governments using
activities. . . ". Setting aside where a loophole interceptions to manipUlate trade negotiations, or
involving searches for "identification" might lead, British spies favouring UK weapons
we have a major window of opportunity here for manufacturers by listening to information on arms
spying on "criminal" activities, which, for any other deals. A recent Canadian report tells the Ottawa
organisation. would require a warrant. And how Government that more trade information could be
does the GCSB define "terrorism"? collected by covert means although this is a
sensitive issue with regard to its trading partners.
It is of considerable concern to note that [See this issue page 5]
Inspector-General Greig, in his investigation of
the Security Intelligence Service break-in of a How can we mediate credibly in Bougainville
Christchurch political activist's house, concluded while spying on the combatants and passing the
there was no "illegal" act involved. We can only information to Australia? How can we be sure that
conclude that the victim, or someone visiting him, the monstrous technology piloted by the GCSB
fell into the "terrorist" category which allows the secret operatives will never be used for political
SI S to operate against them without doing manipulation in this country? How can we be sure
anything 'illegal'. There would be a gruesome that the lack of control or unauthorised spying
consistency in the GCSB taking the same revealed by former officers of Australian and
approach. British intelligence organisations do not go on
behind the 'cross my heart' testimony of the
At no time does the I nspector-General confront GCSB officers? This report is unconvincing on the
the issue of GCSB allies using Waihopai or privacy issues given the history of the spook
Tangimoana to spy for their own purposes, or agencies, and considering the wider
even to feed information back to NZ spooks. condemnation of the odious and dangerous
Greig considers only material selected as nature of the global electronic spy web, NZ
"requirements of the New Zealand Government" citizens should be working harder than ever to
and not material requested by other governments' close down the spy facilities of the GCSB. We
agencies. Although GCSB staff must key in the should give other, more open, government
computer information to target sources of interest agencies the resources they need for collection of
requested by its allies, the process of information and fund research organisations to
discrimination or oversight of such output is not at supply intelligence that the New Zealand
all clear. And in the past one way of spying on Government (and not its manipulative cronies)
your citizens has been to ask your allies to do it really does need.
and pass back the information, enabling 'plausible
denial' to the charge of spying on your own Warren Thomson
citizens. Hence the question must also be asked
directly whether the UKUSA allies ever spy on
fA copy of the Inspector-Genera/'s Report is
New Zealand citizens, or their own, using GCSB
available from Box 2258, Chch, for $2J
facilities. (It should, however, be noted that in a
recent letter to Co-editor Warren Thomson, Prime
Minister Shipley categorically denied UKUSA
allies ever used Waihopai to spy on New
Zealanders.) GCSB BUDGET
The recent European Union report expressing
concern about the activities of the GCSB's Officially the allocated budget of the
UKUSA partners points to matters of vital concern Government Communications Security Bureau
untouched by Greig's report. The Inspector­ for 1998/99 is $19,092,000. This is the same
General was not asked to look at the wider amount as the 1997/98 year. The Prime
issues. The issues of what damage Waihopai Minister, in a letter to Co-editor Warren
does to Pacific citizens are much broader than Thomson, states "All costs associated with
just the national privacy issues, critical as these [Waihopai] are met from within
are. If anyone wants a lesson in how spying for Vote:Communications Security and
your country, or on behalf of other governments, Intelligence. There is no expenditure over and
can damage a country's diplomatic and trade above the annual sum voted by Parliament, as
interests they only have to look at the furore over such expenditure would be unlawful". A full
Australia's espionage on behalf of the Americans accounting of the costs associated with
when the Australians bugged Chinese and other Waihopai expansion would be fascinating I
embassies in Australia. Or one could cite ASIS

Peace Researcher - Page 3


PR suspects that some of the millions being spent The MPs' very well informed guide was "Secret
on increasing Waihopai's spying capacity has been Power" author, Nicky Hager. Miller allowed the MPs
spent on putting the spies through a hospitality in but turned away Nicky, citing a trespass order
course. When members of the ABC turned up against him. He did, however, allow Nicky to
unannounced at the inner gate, in November 1997 accompany the MPs from the road as far as the
(see PR 14), the base commander, Bruce Miller, inner gate. Miller was polite but basically told the
turned us away. Surely it can't just have been the MPs nothing, nor did he show them anything of
fact that we were wearing white coats, joke shop what Waihopai actually does. No matter - Nicky had
masks, and stating that our business was to apply already given them a very detailed account of that
for jobs as spies? When list MPs Marian Hobbs Rod stated that the purpose of the visit was to find
(Labour) and Rod Donald (Alliance) asked to be out who runs Waihopai and whether the taxpayer is
admitted to the base during the January 1997 getting value for money for the $20 million spent on
national protest they were turned away (see PR 12). the Government Communications Security Bur.eau
(GCSB), which runs it "Quite frankly, I think the
But things are looking up. In May 1998, Rod Donald people of Marlborough would rather see their
turned up u nannounced at the gate. Not only did hospital stay open than this spy station expanded"
Bruce Miller let him into his office, he gave the (New Zealand Herald, 18 June 1998). Funnily
wandering MP a cup of tea. For his part, Rod enough, there was no mention of closing Waihopai
reckons he left the place no wiser than he was or abolishing the GCSB when the Government was
before. In June Rod was one of three Opposition slashing hundreds of millions from its spending.
MPs who made an announced visit - the others Much easier to bash beneficiaries.
being Tim Barne!t, Labour MP for Christchurch
Central, and fellow Alliance list MP, Matt Robson. So if you're out for a Sunday drive in the vicinity of
Waihopai, pull up to the gate and r.ing the bell. At the
Rod noted that photographs and mementos least you should expect a cup of tea, Scones with
showing relationships with sister spooks had been jam and cream wouldn't go amiss either. You can
cleared away for this announced visit, leaving empty expect service with a smile - after all, you're paying
walls and bookshelves. their wages,

Peace Researcher - Page 4


Canada Needs More Spies?
This article, from The Ottawa Citizen [15 June Communications Security Establishment, has a
1998; Jim BronskillJ illustrates moves in the mandate to collect the radiO, fax and computer
governments and intelligence agencies of many transmissions of states and corporations, providing
countries to justify spying by creating wider and the ability to keep an eye on foreign partners [the
wider playgrounds for the spooks to exercise their CSE is the GCSB's Canadian partner in the UKUSA
expensive gamesmanship, Frequently commercial Agreement, See PR 12, Ed ] ,

and environmental needs are now given as areas of


opportunity for intelligence agencies suffering "Other intelligence needs include information and
underemployment since the demise of the Cold analysis on epidemic diseases, greenhouse gas
War, PR would argue that the history of emissions, crop projections and fish stocks, For
incompetence and illegality of the agencies means example, Canada has used submarines and
properly funded research and analysis in more open satellites to monitor foreign vessels that were fishing
and specialised departments would produce much dwindling stocks off the East Coast Mr Farson
better, and much more democratic, results, argues there is also a strong need for reliable data
to assist Canadian peacekeeping missions, monitor
human rights in other countries and determine the
"A federally commissioned study says Canada best candidates for foreign aid,
needs secret intelligence more than ever now that
the Cold War is over Communist spies may no "The Canadian Security Intelligence Service [see
longer be a threat, but Government decision makers PR 14, Ed,] responsible for catching spies and
require sensitive information about trading partners, terrorists, has only limited authority to operate
human rights abuses and environmental issues abroad, Although Mr Farson doesn't rule out giving
such as overfishing, argues the study, It calls for an CSIS foreign responsibilities, he says the real
independent task force to conduct a sweeping challenge is making sense of the deluge of
review of the spy community and determine whether information already landing on Ottawa desks, 'I'm
Canada's undercover agencies are up to the job, open to the idea of a foreign intelligence service, but
only after we've got a very clear idea of what our
"'The end of the Cold War requires intelligence to needs are', A special Senate committee is about to
be reinvented," concludes the study, "Old ideas examine how well prepared Canada's intelligence
need to be turned on their head', The paper was agencies are to handle terrorist threats, But Mr,
prepared for the Privy Council Office, which Farson believes the Government must draw on
oversees Canada's intelligence agencies, by outside expertise and take a broader, more
political scientist Stuart Farson of Simon Fraser comprehensive look at whether the agencies are
University in British Columbia" 'People have been ready for the new era, or still living in the past",
talking about intelligence for years in this country',
Mr Farson said in an interview, 'But nobody, as far
as I know, has ever said, 'well, what do we actually
need'?', "The disintegration of the Eastern Bloc has
dramatically affected the intelligence world, notes US MILITARY POLLUTION
the study, 'There is no longer one single,
overarching threat Instead, an array of lesser but by
IN CANADA
no means insignificant problems exists', The Peace Researcher often runs items which refer
globalisation of the world's economy means more to the enormous cost and problems created by
opportunities for Canadian businesses, but also pollution from the American military's sites at
greater risks from unstable countries and corrupt home and abroad, The Bulletin of Atomic
markets, Mr, Farson says these uncertainties create Scientists [May/June 1998] reports that it was
a need for trade-related intelligence -- information estimated a billion US dollars was needed to
that Canada could gather in a clandestine manner. clean up the Pentagon's sites in Canada,
Canadian defence officials thought it was
"'Ongoing covert monitoring of principal players, unlikely they would be able to get Washington
particularly regarding their communications, may to pay that money so have accepted $US252
prove to be prudent,' says the study, 'This is million in cash and $US100 million credits to
obviously a very sensitive issue as such collection purchase new military hardware - from the
would be primarily aimed at countries with whom United States of course!
Canada has significant trading relationships',

