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UNIT 1: PERSONAL AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT

SELF-APPRAISAL:
Self evaluation process involved in determining the level of self efficacy.
A *Self-Appraisal* is a method in which the employee evaluates his own
performance and then discusses this with his manager. The method can be used
as an introduction phase of an Appraisal process. An advantage of doing so is
that it provides the employee with the opportunity to reflect on his own
performance and reasons behind it. It can be a good preparation for the appraisal
by the manager of the employee and can help to increase the size of the future-oriented
part of it.
Self-appraisal includes the following objects such as skills audit, evaluating selfmanagement, leadership and interpersonal skills.
1.1 SKILLS AUDIT:
Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
The meaning of skills audit.
Purpose and uses of skills audits.
Benefits and Techniques of Skills Audit
Process of skills audit
Principles of skills audit

To know the categories of Skills Audit - Working with others, Planning


and

organization,

Improving

learning

and

performance,

Communication skills, Handling information


Strategies for Skills Audit Implementation

Skills audit - Definition - a process for measuring the skills of an


individual or group
Meaning:
Getting the right mix of skills, experiences and qualities is a key ingredient in
building an effective board of trustees. A skills audit is a tool to help your board
identify why they have become a trustee and what skills, knowledge or
experience they can contribute to the board.
Purpose and uses of skills audits:
The key piece of information an organisation needs to improve and to
deliver to its Mission Statement and strategy is to know what skills and
knowledge the organisation requires and what skills and knowledge the
organisation currently has.
This information is essential for a number of reasons:

Know where to improve.

Better planned and more focused T&D.

Better defined recruitment needs.

Easier placement decisions.

Enablement of career path and succession planning.

Existing members of your board may possess a range of skills or knowledge that
may never have been identified or called upon by the organisation. Prospective
new trustees can be recruited on the basis of what they can bring to the board,
complementing and enhancing what is already there and increasing the diversity
of both skills and perspectives.
The ideal trustee would have every desirable skill and quality, but in the real
world we each have only a selection. If we know what qualities we possess
ourselves, and what qualities others possess, we can pool our talents.
Benefits:

Valid and valuable workplace skills plans

Improved skills and knowledge.

Lower training and development costs because development efforts are


more focused.

Acquisition and use of information that can be used for purposes such as
internal employee selection and placement.

Increased productivity as people are better matched to their positions.

Techniques - Skills Audit


There are numerous techniques to conduct a skills audit based on the context and
strategy of the organisation. It is vital that the first step in implementing a skills
audit is to analyze the organizational context and strategy in relation to the
objectives of the skills audit. The context of the organisation may be identified
based on time available, logistical issues, primary reasons for the skills audit and

the prevalent socio-political environment. The organizational strategy provides


the basis for alignment of skills to current and future organizational needs. This
alignment is essential to ensure consistency with business strategy and value of
skills audit results.
The process to be followed essentially consists of the following:

There are three key stages to a skills audit.


a. Determine skills
requirements

b. Audit actual skills

The first is to determine what skills each


employee requires. The second stage is to
determine which of the required skills each
employee has. The third is to analyze the
results and determine skills development

c. Determine
development needs
and plan for training/
restructuring

needs. The outcome of the skills audit


process is usually a training needs analysis,
which will enable the organisation to target
and also provide information for purposes
such

as

recruitment

and

selection,

performance management and succession


planning.
a. Determine skills requirements
In order to determine skills requirements, an organisation should identify
current and future skills requirements per job. The end result is a skills matrix
with related competency definitions. Definitions can be allocated against various
proficiency levels per job, such as basic, intermediate and complex.

b. Audit actual skills


The actual skills audit process is outlined below and involves an individual selfaudit and skills audit. Results are collated into reporting documents that may
include statistical graphs, qualitative reports and recommendations.

c. Determine development needs and plan for training/restructuring


Once skills audit information has been collected, an analysis of the results may
be used for planning purposes relating to training and development and other
Human Resource interventions. Recommendations are then discussed and
agreed actions are implemented.

The principles of good skills audits


Fairness
Validity & Reliability
Transparency/ Openness
Constructive feedback
Evaluation of evidence
Example: Personal Evidence Skills Gained Work:

Data entry within a job at a call centre - Basic IT skills; Communication


Skills

Working as a sales assistant in a clothes store - Communication Skills;


Negotiation Skills

Skills Audit rate your overall skills development. The Continued Professional
Development helps you to plan for skills development during your career.
Skills are divided into five categories:

Handling information
- assess your ability to use relevant literature and to produce and interpret
data;
Communication skills
- assess your ability to communicate effectively in oral and written formats;
Improving learning and performance
- assess your development and ability to identify opportunities for further
skills development;
Planning and organization
- assess your ability to plan your research on a short-term and long-term
basis;
Working with others
- assess your ability to work as part of a team and to network with others.