Canada's signals intelligence agency, the

Peace Researcher - Page 5


British Cut Nuclear Weapons
The British Government is intending to cut the year the Defence Minister stated "Remaining
number of its Trident nuclear warheads by half. It is acquisition costs for the Trident system, as of
also going to disclose more information on its September 1996, stood at just under 1,5 billion
defence posture, revealing the number of warheads pounds [more than 3,5 billion $NZ), Operating costs
and missiles it has, and their explosive power, For will average 200 million pound per annum over a
some years the British Labour Party had a policy of 30-year in-service life" [UK Hansard 16 June 1997)
unilateral nuclear disarmament which was scrapped Overall the Trident submarine programme has cost
in the early nineties when the Blairites - with the the UK about $30 billion NZ dollars, The Minister
emphasis on the right - decided such a policy was revealed recently that Britain held 7,6 tonnes of
politically disadvantageous, Robin Cook, the current plutonium, 21,9 tonnes of highly enriched uranium
Foreign Secretary, was, in former guises, a staunch (both materials can be used to make nuclear
advocate of unilateral disarmament His recent weapons) and 15,000 tonnes of other uranium in
reincarnation is given support by a new poll that defence stocks,
suggests a good majority of United Kingdom
citizens may no longer want to be 'protected' by
nukes,
CANADIAN AND GERMAN
According to the Gallup opinion poll 59% of ATTITUDES TO NUCLEAR
respondents believe the country would be more
secure without nuclear weapons, and more than WEAPONS
half (54%) feel it is unnecessary to have the Trident
nuclear submarine fleet on 24-hour patrol, They say
it should be taken off patrol and its warheads Recent polls in Canada and Germany
removed to storage ashore, A further 87% believe (commissioned by peace groups but carried out by
Britain should help negotiate a global treaty to rid regular polling agencies) suggest there may be very
the world of nuclear weapons, strong support for government anti-nuclear
weapons policies, At the end of March the Canadian
The Labour Government has completed the Peace Alliance and Science for Peace released the
withdrawal of RAF nuclear bombs, begun under the results of a poll of 1500 Canadians which indicates
previous Tory administration, Britain's nuclear a majority of the citizens in their country see nuclear
'deterrent' now comprises three nuclear missile weapons as posing a threat to world security rather
submarines, and it is expected that the fourth UK than enhancing it 82% of the women respondents
Trident submarine - aptly named Vengeance - will believed nuclear weapons make the world a more
be launched at the Barrow-in-Furness shipyard in dangerous place, Over 90% of Canadians support
Cumbria sometime in September, although the Ottawa's involvement in global negotiations to
exact date has yet to be confirmed, The policy has abolish nukes, if the poll is accurate,
been to keep one of the Trident missile submarines
always on patrol and this will continue, These poll results are similar to results in Britain and
the US in 1997, More than half the respond"hts saw
In mid July a Trident sub nearly suffered a major a serious threat of the use of nukes by tflrrorists, a
disaster when its power failed and it went into an world war involving the weapons, and
uncontrolled dive, The Royal Navy has a number of environmental disaster from a weapon incident or
nuclear-powered attack submarines without the the accidental firing of a weapon, But although 42%
Trident missiles, There have been several incidents of the responses said they oppose Canadian
in which these have had potentially dangerous membership in military alliances, 55% agreed with
problems with their nuclear components, and membership even though the alliance involved
several cases where the submarines have become nuclear weapons deployment
entangled in the nets of trawlers and almost sunk
them, In Germany International Physicians for the
Prevention of Nuclear War have released results of
At present the Trident subs can carry up to 96 a June survey of over a thousand people, 93% said
warheads, The new proposal will reduce the nuclear weapons are contrary to international law
number to 48 (3 warheads on each of 16 missiles) and should be neither produced nor stockpiled, 87%
and reduce the stockpile of operationally available agreed that nuclear weapons states should start
warheads from 300 to 200, The Government may getting rid of their own nuclear weapons as soon as
also scrap an order for seven more Trident missiles possible, The same number wanted to see nuclear
- saving 100 million pounds ($NZ 250 million), Last weapons based on German soil to be eliminated
immediately,

Peace Researcher - Page 6


The Arms Race In Asia -
What Is Going On?
Between the eleventh and thirteenth of May
Bangkok newspaper stated "Thailand, Indonesia,
1998, India exploded five nuclear devices in a
and Malaysia are considered the main competitors
nationalistic display of military capability. At the
in the region's 'arms race' but the financial crises
battering the three countries could put a halt to arms
end of the same month Pakistan exploded six
deals worth billions of dollars already in the
devices of its own. The Asian arms race had
pipeline." [The Nation, 24 December 1997]
become more overt, potentially dangerous, and
the su bject of world-wide attention. In New
Some arms deals have already been put on hold, so
Zealand it is important that developments
perhaps the economic problems sweeping through
among our distant northwestern neighbours are
this part of the world will slow the rush to acquire
careful l y considered and do not become arms that has been proceeding over the last 15
reasons for military expansionism, as they have years. Much will depend on the influence of the
in Australia. This article by Warren Thomson military on the various governments, and how they
looks at Asian military machines and their perceive the actions of the other governments in
significance. their region. The administration in Bangkok, heavily
influenced by military leaders, has attempted to pull
A huge growth in the acquisition of weapons by out of a deal to buy F/A-18 Hornets from the United
many Asian governments has been apparent since States as a cost-saving measure. Concern has
the 1980s. The region's share of global arms been expressed at the huge costs associated with
expenditure rose from 15.5% in 1983 to 33.2% in keeping the new carrier in operation. In Djakarta a
1993. By 1997 Asia had become the second biggest new government might decide (or be forced by the
market for military hardware. China, Taiwan and IMF) to put more resources in productive and social
South Korea together spent SUS 10.2 billion on areas. But Pakistan, dominated by the military and
defence acquisition in 1996. Japan spent another fearful of its Indian neighbour, has been regularly
$2 billion by itself. We have seen the appearance of putting one third of its government budget to military
Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore and Malayasia funding, through years of dire economic hardship
amongst the world's eleven top arms importers. for its people. And in China, military spending
These figures, and the on-going nuclear appears to have been steadily increasing. Some
development of India and Pakistan were not commentators maintain that "toys for the boys" is a
completely surprising. But the militaries in the region big factor in arms spending, and this element of
have been spending a large part of their defence military thinking may be hard to change.
budgets on air force and naval units which could
potentially threaten their neighbours. Countries like China is seen by many nations in the region as the
Thailand and Malaysia, who previously had made potential aggressor and the measure of need for
little att"',"pt to project their military power defence. Nations involved in dispute over the
internationally, began moving from a focus on Spratlys and other island claims have particular
internal matters to postures which gave a capacity reason to be concerned. Vietnam and the
for force projection beyond their borders. Malaysia, Philippines have exchanged gunshots with their
Singapore and Thailand have established giant neighbour. India gives as a major reason for
mechanised brigades with modern tanks and its development of nuclear weapons, the posture of
arrmoured personnel carriers, and blue water the government in Beijing. The International
navies. Institute of Strategic Studies says China is not a
threat to South East Asia. Its 1997 annual report
In August 1997 the Thai Navy became the first in stated "At present, China does not have the
South East Asia to possess an aircraft carrier. (India resources to project a major conventional force
in 'South Asia' is the only other nation to currently beyond its territory." [The Nation, Bangkok, 16
have one. China has been inspecting aircraft October 1997] But Asian military commanders will
carriers with the intention of buying in the future.) look at the worst case scenarios and point to
Malaysia had bought modern fighter aircraft and potential problems with China 20-30 years down
ordered missile frigates and submarines. Indonesia the road when the Asian giant may overtake Japan
created a n 'instant navy' by buying 39 former East as the second most powerful global economy. The
German Navy vessels in 1993 and about 60 modern conservative J ane's Fighting Ships predicts "It
fighters since then. In December last year a seems only a matter of time before China has the

Peace Researcher - Page 7


military capability to claim subservience from the events. But the 'arms race' in Asia, apart from the
whole of East Asia," unless countries there bury diabolical diversion of scarce resources from
distrust and form alliances, [1997-98 edition p27] productive uses, has not made the region a more
China's recent ratification of the UN Convention on dangerous place, or presented this country with any
the Law of the Sea may ease some disquiet. compelling reason for a fearful response.