Strategies for Skills Audit Implementation


Skills audits may be conducted in various ways. Current approaches to skills
audits include the following:
a)

Panel approach

b)

Consultant approach

c)

One-on-one approach

Individual
self-audit

Panel audit

Consultant
audit

A panel is normally made External

One-onone audit

consultants This

is

similar

up of managers, Subject interview both employees performance

to

appraisal,

Matter Experts and HR and managers, and may except that an individual
experts. The skills audit review performance and is rated against a preform is completed through related documentation to defined

skills

matrix

discussion, and includes establish an individuals instead of his/ or her job


one-on-one feedback with level of competence.

profile.

the employee.

manager

The
will

discussion
employee

employees
hold

with
to

agree

skills audit ratings.

a
the
on

Skills audit Action plan

GOAL
STEPS
Agreement on the objectives of the Discussion and agreement on project outcomes
skills

audit

outcomes
Investigation

and
to

the

expected

identify

competencies and

key Review business goals


Review job descriptions

analyse the organisational context Review organisational structure


and strategy in relation to the Review future business plans
objectives of the skills audit.
Communication

Workshop

with

key

people

to

confirm

key

competencies and to agree broad process


Communicate purpose and process to all staff
members
Competence profiling
Prepare a profile for each job
Individual audits (by self, consultant Plan a meeting with each employee to gather
and/or panel

evidence of competencies in relation to the key


organisational competencies and the job competence

Application
Feedback

profile
Prepare a skills gap analysis
Present the skills gap analysis to management and
training committee/shop stewards and discuss next
steps
Give feedback to individual staff members

Reporting

Train managers to use the skills audit process


Prepare a formal report and compile the Workplace
Skills Plan

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is meant by skills audit?


Define Purpose and uses of skills audits.
What are the Benefits of Skills Audit?
Brief the Techniques adopted in skills audit.
Process of skills audit Explain
Define the Principles of skills audit.
What are the categories of Skills Audit -?
Strategies for Skills Audit Implementation

1.2 EVALUATING SELF-MANAGEMENT:


Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
To know the base of self-management.
The Components of self-management - Self-monitoring, Selfevaluation and Self-reinforcement.

The needs of self-management skills.


Applications of self management.
The strategies of self management.
The Self-management Behaviors.
The Benefits of Employee Self Evaluation.
The rules to be followed for self-management.
To know about the self-management skills.
Meaning: Managing ones internal states, impulses, and resources
Self-management is a psychological term used to describe the process of
achieving

personal

autonomy.

The

goal

of

self-management

for

the

developmentally disabled population is to shift supervision and control from a


parent, caregiver, job coach, or employer to the person him-/herself. A successful
self-management program will allow these individuals to live and work
independently within their environment.

Components of self-management :
There are 3 components of self-management.

Self-monitoring. The aim of self-monitoring is teach the person to become more


aware of his/her own behavior. For those with developmental disabilities, a
target behavior(s) is selected, such as aggression, making nonsense noises, and
staying on task; and the person is taught to monitor when this behavior(s)
occurs. One strategy is to teach the person to monitor his/her own behavior at

short time intervals. At first a teacher or supervisor may remind the student
every 10 or 15 minutes to observe his/her behavior. Later, a kitchen timer can be
used to present an auditory signal every 10 or 15 minutes to cue the person to
observe whether the target behavior occurred. An eventual goal may be to teach
the person to monitor his/her behavior without a prompt. For example, after
performing an undesirable behavior, he/she may become immediately aware of
what he/she is doing. Such awareness may then prompt the person to stop the
behavior before it escalates. Sometimes there is a reactivity effect in which the
undesirable behavior decreases merely because of the process of observation.

Self-evaluation. The person determines whether or not he/she engaged in the


target behavior in relation to the goals that have been set. For example, if the goal
is to refrain from self-injury for 10 minutes, the person and those helping him/her
can reflect over the 10-minute time period to determine if this goal was met. If it
was, the person will proceed to the next stage, self-reinforcement. If not, goals
may need to be revised and self-monitoring will need to take place again. In
order to maximize the likelihood of success, goals should be realistic and
attainable; and they should be made more challenging as the person experiences
consistent success.

Self-reinforcement. Self-reinforcement refers to self-delivery of rewards for


reaching the goals which were set. For example, if the goal is to refrain from
aggression for 30 minutes (e.g., three 10-minute self-monitoring intervals) and if
the person has met the goal, then he/she would reward him-/herself. Researchers
claim that allowing a person to choose from a variety of rewards is more effective
than simply making only one reward available. Initially, these rewards may be
given to the person immediately, such as eating a food snack; but similar to the

real world, it would be best to establish a token economy in which the person
receives tokens (e.g., coins, stars) for appropriate behavior, and then exchanges
them for a reward at a later time. Although tangible, external rewards are often
quite effective, it would be advantageous to have the person eventually rely on
internal rewards, such as knowing he/she performed well. Also, while
continuous reinforcement works well when new behaviors are being established
(e.g., learning not to be aggressive), the behaviors will be stronger if
reinforcement becomes intermittent.

Certainly, self-regulation can be challenging to teach to a person with a


developmental disability; but many professionals have been quite successful
using simple behavioral techniques to do so. These techniques include:
modeling, rehearsal, shaping, prompting, feedback, fading, and generalization.
Initially, the individual will likely need close supervision but, over time, such
supervision should be gradually removed, if possible. If a self-management
program is successful, it is important to develop some type of maintenance
program, otherwise the person's skills may deteriorate over time. Such 'booster'
training sessions should be integrated into the program.

Self-management may take a great deal of time and energy to implement.


However, having an individual actively participate in changing his/her own
behavior may be the key to reducing or eliminating behaviors as well as to
maintaining appropriate behaviors. Once the person can monitor, evaluate, and
reinforce his/her own behavior, everyone benefits.
Need for self-management skills
Self-management is the foundation of prosocial behavior

Our society is incapable of maintaining positive behavior via external


reinforces alone
Self-management skills facilitate generalization
Self-management skills facilitate development of new, prosocial skills

Uses of self management:

To increase motivation

To increase predictability and consistency

To facilitate memory or exaggerate relevant

To decrease physiological arousal

To decrease dependence on staff/family

To improve generalization and maintenance

Self-management Strategies

self-monitoring

self-delivered instructions & self-talk

self-relaxation routines

self manipulations of preceding events

self-delivered rewards

(self-delivered corrections)

Self-management Behaviors

Preparing for class & work

Time management
Define and teach the routines
arrive on time

With necessary materials


complete tasks in timely manner
Appearance & attitude
enter in a pleasant manner, be respectful
be prepared to work
ask for help when needed

Participating in class & work

follow rules and guidelines


stay on-task/ time management
do work as assigned
ask for help when needed, in an endearing way
be respectful and cooperative

Wrapping up and leaving class & work

be respectful and cooperative


organize/ clean up materials and workspace
take necessary materials/ homework
Time management
wrap up work station & tasks on time
leave on time

The Benefits of Employee Self Evaluation or Self Appraisal


There are a number of benefits to having employees self-evaluate or self
appraise, either as part of the formal performance management system, or
informally. Here are a few of them:

By having employees do some sort of self evaluation before the actual


review meeting, the review meetings can be shorter.

If done properly and tactfully, encouraging employees to self evaluation


or self appraise at any time during the year, including around the actual
review meetings, help convey the message that the process of
performance management and appraisal is a team effort, and not
something the manager does to the employee. This greases the wheels of
the process, making it more effective.

Whey self appraisal is an accepted and integrated part of the performance


management process, it encourages employees to self evaluate throughout
the year. That's exceedingly valuable, because what most managers want
is employees who can do their jobs, monitor their own progress, and selfcorrect all year long. When that happens managers can spend far less time
fire fighting or micromanaging.

Twelve Rules for Self-Management. Show me a business where everyone lives


and works by self-managing, and Ill bet its a business destined for greatness.
1. Live by your values, whatever they are. You confuse people when
you dont, because they cant predict how youll behave.

2. Speak up! No one can hear what youre thinking without you be
willing to stand up for it. Mind-reading is something most people cant
do.

3. Honor your own good word, and keep the promises you make. If
not, people eventually stop believing most of what you say, and your
words will no longer work for you.

4. When you ask for more responsibility, expect to be held fully


accountable. This is what seizing ownership of something is all about;
its usually an all or nothing kind of thing, and so youve got to treat it
that way.

5. Dont expect people to trust you if you arent willing to be


trustworthy for them first and foremost. Trust is an outcome of
fulfilled expectations.

6. Be more productive by creating good habits and rejecting bad ones.


Good habits corral your energies into a momentum-building rhythm
for you; bad habits sap your energies and drain you.

7. Have a good work ethic, for it seems to be getting rare today.


Curious, for those old-fashioned values like dependability,
timeliness, professionalism and diligence are prized more than ever
before. Be action-oriented. Seek to make things work. Be willing to do
what it takes.

8. Be interesting. Read voraciously, and listen to learn, then teach and


share everything you know. No one owes you their attention; you have
to earn it and keep attracting it.

9. Be nice. Be courteous, polite and respectful. Be considerate. Manners


still count for an awful lot in life, and thank goodness they do.