Many of the nations also have their own border New Zealand has the opportunity to contribute
disputes or territorial claims with other neighbours. positively in the region. We must avoid becoming
Besides China, the states of Vietnam, Taiwan, the hooked into reactionary western responses to an
Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei (whose 300,000 increase in the arsenals of the region which apart
people are to get British Hawk fighters) make from China, on a global scale, are still small, with
competing claims in the Spratlys. Japan has serious very limited capacity to deploy forces to distant
disagreements with South Korea and Russia over locations. Ideally New Zealanders will see the Asian
some Islands, and with China and Taiwan over 'arms race' of the last few years in perspective and
others. Recently Japan has expressed concern over seek to maintain positive non-military relations with
North Korea's missile programmes and suspected Asian neighbours. We should continue to give
nuclear weapons development. (The Lodong - or defence spending a low priority, work to ameliorate
Rodong - missile, based on the Russian Scud, is trouble spots (as the current government did in
capable of hitting targets in Japan.) Hopefully claims Bougainville) and stop military training or exchanges
over areas of ocean, and more importantly, their which involve repressive governments. In our own
mineral resources, can be peacefully resolved. That back yard it is vital to argue for Australia to cut its
will still leave governments concerned about military expansionist and American linked policies. '
protection of their sealanes given that most are
dependent on Middle East oil. And a growing, if less [' Indian perspective on Australian policy is
overtly military problem in some of the sealanes is interesting. In a recent letter to Friends of the Earth
piracy. There were more than 1 00 major attacks on in Sydney a representative of India's Government
ships in 1996-97. stated "I hope you will not mind my saying that it
has been our experience that in disarmament
However, a recent writer in the conservative New negotiations the Non Aligned countries like India
Zealand International Affairs Review says "... most seldom, if ever, receive support or understanding
analysts believe that Asian nations are modernising from Australia for measures that we propose for
their militaries for defensive purposes." [Lewis nuclear disarmament, within reasonable time frame.
Fretz, p14, May/June 1998. Fretz is actually arguing There is a general feeling that because of
for a strong American role in Asia.] Furthermore. Australia's dependence on an extended US nuclear
there is little doubt that the economic problems of security guarantee for its own security and for the
the Asian region over the last two years will impact promotion of its regional security interests, it is just
heavily on the government expenditure of the not in a position to urge the need for nuclear
nations. The policies that saw many of the countries disarmament within a reasonable time frame.....
in the region use local military spending as a means There is, in our view, a contradiction of virtually
to boost the domestic economy may have run their depending on the nuclear deterrent of a foreign
course. Many will have to reduce their defence power on the one hand, and being enthusiastic
budgets to concentrate on areas with a better about nuclear disarmament on the other."]
return.

Strong global criticism of nuclear testing and threat


of sanctions may now dissuade some from further A BRIEF SURVEY OF
development of nuclear or even conventional
weapons. Because nearly all the countries depend
on Russia or a western country for the most
SOME MILITARY
sophisticated parts of their weaponry, the
governments providing the equipment have some CAPABILITIES:
influence over the buyers and could look harder at
the results of their actions. China: China's Maoist tradition of depending on
massive people-power armies no longer applies.
One or two nations, dominated by their military, will
The Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) has been
continue to spend obscene amounts on weaponry.
greatly reduced in number, and priority given to
In the long run, the governments will be influenced
heavily by the actions of their regional neighbours. technical weapons development. SIPRI estimated
Even more, the future postures of heavyweights Beijing's defence budget as around $US 56 billion in
China and Japan will dictate the course of future 1996 and it has tended to grow significantly each

Peace Researcher - Page 8


year. China has ten major nuclear weapons related India: The advent of a fervently nationalistic
facilities and probably 400 nuclear warheads. To government in India makes the military
deliver these it has short. intermediate and development of this technologically capable country
intercontinental range ballistic missiles, and nuclear problematic and one hopes that the recent
weapons capable aircraft. It has carried out 45 demonstration of nuclear capability will satisfy the
nuclear tests since 1964, but none in the last three need for militant breastbeating for some time to
years. Janes Fighting Ships states that China has come. India has carried out six nuclear tests, five of
four major submarine programmes, including them in May 1998. According to Janes Intelligence
Russian assisted ones, to produce more nuclear Review, "India's potential nuclear arsenal is bigger
missile armed and powered submarines, and than Britain's and comparable with those of France
conventionally armed nuclear attack submarines. It and China." [Quoted in the Sydney Morning Herald,
is building its own destroyers and frigates and 20 June, 1998]
buying guided missile destroyers from Russia. "This
is not a navy being developed for coastal defence," It possesses both short range and intermediate
claims Janes [1997-98 edition, p27] China's range missiles that can deliver nuclear warheads.
defence industry has grown enormously and it is The latter have a range of 2,500 kilometres and can
developing many weapons of its own - often based also carry conventional or chemical weapons. India
on those 'loaned' for various reasons from other has Jaguar aircraft (that it now manufactures under
countries. Next year it will begin manufacturing licence) Mirages and MiGs that can carry nuclear
modern Sukoi-27 aircraft under licence, as well as bombs. India is a long way behind China in relative
producing updated versions of older aircraft and nuclear arsenals, but enjoys a huge margin of
helicopters. Part of its budget will be subsidised by military superiority over its Pakistani neighbour
exports. China is the only Asian country with any There are nearly a million men in the army, the
meaningful amphibious capability (ie the ability to second biggest force in the region (after China) and
land tanks and troops from the sea). But many a much bigger number than Pakistan. (See table)
defence analysts point out that it would take more The military is self-sufficient in many key areas - it
than twenty years for Beijing to acquire a navy produces its own battle tanks and self-propelled
capable of challenging the US Seventh Fleet - and guns. As well as building fighters it is building its
in that time the American Navy itself will have own airborne surveillance aircraft. The first of a new
advanced hugely.

Below we see the new Thai Navy aircraft carrier Chakri Naruebet - the first purpose-built carrier introduced to
Asia. Although small, carrying only nine Harriers and six helicopters, it has proved expensive to operate and
even Japan and China have been cautious about acquiring a significant carrier forces.

Peace Researcher - Page 9


class of locally built destroyers has started sea product, the defence budget is not extraordinarily
trials. Moscow's assistance is still used by the large. Japan does have a large navy - including 18
Indian Navy Janes Fighting Ships notes: "India is patrol submarines, 40 destroyers and 17 frigates -
once again getting into bed with the Russians for but small amphibious capability. It had been thought
more submarines and frigates (p27). The absurd possible that Japan was soon to order an aircraft
aspects of the arms trade are evident when Russia carrier and the planes to go with it, but economic
is supplying equipment to both India and China circumstances may alter this. The military has
whom the Indians profess to be competing with. ordered 4 more amphibious ships (carrying a 1000
Another sad feature was recently noted in the troops each) is buying tanks, hovercraft and
Melbourne Age: "The Indian Government helicopters, and working with the US producing
spends [$NZ10 billion] - 3 per cent of its gross Aegis destroyers. Much concern about Japan's
domestic product - to keep about 1.3 million men military muscle relates to the war of fifty years ago,
under arms. That is about twice what it spends on and its economic power, rather than current military
health and almost as much as it spends on posture. In numbers the armed forces are
education ... And the [$NZ2 billion] that India spent comparable to Indonesia's, but much more
in 1996 to buy 40 Russian warplanes . . deprieved sophisticated in capability. In the mid nineties it was
35 million children of education and 140 million of setting up a new intelligence agency - eventually to
health care." [ The Age, 30 May, 1998] employ 2,000 people, to become less dependent on
US intelligence on events in its region. It is
Indonesia: At the time of writing, economic crisis researching ABM defence and moving to the
and protest against President Suharto's successer development of Japanese-designed weapons. At
continue in Indonesia and it is very difficult to predict present there is still a dependence on US technical
future military posture. The armed forces have aid in manufacture of more advanced systems. The
played a relatively cautious role in the upheavals government has been buying new fighter aircraft,
and there appears to be awareness of need to and Japan has the capacity to produce a wide
make concessions on East Timor. But the shape of variety of weaponry under licence or by joint
government is undoubtedly dependent on military arrangements. In September 1997 the Tokyo
approval and even with the extreme pressure of Government announced the Signing of a new US
financial collapse the armed forces may be unwilling security agreement to give military support to US in
to make significant cuts in the defence budget. any Asian crisis. It seems likely that Japan will be
Indonesia bought 24 Hawks ground attack fighters content to develop its armed forces slowly and
from Britain in 1993, and 11 helicopters. 39 ships remain in a close relationship with Washington for
were obtained from the former East German Navy some years to come.
in 1994 as well as 9 minesweepers. In 1997
Indonesia bought Russian fighters and has taken Malaysia: In the 1990s this country significantly
delivery of 12 F-16s with 7 to come. More Hawks boosted its defence forces. 10 Hawk-100 and 18
were also to come from the UK in 1997-98, costing Hawk-200 fighter/ground attack aircraft were
$NZ500m. It was these planes, with their potential delivered and 12 more are on the way. Eight F-18s
ground attack utilisation in East Timor, that were the and 20 MiG-29s (with medium range AA missile
target of vigorous protest from peace women in options) are already purchased, attack helicopters
Britain. Helicopters (Canadian and German) and planned for. The navy will get missile frigates and
medium transport planes are built under licence but 27 patrol boats, but even then will not be much
Indonesia lacks the heavy industry and technical bigger than New Zealand's in terms of surface
skills of the stronger powers in the region. Although combatants. Submarines have been put on order,
the 300,000 strong armed forces are regarded as but this has to be confirmed in present
potentially dangerous by conservatives in Australia circumstances. Malaysia is not in the same league
there is negligible capacity to 'project forces' as others in the region when it comes to military
overseas (there are only about 26 landing ships) industry. Although developing small arms and
and Australia's military is undoubtedly superior to component manufacturing it has no capacity to build
those of its northwestern neighbours. More concern its own fighters, ships or or helicopters. The army
should be expressed about Canberra's military had no significant armoured vehicles before this
assistance to Djakarta. The Indonesian army's year but before the economic crash was expecting
human rights record is not one that Australia or New to acquire some. At around 115,000 personnel, the
Zealand can find acceptable. armed forces are one of the smallest in the region.