10. Be self-disciplined. Thats what adults are supposed to grow up


to be.

11. Dont be a victim or a martyr. You always have a choice, so dont


shy from it: Choose and choose without regret. Look forward and be
enthusiastic.
12. Keep healthy and take care of yourself. Exercise your mind, body
and spirit so you can be someone people count on, and so you can live
expansively and with abundance.
REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. What is self-management?
2.

Explain the Components of self-management.

3. Define the needs of self-management skills.


4. What are the Applications of self management?
5.

Explain the strategies of self management.

6.

Determine the Self-management Behaviors.

7.

Explain the Benefits of Employee Self Evaluation.

8. What are the rules to be followed for self-management?


9. Define self-management skills.

1.3 LEADERSHIP AND INTERPERSONAL SKILLS:


Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
The leadership concept.
The different types of Leadership theories.
The leadership Trait theory.

To understand the styles of leadership, Autocratic Democratic - The


Laissez-Faire.
The interpersonal skills.
To understand about how to develop Interpersonal skills.
The tips for improving your interpersonal skills.
LEADERSHIP:
Many people believe that leadership is simply being the first, biggest or most
powerful. Leadership in organizations has a different and more meaningful
definition. Very simply put, a leader is interpreted as someone who sets
direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction.
Theories about Leadership
There are also numerous theories about leadership, or about carrying out the role
of leader, e.g., servant leader, democratic leader, principle-centered leader,
group-man theory, great-man theory, traits theory, visionary leader, total leader,
situational leader, etc.

Leadership theories
Over time, a number of theories of leadership have been proposed. Here are
some of the main ideas.

Great Man Theory

Trait Theory

Behavioral Theories

Role Theory

The Managerial Grid

Participative Leadership
o

Lewin's leadership styles

Likert's leadership styles

Situational Leadership
o

Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership

Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model

House's Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

Contingency Theories
o

Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory

Cognitive Resource Theory

Strategic Contingencies Theory

Transactional Leadership
o

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

Transformational Leadership
o

Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory

Burns' Transformational Leadership Theory

Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Participation Inventory

Trait theory:
Assumptions
People are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination
of traits.

Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day,
which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus
put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the
underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits,
then they, too, could also become great leaders.

McCall and Lombardo (1983) researched both success and failure identified four
primary traits by which leaders could succeed or 'derail':

Emotional stability and composure: Calm, confident and predictable,


particularly when under stress.

Admitting error: Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into


covering up.

Good interpersonal skills: Able to communicate and persuade others without


resort to negative or coercive tactics.

Intellectual breadth: Able to understand a wide range of areas, rather than


having a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise.

Leadership Styles
Leaders carry out their roles in a wide variety of styles, e.g., autocratic,
democratic, participatory, laissez-faire (hands off), etc. Often, the leadership style
depends on the situation, including the life cycle of the organization. The
following document provides brief overview of key styles, including autocratic,
laissez-faire and democratic style.

1. The Autocrat

The autocratic leader dominates team-members, using unilateralism to achieve a


singular objective. This approach to leadership generally results in passive
resistance from team-members and requires continual pressure and direction
from the leader in order to get things done. Generally, an authoritarian approach
is not a good way to get the best performance from a team.
There are, however, some instances where an autocratic style of leadership may
not be inappropriate. Some situations may call for urgent action, and in these
cases an autocratic style of leadership may be best. In addition, most people are
familiar with autocratic leadership and therefore have less trouble adopting that
style. Furthermore, in some situations, sub-ordinates may actually prefer an
autocratic style.

2. The Laissez-Faire Manager

The Laissez-Faire manager exercises little control over his group, leaving them to
sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process
himself. In general, this approach leaves the team floundering with little
direction or motivation.
Again, there are situations where the Laissez-Faire approach can be effective. The
Laissez-Faire technique is usually only appropriate when leading a team of
highly motivated and skilled people, who have produced excellent work in the
past. Once a leader has established that his team is confident, capable and
motivated, it is often best to step back and let them get on with the task, since

interfering can generate resentment and detract from their effectiveness. By


handing over ownership, a leader can empower his group to achieve their goals.

3. The Democrat

The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting his team, whilst still
maintaining control of the group. The democratic leader allows his team to
decide how the task will be tackled and who will perform which task.
The democratic leader can be seen in two lights:
A good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but
never loses sight of the fact that he bears the crucial responsibility of leadership.
He values group discussion and input from his team and can be seen as drawing
from a pool of his team members' strong points in order to obtain the best
performance from his team. He motivates his team by empowering them to
direct themselves, and guides them with a loose reign.

The Eleven Skills of Leadership


The following links to sections describe the eleven leadership skills as they are
taught within White Stag Leadership Development by those who learned from
the program founders.

Getting and Giving Information

Understanding Group Needs and Characteristics

Knowing and Understanding Group Resources

Controlling the Group

Counseling

Setting the Example

Representing the Group

Problem-Solving

Evaluation

Sharing Leadership

Manager of Learning

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
"Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied
during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects
or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to
refer to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations
through social communication and interactions. Interpersonal skills are how
people relate to one another.
As an illustration, it is generally understood that communicating respect for
other people or professionals within the workplace will enable one to reduce
conflict and increase participation or assistance in obtaining information or
completing tasks. For instance, in order to interrupt someone who is currently
preoccupied with a task in order to obtain information needed immediately, it is
recommended that a professional utilize a deferential approach with language
such as, "Excuse me, are you busy? I have an urgent matter to discuss with you if
you have the time at the moment." This allows the receiving professional to make
their own judgment regarding the importance of their current task versus
entering into a discussion with their colleague.

Having positive interpersonal skills increases the productivity in the


organization since the number of conflicts is reduced. In informal situations, it
allows communication to be easy and comfortable. People with good
interpersonal skills can generally control the feelings that emerge in difficult
situations and respond appropriately, instead of being overwhelmed by emotion.

Developing Interpersonal skills:

Leadership
The process of successfully influencing the activities of a group towards the
achievement of a common goal. A leader has the ability to influence others
through qualities such as personal charisma, expertise, command of language,
and the creation of mutual respect. As well as requiring strong Communication

Skills and Personal Skills, leadership uses the Background skills of mentoring,
decision making, delegation and motivating others.
Networking
The ability to actively seek, identify and create effective contacts with others, and
to maintain those contacts for mutual benefit. In addition to strong
Communication Skills and Personal Skills, Networking uses the Background
skills of network building and motivating others.
Teamwork
Involves working with others in a group towards a common goal. This requires
cooperating with others, being responsive to others' ideas, taking a collaborative
approach to learning, and taking a responsibility for developing and achieving
group goals. Teamwork uses the Background skills of collaboration, mentoring,
decision making and delegation.
Background Skills
Mentoring is:

A mentoring relationship may be formal or informal, but must involve


trust, mutual respect, and commitment as both parties work together to
achieve a goal (for example, mentoring a younger member of a team to
achieve better performance in the lead-up to a sporting event).

Group work is:

any activity in which students work together;

any activity which has been specifically designed so that students work in
pairs or groups, and may be assessed as a group (referred to as formal
group work); or

When students come together naturally to help each other with their work
(referred to as informal group work).

peer group activity in lab classes, tutorials etc

Decision making is:


Identifying appropriate evidence and weighing up that evidence to make
a choice (for example, gathering and assessing information to find the best
way to perform an experiment).

Taking responsibility for a decision and its outcomes (for example,


choosing a topic for a group presentation from a number of suggestions).

Delegation is:
Taking responsibility for determining when to ask someone else to make a
decision or carry out a task (for example, figuring out what is a fair
distribution of the workload in a group project, and sharing responsibility
with others).

Distributing responsibility and authority in a group by giving someone


else the discretion to make decisions that you have the authority to make
(for example, as the chosen leader of a lab experiment team, you could
assign tasks and decisions to different group members).

Collaboration is:
Working cooperatively and productively with other team members to
contribute to the outcomes of the team's work (for example, dividing the
workload and sharing the results of your own work with others in the
group, or assisting members of the group who are having difficulty
completing their tasks).
Network building is:

Creating contacts with other people and maintaining those contacts (for
example, meeting someone at a seminar with similar interests, and
swapping email addresses with them).

Acquiring and maintaining information about people who might be useful


contacts for specific purposes (for example, seeking out people established
in an industry you hope to work with one day).

Using a contact in an ethical manner to help each of you meet specific


goals, (for example, collaborating on projects of importance to both of
you).

Motivating others is:


Generating enthusiasm and energy by being positive, focussing on finding
solutions and maintaining a positive attitude even when things are not
going well (for example, when something goes wrong, asking "What can
we try now?" instead of saying, "That should have worked better.").

Encouraging others to come up with solutions, listening carefully to their


ideas and offering constructive feedback (for example, gathering
suggestions for a group project, and giving each person's ideas fair
discussion).

Tips for improving your interpersonal skills:


Smile. Few people want to be around someone who is always down in the
dumps. Do your best to be friendly and upbeat with your coworkers.
Be appreciative. Find one positive thing about everyone you work with and let
them hear it. Say thank you when someone helps you.

Pay attention to others. Observe whats going on in other peoples lives.