Japan: "Although Japan has the third largest North Korea: "This country produces a variety of
defence budget in the world, its military forces lack major weapons but its military technology is
offensive capabilities... " [Lewis Fretz, p15 NZ derieved from the former Soviet Union and cannot
International Affairs Review, May/June 1998] and be replaced or modernised by the present regime."
expressed as a percentage of its gross domestic [Klare, p59] There are well over a million personnel

Peace Researcher - Page 10


in the armed forces with 3,700 tanks and 9,000 weapons programme in the 1980s, because
pieces of artillery. (The number of tanks is double Pakistan was providing the crucial link in the CIA's
that of South Korea but reliability is very effort to smuggle billions of dollars of weapons to
questionable.) Numbers of combat aircraft Afghan guerillas attempting to drive out the Soviet
(possibly 730) are much higher than the South but invaders". When Washington withdrew its support
again problems of age and servicing probably Pakistan decided it must pursue the nuclear option
seriously undermine capability. The North Korean to compensate for its weaker conventional forces.
forces have a large number of rocket launchers [NYT 1June, 1998] There are 320 tanks on order
(over 2,000 multiple launchers) and surface to air from Ukraine, although Pakistan is self-sufficient in
missiles (about 10,000) The navy has only a some areas of tank and artillery production. It does
handful of significant surface ships but a large not produce its own aircraft but can completely
number of submarines - more than 20 patrol subs overhaul modern fighters. It has a small but
and a slightly smaller number of coastal subs - and significant navy with six submarines and three
hundreds of patrol vessels. There are more than 40 under construction, a dozen destroyers and
midget submarines which carry 6-8 crew - some frigates, and eight missile attack boats.
have been lost in operations against Seoul's ships.
In June one of these was found entangled in a Philippines: A more detailed look at the armed
trawler's nets with the crew dead in mysterious forces in the Philippines will appear in the next
circumstances. Between 1990 and 1994 North edition of Peace Researcher
Korea earned $NZ 1 billion from exporting arms -
especially Scud missiles.
Singapore: The government is firmly committed
to developing export-oriented arms industries. It
Pakistan: Pakistan spends twice as much per
had also arranged the acquisition of Swedish
capita on the military as on education, and 3 times
submarines in 1997 and in recent years bought 9
as much as on health. It spent well over $NZ1B in
Fokker patrol planes from Holland, a squad of F-
1995 on 3 French submarines with money that
15s and 16 helicopters from the US. Russian
could have provided drinking water for 56 million
missile systems were acquired Singapore is
people. On top of spending one third of the
developing its own IFV and light tanks, builds
government budget on defence there is a huge cost
corvettes, patrol boats, helicopters and a range of
in debt servicing run up by military. Nevertheless,
infantry weapons.
according to Brasseys Defence Yearbook, military
strength of the Pakistan forces - especially vis-a-vis
India, saw a general decline in the mid-nineties South Korea: South Korean firms, in close
because of economic problems (even before the collusion with the government, produce a wide
latest outbreak of financial disasters in Asia). There variety of weapons that originated in the United
was heavy dependence on US military aid States, including aircraft, missiles, armoured
packages which have decreased with the ending of vehicles and combat ships. Currently the air force
the Cold War. The Defence Budget has been has a contract with Lockheed Martin for 120 F-16s
"structured to provide maximum resources for the of which the last 72 will be largely produced in South
officer corps - effectively to keep them in the style to Korea with local parts, early next century. The air
which they have become accustomed." force has currently well over 400 combat aircraft. 8
[[Christopher Smith, p233, Brasseys, 1997J P-3C patrol aircraft plus attack helicopters have
Pakistan carried out 6 nuclear tests in May this year been purchased from the US. An acquisition of 12
in a calculated response to Indian tests. Its newest destroyers probably now depends on economics.
HATF-V missiles - range 1500km - carry a 700kg Already the country has half a dozen destroyers,
single warhead load, and could hit more than 213 of about the same number of submarines, a dozen
India's territory after being successfully tested this frigates and nearly 30 corvettes (designed for
year. The government has now recalled forward picking North Korean subs up off the beach?). It is
IRBMs - Ghaury (HATF) - older models deployed in self-sufficient in some areas of tank and artillery
1990s and previously deployed to threaten its production, with possibly 1,800 tanks (condition not
neighbour.The air force has several fighter­ known) and 6,000 artillery pieces. Well-known
bombers capable of carrying nuclear weapons. The companies Korean Air, Hyundai, Samsung and
New York Times says it required " . a global network Daewoo are big players in the defence industry. The
of theft and espionage, and uncounted millions for US has nearly 40,000 troops in South Korea. In the
Pakistan, one of the world's poorest countries, to 1990s nearly 20% of government expenditure went
explode that bomb. " The newspaper states that on defence but this may change as the country has
besides smuggled Chinese technology, blueprints, recently suffered heavy economic damage.
key nuclear components and materials, the bomb economic turmoil of the last year.
development required the scientists trained in the
US up to the 1970s, and contradictory US policies. Thailand: In August 1997 the Thai Navy became
Washingto. " ...turned a blind eye to the nuclear the first in South East Asia to possess and aircraft

Peace Researcher - Page 11


carrier (purpose-built in Spain at a cost of about Taiwan: Taiwanese industry has the capacity to
$NZ350m) It will carry up to 9 Sea Harriers and 6 produce a wide range of aircraft, helicopters,
helicopters In recent years Thailand has acquired guided missiles and surface ships although there
18 A-7 strike aircraft, 2 P-3 Orion patrol aircraft and have been some problems with poor aircraft
18 F-16s from US 36 Czech L-39 trainer/fighters, availability in the early nineties and development
3 Hawkeye early-warning planes, and Harrier VTOL problems in an indigenous fighter Over a quarter of
for the aircraft carrier have been purchased from government expenditure goes on defence, 150 F-
other sources, Hit by the country's economic 16s were acquired from the US plus 60 Mirage
downturn, the air force decided to try to transfer on 2000-5s from France in the mid nineties, Also a
to another country the agreed purchase of 8 F/A-18 frigate from USA and 1 from France are being
Hornet aircraft (cost over $NZ700m) even though added to an already substantial navy - 13
this could mean losing the SUS 75 million already destroyers, 14 frigates with eight to come, 4
paid as a deposit The deal was to have included submarines with another 12 planned, and a very
the first advanced medium range air to air missiles large number of missile armed patrol boats, The
in the region, but indications now are of the intention armed forces have about 375,000 personnel,
to curb military spending in the next year or two,
Planned extensions of the very limited defence
Sources: Janes Fighting Ships/Aircraft/Armour and
industry capability may also be curtailed, Generally
Artillery; Bulletin of the A tomic Scientists (esp
the Thai military is one of the smaller regional
Michael Klare, Jan/Feb 1997, and Mark J Valencia
forces with approximately 250,000 personnel,
ibid); NZ International Affairs Review (esp Lewis
Thailand has significant border demarcation and
Fretz, May/June 1998); Various websites; News
control problems with Burma, and Burmese
articles in the Bangkok Post, The (Thai/and) Nation,
Government-supported ethnic rebels, Cambodia,
The Melbourne Age, The Sydney Morning Herald
and minor muslim separatist activities in the south,
and the Christchurch Press,
will continue to demand attention,

The Armed Forces of Asia


The following table gives an approximate idea of the numbers of personnel in the army, navy and air force
of the Asian countries listed, and some of the reserve forces available (reserve, paramilitary, militia), The
military service column indicates whether service is by conscription, or selective conscription, or volunteer
The final column indicates what proportion of government spending went on defence in the year indicated
in the brackets, and can vary considerably according to source and interpretation, Basic source: Europa
Yearbook, 1998,

Navy Air Force Army Other MiI service DefBudget

China 265000 470000 2200000 Res 1.2m Sel3-4 yrs 9,1% (98)
India 55000 110000 980000 Res 0,19m Vcl 15,3% (98)
Indonesia 43000 21000 235000 Res 1,5m+ Sel2 yrs 6-8% (94)
Japan 43000 44500 235000 Vcl
Malaysia 12000 12500 90000 PM 294,000 Vcl 9,3% (96)
Pakistan 22000 45000 520000 PM247,000 Vcl 33,2% (97)
S. Korea 60000 52000 660000 Res 3,5m 2.5yrs 8,1% (95)
N. Korea 46000 85000 923000 Mi13,9m Sel5+yrs 11,6% (94)
Taiwan 68000 68000 240000 Res 1,66m 2yr 27,6% (96)
Thailand 64000 4 0000 150000 PM140,000 2 yrs 15,2% (95)

N. Zealand 2150 3220 4500 Res 6660 Vcl 3% (96)

The figure for the Chinese air force includes a large number of air defence personnel