Acknowledge their happy milestones, and express concern and sympathy for
difficult situations such as an illness or death.
Practice active listening. To actively listen is to demonstrate that you intend to
hear and understand anothers point of view. It means restating, in your own
words, what the other person has said.
Bring people together. Create an environment that encourages others to work
together. Treat everyone equally, and don't play favorites. Avoid talking about
others behind their backs.
Resolve conflicts. Take a step beyond simply bringing people together, and
become someone who resolves conflicts when they arise. Learn how to be an
effective mediator.
Communicate clearly. Pay close attention to both what you say and how you say
it. A clear and effective communicator avoids misunderstandings with
coworkers, colleagues, and associates.
Humor them. Most people are drawn to a person that can make them laugh. Use
your sense of humor as an effective tool to lower barriers and gain peoples
affection.

See it from their side. Empathy means being able to put yourself in someone
elses shoes and understand how they feel. Try to view situations and responses
from another persons perspective.

Don't complain. There is nothing worse than a chronic complainer or whiner. If


you simply have to vent about something, save it for your diary.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. What is meant by leadership?
2.

Explain about the Leadership theories.

3. Explain about Trait theory.


4. Define the styles of leadership.
5. Define interpersonal skills.
6. How to develop Interpersonal skills?
7. Define the tips for improving your interpersonal skills.

1.4 DEVELOPMENT PLAN:


Learning objective:

After reading this section you can able to know,


The concept of Personal and career development.
Career development process.
Development plan.
Current performance, future needs.
Aims, objectives and targets.
Review dates and achievement dates
Learning programme or activities:
Action plans writing a development action plan.

CAREER AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT:


Personal

development

is

our

conscious

self-improvement

and

self-

transcendence. It is the aspiration to realize our higher self. The process of


Personal development involves several aspects:
Transcending our Negative Qualities - We all have negative qualities such as
pride, anger and doubt. Personal development is a conscious effort to reduce and
minimize these qualities by focusing on the positive aspects of life.
Controlling Our Thoughts - Control of our thoughts is essential for our own
development. If we allow ourselves to be at the mercy of our own thoughts, we
cannot hope to minimize our negative qualities and bring our good qualities to
the fore. Meditation is the best way to cultivate a silent mind.
Self-Transcendence - Self-Transcendence is the art of going beyond our own selfimposed limitations. This means we aspire to reach new goals and not to be
satisfied with what we were in the past.

Intuition - Personal development means we learn to listen to the inner voice our inner pilot. The messages of our inner voice can only be heard with a silent
mind. This inner inspiration comes not from our ego, but our Soul.

Minimize Desires - When we live in the world of desires there is no end to our
desires. However, spiritual growth means we learn to reduce our desires. By
reducing our desires we discover that the source of abiding happiness is to be
found in a life of simplicity and not outer success.
To Live in the Heart - If we can live in the heart many of our problems will be
solved. When we live in the heart, we can spontaneously feel our oneness with
others.
Gratitude - Gratitude is to make a conscious appreciation of the Source of all
things. Without gratitude personal development is very limited
Enlarging our Sense of Self - Self-improvement is A continuous self-offering.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT:
In personal development, career development is:
"

the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical,

economic, and chance factors that combine to influence the nature and
significance of work in the total lifespan of any given individual."
Lifelong psychological and behavioral processes as well as contextual influences
shaping ones career over the life span. As such, career development involves the

persons creation of a career pattern, decision-making style, integration of life


roles, values expression, and life-role self concepts."
Career development process:
Career development is:

an ongoing, lifelong process

an active process; we must be the driving force behind the process,


gathering information, setting goals, and making decisions

an introspective process of self-assessment and reflection

a time-consuming process

a holistic process, which integrates our changing needs, wants,


relationships, and situations with the ever-changing world of work.

Below is a model of the career development process:

Assess - "Who am I?" If youve been thinking about your career path and know
you want a career change you may wonder: Where do I start? Typically, this

process starts with self-assessment. Understanding who you really are is critical
to effective career planning. Breaking this down can be helpful:

Skillswhat skills do I have? And which do I really enjoy using? Just


because youre good at something doesnt necessarily mean you like doing
it.

Interestswhat excites me? What interests me enough that I dont realize


the passage of time while I am engaged in it?

Valueswhat things do I believe in? What motivates me to work?

Personalitywho am I? What are my personal preferences?

DEVELOPMENT PLAN:
Remember that your development plan is not only about developing yourself for
university and the workplace, its also about developing yourself for you.
A useful structure for the development plan could be:

Current performance: where you are up to now


Future needs which can be set out in a framework of aims, objectives and
targets
Review dates: in setting out the plan it is important to set out dates at
which progress will be reviewed,. For example at the end of each term/
semester of a course, at the end of each month.
Achievement dates: when particular targets were achieved
Learning programme or activities designed to enable the individual to
meet objectives or targets

An action plan setting out a plan of actions required to meet objectives or


targets.

CURRENT PERFORMANCE:

Because we are concerned with personal development, as well as career and


educational development, it is always important to start by examining yourself.
Set out:

Your personal achievements and skills


Your personal qualities, including strengths and weaknesses.

Activity:

A useful way of looking in the mirror is to examine your strengths and


weakness other people would see them.

List three of what you consider to be your personal strengths.


Now ask a friend to make a list of your strengths.
Compare the two lists.
Now list three areas of weakness that you need to work on.
Ask a friend to list three areas for development.
Compare the lists.

You should also make a list of your personal achievements, that is, the success
areas of your life. There are all sorts of areas of personal achievement that we
tend to overlook. Think carefully about your achievements and list them

carefully for your folder. Examples could be looking after an elderly person,
decorating a room, repairing an item of equipment, playing for a sports team ,
solving a difficult problem, helping someone else, doing voluntary work,
keeping fit, receiving certificates, passing exams and so on.
There are all sorts of ways of recording information for providing evidence for
your individual development portfolio. Here are some examples:

Newspaper cuttings about y ou


Testimonies, references
Certificates
Awards
Portfolios of work
Photographs
Trophies
Logs and diaries

AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS:

Aims and objectives are the ends that you are trying to achieve. An aim is a
major end that you are trying to achieve, which can typically be broken down
into a number of objectives. For example, your aims and objectives might be

Educational: to get a good degree qualification


Work-related: to develop a career in marketing and eventually to
become a marketing director of a major PLC.
Personal: to become more confident and sociable

Activity

Set out a statement of your main aims for the next two years, and break
down the aims into educational, work-related and personal.

Now establish some targets for the next three months. At the end of each
three-month period you will need to establish new targets. In the course of
time you may also want to adjust your aims.

Make sure that your targets are SMART:

1. Specific: they are easy to understand


2. Measurable if possible ( that is, you can attach numbers to them)
3. Achievable
4. Realistic
5. Time-related

Targets are shorter-term challenges that help you to achieve your aims and
objectives. For example, short-term targets may relate to gaining scores of at least
60 percent on your next three pieces of work.

REVIEW DATES AND ACHIEVEMENT DATES:

An important part of successful career and personal development is to establish


review dates that are adhered to.

As part of the planning process you will establish plans which need to be
monitored. For example, if one of your targets is to carry out a confident
presentation to a group of fellow students or work colleagues when you will
need to establish dates:

For the presentation


For the preparation of the presentation
To review the effectiveness of the presentation, for example with a
course tutor.

Learning programme/activities

Means

Target

End

ACHIEVEMENT DATES:

Achievement dates are the dates at which you successfully achieve your targets.
Setting out achievement dates helps you to build confidence in your portfolio

building, because each achievement of a target will provide you with more
evidence of successful development.

LEARNING PROGRAMME OR ACTIVITIES:

The learning programme or activities are the means by which you achieve your
targets.

Some parts of the learning program or activities will be designed for our, for
example training activities at work and the structure of your Business Higher or
Foundation award. Other activities you may have to design yourself in order to
develop the capabilities that you are working towards. Do not expect to receive
all the required experiences provided for you on a plate. For example, if part of
research assignment involves collecting primary information, then you will need
to take the responsibility to arrange to go and interview relevant individuals
yourself. This self-management of learning is an essential part of your
development process.

ACTION PLANS:

Action planning is crucial part of a degree award. Planning is concerned with


providing a structured and organized way of meeting objectives.

There are a number of important reasons why you should plan, including:

To be clear about your objectives


To organize activities into a sequence

To organize the timing of events


To keep a check on progress
To make sure that the important things are not left until last
To plan what resources and materials you need
To save time
To reduce stress
To look at present strengths and how they can be build upon

A problem for many students is that while they have some idea about the
goal or target they are working towards they are not skilled at planning the
steps required to achieve this target. Action planning involves designing a
series of sequential steps that will enable you to meet targets.

Action plan for an assignment An important area of action planning on your


course will relate to completing assignments on time in order to meet
specified criteria:

Be clear about your objective, for example to complete the (named)


assignment by the given deadline, covering all of the required criteria.
Organize activities into a sequence. Set out a step-by-step plan of how
you will complete this assignment, and how each step is related o the
performance criteria.
Organize the timing of events. When will each step in the assignment
be completed?
Keep a check on progress. How will you check that you are keeping to
deadlines? Will you review your progress with another student, for
example?