Peace Researcher - Page 12


N ew Zea land Tra i ns I n dones ia's M i l ita ry

The visit of European Union envoys to East Timor at When challenged to respond to photographs
the end of June drew tens of thousands on to the showing the horrendous torture of young East
streets in pro-independence demonstrations. Two Timorese women Winston Peters last November in
young m en paid with their lives as a trigger happy Parliament said ' .. our engagement ... is the training
military tried to keep control.Huge numbers of troops, of dentists and other things of a h um ane quality.' New
tanks, rocket launchers, armed motorcycle troops information unearthed from parliamentary questions
blockaded the University of Indonesia on Sunday asked in March by Matt Robson, Alliance MP, gives
June 21 to stop a rally of factory workers and students the lie to this familiar refrain and establishes a close
at the university. While President Habibie tries to parallel between New Zealand military aid and the
assure foreign Journalists that there will be no United States programme.
crackdown on demonstrations, the chief of the Armed
Forces and Defence Minister, General Wiranto, has In the 1997/98 training year which ends in J une, New
warned against "exaggerated freedoms". Zealand trained military dentists - two of them. At the
same time, 24 officers trained in skills with relevance
The Indonesian people are determined to exploit to to the role of suppressing internal dissent - lethal
the full the democratic space open to them, and the methods of SOCial control. Our training has no strings
new wave of activism has spread beyond the students attached - the Minister Max Bradford was unequivocal
and workers to demonstrations against every level of in reply to questions about human rights. Neither he
the corrupt bureaucracy. However, there can be no nor his Ministry inquire whether the military coming
illusions about the Habibie regime and its military here have served in East Timor, nor do they seek
backers, or its determination to control the so-called information about any officer's past military history Or
process of reform. that of his or her unit. In the years since the 1991 Dili
massacre it is quite possible that one of the
Any one of the officers responsible for the cOld­ Indonesian officers implicated has been here for
blooded killing of young activists in Indonesia, West training - Max Bradford would not know because he
Papua or East Timor could have received 'helpful' would not have asked.
training in New Zealand. An Indonesian officer began
his studies of strategic operational and command During the 4-week Infantry Major course at the
skills at a six-month-Iong course at the RNZAF base Army's school of infantry, Waiouru, from J uly to
in Auckland on June 3. In response to protests about August 1997 an Indonesian officer learnt about,
this, Minister of Defence, Max Bradford said that the 'convoy security operations' and 'planning night
officer would learn "the process of democratic infiltration attacks'. In East Timor the nights are
government, the Geneva Convention and laws or feared because 'pre-dawn' is the time when the
armed conduct" Mr Bradford would like us to believe military carries out raids and abductions. In
that New Zealand m ilitary training under the Mutual Indonesia, many student leaders were abducted in a
Assistance Programme which has been ongoing futile attempt to intimidate the burgeoning movement
since 1 973 has helped the Indonesian military learn In the Regimental Intelligence Course officer's
law abiding restraint? course in August and September, 1 997 an
Indonesian officer learnt 'intelligence in operations
The military force (ABRI) has been the indispensable other than war', 'dissemination of intelligence',
repressive tool of the 'new order' regime - responsible 'NZSAS reconnaissance', 'electronic warfare', and
for two of the most notorious slaughters of recent 'threat assessments'.
times - the 1965 massacres of at least half a million
suspected dissidents and the deaths of at least Four officers came here earlier this year to learn
200,000 East Timorese since the 1975 invasion. about Skyhawk maintenance - in 1983-84 Skyhawks
ABRI has been able to rely on a steady supply of were used in bombing raids in East Timor As if that
western arms over the years. Britain has just were not enough, an Indonesian officer attended a
approved more water cannon and Hawk aircraft, and Grade 11 Staff and Tactics 1 1 week course held at
Indonesia has had no problem getting specialist Waiouru from J anuary to April in 1 997. He learnt
training from the United States and Australia. 'manoeuvre warfare and directive control,'
Controversy recently rocked the United States surveillance and intelligence, mobility, counter­
Congress when the details emerged of the military mobility and survivability'. More ominously, the
training programme JCET (Joint Combined Exchange course also featured 'psychological operations,' 'deep
Training) under which the Indonesian Kopassus 'red cover operations, ' 'aid to the civil power joint-force
berets' special forces have been trained in 'close operations' and 'military operations in urban terrain'.
quarters combat' and sniper skills. How would these skills be useful to Indonesian

Peace researcher - Page 1 3


officers - only one answer is plausible - they would U S G OVE RN M E NT
h elp the military deal to an organised clandestine
resistance and with mass urban demonstrations.
ROLE I N 1 965
Twenty-nine year old Pius lustrilang recently
surfaced after a two month 'disappearance' - he was MASSAC R E
kidnapped at gunpoint in February from a bus stop.
At a secret i nterrogation centre he was stnpped In May 1990, several US newspapers, including the
naked. and given electric sh ocks and the 'water
Washington Post [May 21] and the Boston Globe
treatment'. His military abductors released him as a
[May 23] reported that the U.S. government played
result of international pressure but threatened him
a significant role in one of the worst massacres of
with death should h e speak out. lustrilang escaped
the century by supplying the names of thousands of
to the United States where h e gave testimony to
Communist Party leaders to the Indonesian army,
Congress. H e was active in the coalition of the
which hunted down the leftists and killed them. For
supporters of prominent Muslim leader Amien Rais
the first time, U.S. officials acknowledged that in
and the pro-democracy figurehead, Megawati
1965 they systematically compiled comprehensive
Sukarnoputri. Other young activists from the
lists of Communist operatives, from top echelons
banned Peoples Democratic Party (PRO) have
down to village cadres. As many as 5, 000 names
recently given similar testimony after months of
were furnished to the Indonesian army, and the
detention and torture.
Americans later checked off the names of those
who had been killed or captured, according to U.S.
Edwin Gozal, the International Representative for
officials.
the PRO did not mince words when the New
Zealand media asked for his views on military
The purge of the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI)
training during his visit here in June. "The New
was part of a U.S. drive to ensure that communists
Zealand Government says it maintains ties with the
did not come to power in the largest country In
Indonesian military because they play an important
Southeast Asia, where the United States was
role in Indonesian society. It think it's hypocrisy to
already fighting an undeclared war in Vietnam. "It
maintain that relationship when you know what
really was a big help to the army," said Robert J.
they're doing in Indonesia- killing people and
Martens, a former member of the U.S. Embassy's
abusing human rights.... That just makes them
political section "They probably killed a lot of
stronger and encourages them to behave in an
people, and I probably have a lot of blood on my
undemocratic way." (Listener, June 27, 1998) In
hands, but that's not all bad. There's a time when
Indonesia as in East Timor it is the young people
you have to strike hard at a decisive moment."
who have thrown away their fear and who take the
People named on the lists were captured in
lead in the movement for change. How can we face
overwhelming numbers, Martens said, adding, "It's
these determined young people and admit that New
a big part of the reason the PKI has never come
Zealand helped train their military tormentors i n
back."
urban warfare and psychological operations?
Approval for the release of the names came from
Maire Leadbeater the top U.S. Embassy officials, including former
East Timor Independence Committee Ambassador Marshall Green, deputy ch ief of
mission Jack Lydman and political section chief
Edward Masters, the three acknowledged i n
[The New Zealand Herald, 19 May, 1998, reported interviews. Martens supplied thousands o f names to
that the Minister of Defence, Max Bradford rejected an Indonesian emissary over a number of months,
calls to cut military ties with Indonesia, describing he said. The emissary was an aide to Adam Malik,
the Jakarta forces as 'eminently responsible.' "Mr an Indonesian minister who was an ally of Suharto
Bradford has committed New Zealand to continued in the attack on the Communists. Interviewed i n
i nvolvement i n a training programme with the Jakarta, the aide, Tirta Kentjana ("Kim")
Indonesians. He has also defended the role of the Adhyatman, confirmed he had met with Martens
military in street battles which have followed an anti­ and received lists of thousands of names, which he
Government u prising. His comments have outraged in turn gave to Malik. Malik passed them on to
members of the East Timor Independence Suharto's headquarters, he said.
Committee, which wants Mr Bradford to cancel the
enrolment of an Indonesian officer due to start a six Embassy officials carefully recorded the
month military course in Auckland next month subsequent destruction of the PKI organization.
(June)."] Using Martens' lists as a guide, they checked off
names of captured and assassinated PKI
#NK#i¥Ififf:f#/1:;##tf#Uf!#!IJi#,ifSfIdK# leaders, tracking the steady dismantling of the party

Peace researcher - Page 14


apparatus, former U. S officials said. Detention knew what they were doing. We knew they would
centers were set up to hold those who were not killed keep a few and save them for the kangaroo courts,
immediately. "They didn't have enough goon squads but Suharto and his advisers said, if you keep them
to zap them all, and some individuals were valuable alive, you have to feed them."
for interrogation," Joseph Lazarsky, deputy CIA [". ..in four months, five times as many people died in
station chief in Jakarta in 1965, said. "The Indonesia as in Vietnam in twelve years. "-- Bertrand
Infrastructure was zapped almost immediately. We Russe/l, 1966J

Brita i n's N u c lear Shamb les Contami nates


Sca n d i navia a nd the Arctic
The disastrous history of Britain's nuclear industry is Britain, providing about 30% of UK electricity, as
becoming more apparent. "The Dounreay nuclear well as experimental, waste disposal and
processing plant in Scotland, which the British reprocessing facilities. There have been several
Government is to close, was failing safety standards, accidents at nuclear facilities, and in 1995 the
8ccording to an official report released this week." company Nuclear Electric was fined nearly a million
[Sydney Morning Herald, 18 June, 1998J. The paper dollars for a severe breach of safety procedures,
reports that Dounreay suffered from poor design, according to the Christchurch Press, [10 November,
known problems were not being dealt with, safety 1995J Most of the British nuclear power stations
procedures were deficient in many areas, and there were built in the 1960s and some have already
was a lack of experienced staff. reached the end of their economic and/or nuclear
"safe" life. Estimates for the cost of
Meantime, Norway, Sweden and Denmark are decommissioning these power stations vary
demanding that Britain's Sellafield nuclear plant between 8 billion dollars (by the industry) and 45
stops production after the discovery that discharges billion dollars (by environmentalists). Whatever the
from the plant have caused seaweed on their coasts costs, large amounts of dangerous nuclear waste
to become radioactive. One of the functions of will be added to the current stockpile and solutions
Sellafield is to produce plutonium for the UK's to the problem of how to store or safely dispose of
weapons programme And last year an article in the the waste still have not been agreed. Up until 1982
New Scientist [10 May, 1998J said "Radio-activity Britain dumped 75, 000 tonnes of low and
from Britain's Sellafield nuclear processing plant in intermediate level waste into the North Atlantic.
Cumbria has spread through the Arctic Ocean into
the waters of Northern Canada. The contamination, Norway and Sweden have also voiced concerns
which has never before been picked up so far from over the "time-bomb" of sunken nuclear submarines
Britain, is h aving a bigger impact on the Arctic than in Russia's Arctic north. On the seabed lie unstable
the Chernobyl aCCident, according to Canadian reactors and piles of radioactive waste threatening
data." A joint Canadian-Russian study investigating to contaminate waters controlled by Finland,
contamination of the Kara Sea found the plant was Sweden and Norway. Over a dozen subs, once part
having more impact than waste dumped there by the of the Soviet Union's northern fleet, were dumped in
Russians themselves in the 1980s. (Another factor shallow waters off the coast of the uninhabited Arctic
was fall-out from atmospheric nuclear tests,) island of Novaya Zemlya. Swedish scientists say
that although nothing is leaking from the submarines
Dou�reay, dogged by Scottish Nationalists and anti­ yet it is only a matter of time before radioactivity
nuclear activists, suffered an accidental explosion in begins to leak into the surrounding seawater. And
1977 which blasted radio-active waste onto local the threat of a disaster from current operations of
beaches. The accident was covered up by the nuclear submarines continues. In March of this year
government until a team of experts (also appointed two American nuclear submarines - one of them
by government) investigating pollution at the nearby possibly armed with nuclear weapons - "bumped into
Scottish beach discovered the truth in 1995. They each other off Long Island during a routine exercise"
estimated it would take twenty years and possibly according to a Navy spokesperson. [Bangkok Post,
$NZ1 billion to clean up the problem. Reprocessing 22 March, 1998J The collision between the USS
material already at the plant, which employs 1,600 Kentucky and the USS San Juan was reported to
people, will take until 2006, and the final clean-up have caused "minor damage" but no casualties.
many years more. The decision to close the facility New Yorkers might be reassuredI The people and
came after uproar in Britain over deliveries of spent governments of Scandanavia and countries fringing
nuclear fuel from the unstable European state of the ArctiC Ocean will take more convincing that
Georgia. There are 16 nuclear power stations in British nuclear industry is safe.

Peace Researcher - Page 15


The Perversity of U S Wea pons Procurement

The US Air Force's B-1B costs 20,000 New Zealand guaranteed defence even against theatre weapons
dollars an hour to operate. Its engines have using ballistic trajectories". Yet Clinton has
exploded or failed to start, its fuel tanks h ave (somewhat reluctantly) allowed development and
leaked. its radar system hasn't worked, its avionics testing of ABM systems to proceed.An article in the
were incompatible, and its skeleton developed Bulletin [ibidJ describes how this current missile
premature cracks. If these problems were fixed it defence programme with "formidable technical
would still cost another five billion to load the failings" and "inept management" is "lurching toward
bombers with modern weapons and modern deployment. A report commissioned by the Ballistic
electronics. 100 B-1Bs have been built and five Missile Defense Organisation itself - the office in
have crashed. This is in the tradition of the F/A-111 charge of the project - says the project is "highly
(which appeared at Harewood with the Australian unlikely" to succeed. In three-quarters of the tests of
Air Force in 1984) and which at that stage was ABM systems, often in ideal circumstances, targets
taking 33 hours servicing for every hour spent in the were not hit. In real life situations it is acknowledged
air. The newer B-2 bomber costs about $25,000 per " this basic system is likely to provide poor
hour to operate. In the defence budget for Fiscal protection. .. " [1996 statement from the Deputy
1998 the cost for procurement and maintenance of Secretary of Defense, p25]
nine B-2 bombers was given at $27 BILLION
DOLLARSI Chuck Spinney from the Office of the But there are contracts and jobs in Congressional
Secretary of Defense says the team responsible for districts at stake. Some Republican Senators are
overseeing the development of the F/A-18E/F saying the problems of the programme are caused
fighter/bomber aircraft were aware of fundamental by underfunding! The Bulletin notes "From 1983 to
design flaws in the planes' wings, but no-one from 1993, Ronald Reagan's Star Wars program
the team spoke up about the problems until after consumed more than $45 billion in today's [USJ
production funds were approved. [Bulletin of the dollars without producing any deployable systems or
Atomic Scientists, May/June 1998J major technological breakthroughs". [p24J But the
procurement programmes of the American military
Unda Rothstein, writing in the same edition of the industrial complex, forty years after Eisenhower
Bulletin, shows how even if the plane is successful warned of its dangers, continue to triumph.
in design terms, the process for decision-making on
production numbers is just as unbelievable. An article in the New York Times, [July 1, 1998J
Rothstein says the Pentagon has persuaded reports "Nuclear weapons have cost the United
Congress to spend about $219 billion on new States at least $5.48 trillion since 1940, and for
fighters by ignoring the current vast superiority of most of that time neither Congress, the armed
American aircraft numbers - especially against services nor the President had a clear idea what
countries such as Iraq, Iran and North Korea - and was being spent, according to a four-year study
counting in the opposition large numbers of sponsored by the Brookings Institution. The figure,
obsolete aircraft. The Pentagon also proclaims the which is stated in 1996 dollars converted under a
US is outnumbered by total global aircraft numbers, Defense Department formula, represents about a
thus adding up Britain, France and other allies as third of the nation's military spending and about one­
potential enemies. The strengths of Canada, tenth of all expenditures by the Federal Government
Sweden and Australia [!J have been given as from 1940 to 1996; only non-nuclear defense
reasons for building the new F-22 fighter! programs and Social Security cost more.

A fabricated fear of potential missile-wielding The cost includes money spent to invent them and
enemies is also proclaimed in order to continue with produce them, build the missiles, bombers and
h orrendously expensive anti-ballistic missile submarines to deliver them and to defend against
defences that p robably won't be able to stop enemy nuclear attacks. In addition, cleaning up
attacking missiles either in theatre context or as a environmental damage resulting from the
national defence. In MIT's Techn% gy Review production of nuclear weapons will bring the total
[May/June 1997J an assessment states "But no cost to $5.82 trillion, based on estimates of what will
hostile countries actually h ave the missiles most be needed in the next 80 years, the study said.
such efforts are designed to stop. What's more, Producing nuclear weapons accounted for only
many of these costly efforts would violate a treaty about 7 percent of the total cost, the study said
that has worked for 25 years and WOUld, Deploying the weapons, including the cost of
paradoxically, prevent further cuts in nuclear missiles and bombers, accounted for 55.7 percent
weapons. On top of this the Review says "The new of the total; defending against nuclear attacks made
systems are too easily foiled." As J anes Fighting up 16.1 percent; targeting and controlling the
Ships notes in its 1997-98 edition [p23J " . . . no-one weapons made up 14.3 percent and nuclear waste
is under any illusion that it is possible to provide a management and cleanup was 6.3 percent."

Peace Researcher - Page 16


rrhe U .S. Centra l I ntell igence Agency
And The Drugs Trade
Co-editor Bob Leonard just happened to arrive involved in targeting poor urban neighbourhoods,
in Oakland, California, for a holiday on the very Webb nevertheless lays the blame squarely at the
day (13 June 1998) journalist Gary Webb was
addressing a public meeting in nearby Berkeley.
door of the spooks. CIA agents were desperate to
raise funds for their beloved Contras fighting the
The title of the talk was "Dark Alliance - Crack
Commies in Nicaragua. It had become difficult if not
Cocaine, The CIA, Contras, The Censors". If you
impossible to convince representatives in the US
haven't heard of Gary Webb and his
Congress to fund the Contra war against the
investigative reporting on the links between the
Nicaraguan government and military.
CIA and crack-cocaine, please read on.

Support for the Contras was supplied in the form of


"I am convinced history is going to Latin American, Cuban and American operatives
record that Gary Webb wrote the and dozens of businesses with finance from the flow
truth .. The final chapter in this of cocaine into the US. The cocaine trafficking was
sordid tale. . . brings to light one of aided and abetted by the CIA in a most insidious
the worst official abuses in our way. Without directly paying the traffickers, the CIA
nation's history. We all owe Gary Simply provided protection for their operations. "The
Webb a debt of gratitude for his smugglers had cash, planes and pilots, while the
brave work"- US Representative Contras had intelligence, airstrips and, most
Maxine Waters. importantly, unimpeded access to the United States.
'And that, to a drug smuggler. . . is worth all the tea in
This story deserves to be retold as often as China'" (Martha Honey, In These Times, 17 May
possible, and new chapters continue to unfold - The 1998; " tea" quote from a Miami public defender).
CIA has been involved in the global drugs trade for And It was all " legal", at least that's the way the CIA
about 40 years. That complicity probably continues saw it A US government Memorandum of
to thiS day because drugs are such an effective way Understanding (MOU) was in effect from 1982 to
to raise the extra funds that the U.S. Congress fails
1995 between the CIA and the Justice Department
to allocate to the insatiable "Company". that allowed the CIA "to ignore drug trafficking by its
'agents, assets and non-staff [unpaid] employees'"
Gary Webb was a reporter for the San Jose Mercury
(Honey, ibid. ).
News in the mid-90s. In August 1996 the News
published a series of three reports by Webb entitled
"Dark Alliance". Based on a year of research Webb's revelations led to an internal CIA
following a chance tip from a court case Webb investigation of its involvement in drug smuggling.
spilled the beans on the CIA and has paid a rice forp CIA Watchdog, Inspector-General Fred Hitz said the
18-month probe was "the most comprehensive and
it What did he reveal?
exhaustive ever conducted [by the Agency]". But it
Cocaine as a white powdered substance was almost had the now familiar ring of a whitewash: "We found
exclusively a drug for rich white-folk - until the early absolutely no evidence to indicate that the CIA as an
80s. Webb's meticulously documented articles organization or its employees were involved in any
charged compellingly that everything changed when conspiracy to bring drugs into the United States"
"Crack" cocaine flooded onto the streets of LA and (Honey, ibid.) But according to Gary Webb "The
several other large US urban areas beginning actual report shows there are CIA fingerprints all
around 1982. It was cheap and potent, often lethal over thiS drug operation". Only volume one of the
In fact It penetrated black communities and report has been released. Volume two was not
changed already dismal living conditions to released and many congressional sources suspect
Intolerable. Big money concentrated among the that it never will be. The second volume covers the
formerly poor who became dealers and allowed the entire period of the Nicaraguan war.
purchase of semi-automatic weapons in numbers to
protect their turf. Where did the crack come from.. This story is one of many around the globe linking
and why so much all of a sudden? the CIA to drug dealing on a massive scale. Webb
knows the Nicaraguan story well. He was joined in
It was cheap because the suppliers of the US the Berkeley talk by Martha Honey who has many
dealers had almost unlimited direct access to years of Involvement in Latin America as an
cocaine from the Colombian Cali cartel, at very low investigative journalist. Together they provided a
prices. Without alleging that the CIA was directly detailed and compelling overview of how this U.S.

Peace Researcher - Page 1 7


intelligence agency effectively avoided Our readers may draw their own conclusions on the
congressional control and flooded the African­ worth of intelligence agencies at home and abroad.
American communities in several US cities with Our own GCSB and SIS are linked to sibling
crack cocaine in the process. Gary Webb lost the agencies in other countries, including the US
editorial support of the Mercury News shortly after National Security Agency and the CIA NZ
his articles were published, and he was demoted to intelligence budgets may be peanuts compared to
small town reporting. The News published a those of the big boys overseas, but do we have any
groveling apology to the CIA for publishing the evidence to conclude that our two agencies behave
articles. Webb soon quit the paper to work any more responsibly than the CIA? (See articles
independently and he has just published a book on elsewhere in this issue. )
the CIA/Contra affair

poo � Bits
HORROR STORIES - NEW TECH disperse crowds and that the Royal Ulster
Constabulary prefer to use plastic bullets for crowd
REPORT ON POTENTIAL FOR control.) Also attacked in the European study is the
POLITICAL REPRESSION move of law enforcement agencies to "tracking
George Orweli didn't know the half of it Fifty years certain social classes and races of people living in
ago there was no way he could have predicted the red-lined areas before crime is committed. This
way modern technology would produce an armoury preemptive policing, called data-surveillance, is
of political control devices to make his 1984 based on military models of gathering huge
governments look like Luddites. The latest issue of quantities of low-grade intelligence." [Quoted from
Covert Action Quarterly [Spring 1998] has a the EU report] And if you are a subversive, give
sobering article by Robin Ballantyne, partly based away your mobile phone. Not only can police and
on a new report from the European Parliament, intelligence agencies use built-in technology to
looking at current means of political repression, intercept calls but they can use the phone as a
including chemical weapons, electrified water jets, microphone to pick up nearby conversations and
light and sound weapons, dart guns shooting drugs, also keep track of where the owner is - while it is
and a host of other, literally shocking, technologies. switched on. In Europe the loudest outcry in
The scope for computerised surveillance is growing response to the report apparently came from
enormously, and the distinction between police and evidence that new technology was being used by
military is becoming blurred. (Witness the recent the US and Britain for commercial and diplomatic
deployment in the Coromandel of the New Zealand advantage. Some of the report is based on Nicky
Police's Special Tactic Group, and remember the Hager's ground-breaking Secret Power.
army's exercises at Burnham a few years ago, The report has aroused widespread concerns in
where the object was to supress rioters.) Blame is Europe over Washington's access to European
put on entrepreneurial companies that are keen to communications, especially since the principal
sell 'non-lethal' technologies to the military. The motivation for much of the espionage is the
ostensible reason for this is that it reduces the killing acquisition of diplomatic and commercial secrets.
in military encounters, but what has happened is Much of this access comes via the British
that the technologies have not been stored for use Government Communications H eadquarters and
in war but have been adapted for repression in facilities like Menwith Hill. It would be good to see
peace. Recently the Indonesian security forces governments in this region similarly showing
have dye-marked protestors who have later been concern about Waihopai.
rounded up b y snatch squads. The study
commissioned by the European Parliament "paints DI RTY WORK I N NSW
a chilling picture of innovation in repression" The work of Australian domestic security forces. at
according to Ballantyne. both state and federal level, has for many years
Plastic bullets and pepper gas, widely available to been riddled with the kinds of illegalities and
security forces in western nations, are heavily harrassments that illustrate the anti-democraic
criticised. (In its March/April 1998 edition, nature of much undercover spookery. Recently the
Statewatch reported Independent newspaper discredited New South Wales Police Special Branch
allegations that the British Army is stockpiling has been replaced by a new organisation, in large
chemicals to be fired from water cannon to part because of such activities. A special

Peace Researcher - Page 18


commission investigating the Special Branch found SCIENTISTS AND SPOOKS COME
it had 58,000 index cards and over a thousand 'dirt
files' which targeted politicians, journalists, trade TOGETHER
unionists, community activists and even barristers Some of the vast amount of information gathered by
who had been spied on for merely representing the United States intelligence community is being
criminals, The commission's report said the Branch made available for scientific research, In an article
had compiled 'unnecessary information' on VIPs, in Scientific American [February 1998] Jeffrey
One of its activities had been the photographing of Richelson has described how around 70 scientists
the number plates of cars outside public meetings, in a group known as Medea, have been given top­
"The majority of people who became the subject of level security clearances to look at areas that might
index cards in this manner could not have been be of wider (real?) benefit to the community and
reasonably described as representing a threat of how the two groups might benefit each other The
politically motivated violence or subversive or scientists have looked at data on global warming,
terrorist activity," [Sydney Morning Herald, 18 June, ocean temperatures, vegetation and forest cover,
1998 ] desertification, the condition of the polar ice caps,
'Protective Security Group' who have predominantly and similar material. Much of the information comes
anti-terrorist and protection roles, but retain some of from reconaissance satellites and aircraft producing
the Branch's criticised intelligence-gathering photographic, radio wave and infrared images, and
powers, It remains to be seen whether much will undersea tracking devices, The work began in 1992
change, There is a long history of dirty work in the and was formalised in 1994, (In a 1993 Presidential
annals of the Australian States' (and Federal) Directive Clinton stated that environmental issues
security organisations, And we wonder what would are significant factors in US national security policy,)
be found in New Zealand files! Meantime a former The scientists have assisted analysis of oil spills
police office who is now an MP has stated NSW and disposal of chemical weapons in Russia,
police have been recording telephone calls between environmental clean-up in areas surrounding US
police officers and journalists, The intent was to military facilities, and the Montserrat volcanic
stop leaks from inside the police which were critical eruption in 1995, Problems have arisen from the
of police reform, The SMH [22 June] states the CIA's concern that security information might be
police have the capacity to monitor who made calls, released, and scientific concern that work on the
when they made them, who they were to, and how basis of secret information cannot be subjected to
long they lasted, normal scientific proofs, The cynical will regard the
concept as another spook effort to justify their
existence and ask why a decent share of the $NZ
AND D I RT I E R WORK BY BRITAIN 50 billion intelligence budget, and the cutting-edge
CONFIRMED technology, coudn't just be made available for
Journalists writing i n the conservative British science in the first place,
SundayTelegraph [29 March] claimed "We have
seen secret files that for the first time, provide
SINN FEI N BUGGERED
evidence that the British Army's Force Research
"Bugging equipment has been found at the home of
Unit, a branch of Military Intelligence responsible for
a relative of Gerry Kelly, one of Sinn Fein's
running agents in N orthern Ireland, was complicit in
negotiating team at the recent talks, Two devices
a series of murders carried out by the UDA [Ulster
were found at the house and it is being assumed
Defence Association] between 1987 and 1990, "
that Kelly was the target because the house is
The newspaper says that there was "assassination
sometimes frequented by him," [ Statewatch,
[of Provisional IRA people] by proxy", The Force
March/April, 1998 p10] Sinn Fein activists would
Research Unit provided protestant paramilitaries
assume their homes and offices to be bugged but
with intelligence which was designed to target
perhaps be less guarded at the homes of relatives,
individuals, There is speculation that the information
about the army ' research' unit was provided to safe
Journalists in order to pressure recalCitrant SCAN DANAVIAN SPOOKERY
protestant negotiators (and score a hit on the WIDESPREAD
previous Tory Government?) Meantime Blair's
Owen Wilkes (remember New Zealand;'s pre­
Government has been generally playing down any eminent peace researcher of the 1980s and early
attacks on U K spooks and playing up a Cabinet
1990s?) always maintained that Sweden's harsh
decision to have MI5 destroy many of its files on
climate was reflected in the repressive nature of its
'subversives', (Will these just be transferred to
policing and intelligence system (and he was
computer disks?) They have squashed any concept
threatened with gaol there as evidence of it), Now in
of individual's access to files (unlike Sweden) and Sweden, because of controversy over a recent
will be under pressure from Whitehall to not do
case, the government is loosening up rules over
anything that might damage the special relationship
secret files, with limited access to personal files
with Washington being made possible, and more open rules on what

Peace Researcher - Page 19


the spooks may and may not collect. But the AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE
evidence is that the Scandanavian countries have
long had surveillance systems that ran very much INTELLIG E NCE SHAKE-UP
counter to the overt democratic images. Last year a AUSTRALIA'S defence intelligence services are to
government report in Norway revealed past and undergo a shake-up to improve spy training and the
present criminal activity by the services, including way intelligence information is presented to the
spying on a hostile MP who was appointed to the Government and the military. This is the outcome of
government's investigating committee. This and a review conducted in 1996-97. Sources said the
other activities (mostly illegal wiretaps) apparently shake-up was prompted by concerns that, in spite of
forced the Minister of Justice and chief of the secret the $140 million a year and 1500 staff working on
services to resign. In the 1970s military sections of defence intelligence, timely information and analysis
the intelligence apparatus made money from selling did not always reach decision-makers. [The
information about the Soviet Union they had Australian -19 June, 1998] The paper says
collected by electronic spying. A former Prime concerns were reinforced by the failure of
Minister of Norway, Per Borthen says the country intelligence services to provide the Government with
does not need any secret services. At the beginning forewarning of Papua New Guinea's plans last year
of March a former agent of Danish police to hire mercenaries to fight in the Bougainville civil
Intelligence went on television to reveal infiltration in war. One source said defence intelligence had been
the 1980s of a legal leftist political party, trade aware of the PNG Government's plans, but this
unions, anarchist groups, anti-apartheid information had been badly analysed and poorly
campaigners and peace organisations, along with followed up. Changes are to be made in the training
right wing groups. of personnel; the focus on its 'customers' and the
way it prepared and presented its reports; and the
systems for organising the intelligence system in its
US FORCES TRAIN I NDONESIAN
day-to-day operations and in emergencies. The
KILLERS Defence Intelligence Organisation is the main
The Pentagon has suspended its controversial aid assessment agency for the Defence Force and the
to the Indonesian Army, but as Lobster asserts Defence Department, working on information
[Summer 1998] history shows Congressional efforts collected by the Defence Signals Directorate.
to prevent the US military supporting repressive Nothing public has been said about how ineffective
forces have usually been circumvented. In present the DSD (sister organisation to the GCSB) might be.
circumstances the Pentagon and the CIA have too
much to lose to stop trying to influence events in BRITS STOP REVELATIONS
Indonesia now. Lobster says there were at least 41
David Shayler, a former MI5 officer who has been
exercises between 1992 and 1997 where US Green
revealing details of the security service's bungles
Berets were training the Kopassus Red Berets in
and political surveillance, has been arrested in
means of violence against Indonesian civilians,
France. The UK Government is attempting to
even though this had been prohibited by Congress.
extradite him as PR goes to Press [August].
Twenty exercises were SCheduled for 1998.
Recently the French arrested then released former
Kopassus played a key role in the bloodbath that
MI6 officer Richard Tomlinson [see PR 15] who was
brought Suharto to power and has been involved in
also writing material that criticised Britain's spooks.
torture and massacres since.

About Peace Researcher

Peace Researcher is published quarterly by the Anti-Bases Campaign, Christchurch. The


editors are
Bob Leonard and Warren Thomson. Our journal covers a range of peace issues
with emphasis on foreign military bases and intelligence topiCS. Contributed articles will be
considered for publication based on subject matter and space requirements. We are
particularly interested in reports of original research on peace topics in Aotearoa and the wider
region of Australasia and the Pacific. Our address is:

Peace Researcher
P O Box 2258
Christchurch
Aotearoai New Zealand

Peace Researcher - Page 20


him revealing any of the criticisms of British
D I D T H E U S USE NERVE GAS ON
intelligence he was intending to publish in a book.
D E F ECTORS IN LAOS? Then, when boarding a plane to visit his brother in
In June a CNNrTime television broadcast reported Australia, he was detained because his travel
that in 1970 American Special Forces used sarin documents were claimed to be out of order. The
nerve gas in an attack on a defector's camp in Laos. British Special Branch officer who was responsible
The revelations about "Operation Tailwind" were for getting Tomlinson gaoled in Britain for six
based on interviews with "dozens" who fought or months turned up to question him in New Zealand,
flew with the mission. But immediately following the and items were seized when his hotel room was
broadcast. Pentagon media managers moved in, searched. The things we colonials do for our big
and in response to the pressure, a consultant was brothers! [See also the story in PR 15J
hired by CNN to review the story. His rapid report
resulted in an abject apology from CNN, and Time CANADIAN AGENTS STUFF UP
Magazine, and the firing of three producers.
A July story in the Auckland Herald tells u s that
The original intensive investigation said that 16 U.S. during the Commonwealth Heads of Government
Special Force personnel (used for "black"
Meeting in Auckland in 1995 secret service agents
operations against unusual targets and often
lost sensitive papers related to the Canadian Prime
equipped with unusual weapons) along with 140
Minister'S visit, and possibly details of the 1999
Montagnard mercenaries, were helicoptered 60
APEC Conference. The Canadian protection squad
miles into neutral Laos to attack a village believed to
left a satchel in a taxi which was subject to an
contain American defectors. After they failed to take
ownership dispute. While at lunch the taxi was
the village because of fierce resistance, US planes
removed - along with their sensitive documents!
gassed the camp with sarin, using a special
They were later recovered.
weapon, CBU-15, a cluster bomb unit designed to
drop the nerve gas. After the Montagnards cleaned
up the village, reporting bodies which "look like NO LAU RELS FOR LORAL
Americans", the force was threatened with enemy As Clinton took off for his China trip in June there
[communis!?J troops. More planes then proceeded was " . " a raging argument in Washington over
to drop similar cluster bombs on them. Tailwind whether the White House ignored the transfer of
veterans described these troops as then convulsing sensitive military data to China from US firms using
and throwing up. Some of the American soldiers Chinese missiles to launch satellites." Sydney
suffered minor doses of the gas - their symptoms Morning Herald, 20 June 1998J The main company
classically being those of people exposed to sarin. involved, Loral Space communications, is headed
April Oliver, one of the producers fired by CNN has by the biggest individual donour to the Democratic
continued to maintain the story is true and that, Party in the 1996 election campaign! Isn't it also a
amongst others, Henry Kissenger and the 1970 Loral company who play a key part in running the
Chief of Defence Staff had seen the script and huge British spy base at Menwith Hill?
approved it. She says that the reporters had several
deep off the record sources. They had been
M ILITARY G U LLIBILITY
subjected to "a huge disinformation campaign"
because "These shadow warriors don't like us Several references have been made in past
Peace Researchers to the increasing
looking into their business". Critics say CNN caved
in because Special Forces organisations threatened dependence of the military, particularly the
to call all CNN's advertisers and get them to pull United States military, on battlefield technology,
their advertising. Like Garry Webb [see CIA story] using computers, lasers and other sighting and
April Oliver has found that the media - gallant guidance devices. (See e.g. "Military Hi-Tech,
defenders of democracy - often crumble when issue 10.) The latest issue of Janes Fighting
confronted with the intelligence and military heavies. Ships asserts "The promises of information
dominance leading to transparent battlefields
and automated, instant, secure and appropriate
TOMLl NSON PERSECUTED BY responses continue as a monument to human
NZ GOVERNMENT gullibility and the triumph of hope over
Former MI6 officer Richard Tomlinson seems experience." [1987-98 edition, p23J
unlikely to stay in New Zealand after discovering the
country he was born in, and grew up in, toes the line
required by its British masters. Initially refused his
THIS IS THE GOOD N EWS?
passport by the NZ embassy in Paris, he was set Nearly a million US students took guns to school
upon in his hotel room by French police who beat in the last academic year. Good news - because
him as they arrested him. Freed after 30 hours this represents a drop from six percent of
interrogation he finally retrieved his passport and students carrying guns in 1993-94 to only three
flew to New Zealand. The government here point eight % carrying them last yearl
immediately slapped an injunction on him to prevent

Peace Researcher - Page 21


·
Waihopai Display Makes Its Mark
: A display about Waihopai is available to put in you r local library, school, workplace,
community centre etc. A ve ry p r ofessional exhibit, p r oduced by M a r k Roach, the
display is available on its own stands (2 parts each approximately 1m by 800cm) or in
: smaller pie ces to asse mble . I n Blenheim the Lib r a r ian re moved the display because
· a spook p retending to be a membe r of the public complained. This led to a p r olonged
·
debate with seve r a l articles and lette rs appearing in the local pape r - the best publicity
i we have had i n Blenhe im for a long time. Contact Ma r k in Wellington, o r ABC, if you
, would like to use the display. It's exceptionally easy to e re ct; some costs involved in
,
moving it a round the country.

Waihopai Petition . Help Required


The Anti Bases Campaign is cu r re ntly circulating a petition aimed at closing Waihopai
and shutting down the secret ope rations of the Gove rnment Communications
Se cu r ity B u reau. The petition is to be prese nted to Parliament i n Novemb e r . We
would appreciate any help that can be given to collect signatures. Contact ABC if you
would like to assist. Petitions need to be returned to C h r istchu rch by Nove mber 5.

Waihopai Speaking Tour


C h r istch u rch ABC is o r g a n ising a speaking tou r to publicise the latest Waihopai
developments, and related issues. War re n Thomson will be available to speak to
g roups a r ound the country in Septembe r. If you would like to host a public meeting o r
a small cottage g r oup, contact ABC, Box 2258 C h r istc h u r ch, or E-mail
Wa r ren@chch . p lanet. co.nz. Offe rs to assist with accommodation, with funding, o r
with local media liaison, would be h e l pful. Wa r re n is Co-Editor of Peace Researcher
and has been active in Anti Bases issues, particul a r ly at Waihopai, for many years.

SUBSCRIBE TO PEA CE RESEARCHER

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, Campaign . If you would like to join ABC, please fill in the form be low. All members
I rece ive Peace Researcher. Membe rship/subscr i ption is $20 pe r ye ar for three issues.
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