T
A
R
G
E
T
ACTION STEPS

STARTING POINT

Development action plan


The importance of action plans is that they help you organize yourself. You
should be able to put your plan together quickly with the minimum of
paperwork. If an action plan involves a lot of paper and time, then throw it in the
bin and start again. Your action plan should be simple and easy to follow.

Write your action plan under these headings:

1) Area for development


2) Name of person responsible for development
3) Action steps ( simple and practical)

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

(There may be quite a few of these)

4. Review of progress (when reviews will occur and who will be involved).
5. Evaluation of plan (when and how it will take place, how it can be improved).

Area for development - What do you want to plan? Set out your targets.

Person responsible for development


This will be you, or a small group of students. The responsibility lies with you,
not with your tutor. Take charge of your own learning.
Action steps - What steps will you need to take to seethe plan through? Be
specific about the steps that need to be taken. Set out the time when these steps
will take place.

Review of progress

When and how will the progress of action steps and the plan be checked. In
writing out your plan you need to set dates for reviewing successful you have
been in carrying out the plan. For example, if you have eight weeks to complete

an assignment, you could review your progress after two weeks, four weeks and
six weeks. You will need to carry out this review with someone else. Two
students can review each others work for example.

FUTURE PLAN EVALUATION:

It is helfpful to evaluate the success of your plan in order to help you to action
plan in the future. Make sure that your action steps are a clear and practical
rather than sketchy and vague. For example, reading four journal articles about
appraisal processes, and making detailed notes about salient points is a specific
and practical step. Doing some reading is vague.

Going to computer services, taking out a manual on spreadsheets, setting out a


spreadsheet of my research figures is a detailed description of a practical step.
Improving my ICT is not. You can see that the action plan we have outlined
does not involve a lot of paperwork. However, it enables you to map out clear
steps that you will need to take to meet your targets.

Too often in the past students have found themselves with three or four
assignments to do at the same time and have left essential work to the last
minute. Action planning helps you to spread out your work over a period of
time.

Action planning is used widely in the work place. If you learn to construct
simple action plans now, you will have developed a useful life skill. Finally, never
write an action plan after completing an assignment.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of Personal and career development.


2) Define the Career development process.
3) Write a short note on Current performance and future needs.
4) Explain about aims, objectives and targets.
5) Describe about Review dates and achievement dates in development
plan.
6) Explain about the learning programme.
7) Define action plans and also development an action plan by your own.

1.5 PORTFOLIO BUILDING:


DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING A PERSONAL PORTFOLIO:
Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

The meaning of Portfolio.


About the Personal career portfolio Design.
The concept of Personal portfolio.
The Key elements of Personal/Career portfolio.
About the suggestions for developing and maintaining Portfolio.
Career Exploration and Assessment - Letter of introduction - career-

Pursuit Information - samples of work.


Meaning of Portfolio:
A portfolio is a place where you store things related to your training, work
experience, contributions, and special accomplishments. It is the place to
document all your work-related talents and accomplishments so that you have a
good sense of your "assets."
An effective portfolio is a visual representation of your experience, strengths,
abilities, skills - the things you like to do, and do best. There are wide variations
in professional portfolios and in where and how they can be used. Here's a
starter list of artifacts to consider. Begin you collection with whatever is relevant
to you.
Personal portfolio:
A personal portfolio is a compilation of work samples and documents gathered
during a students school years and presented in a structured manner. It should
profile the students goals, progress, achievements and competencies in an

organized, accessible and purposeful format, without overwhelming a


prospective employer.

Personal career portfolio Design : The Personal Portfolio is designed to: (1)
provide an information repository that can be used throughout your career; and
(2) help you better market yourself and set yourself apart from the mass of other
applicants for the positions you seek.

Task description
Suggested level: Years 7 to 10.
Teachers may introduce Year 7 students to the idea of portfolios. Each year
students can review and update their portfolio to include their skills
development and goal setting activities.
The purpose of the portfolio is to:

Present goals, progress, achievements and competencies to a range of

audiences, including new schools and teachers, course enrolment counselors,


prospective employers and parents

Establish a focus for a range of learning activities, including goal setting,

decision making, action planning, prioritizing and negotiating

Enhance student self-esteem by profiling positive achievements, including

academic, sporting, leisure, work experience and cultural activities.

Key elements of Personal/Career portfolio:

Dual Purpose

Marketing Tool/Visual Aide for Interviews


Jobs
Scholarships
College

Organizational Tool
Assists in identifying important documents
Puts all information in one place
Tabs separate information by categories

Visual Impact---Remember Your Audience

Eye Pleasing
Place documents in sheet protectors
Pay close attention to detailmake it visually attractive
Professional
Keep it visually appropriate to your audience (not too cutsey)
Demonstrate your skills
Be Concise
More is not always better
Selections of best work
Pertinent information

Work In Progress

Designed for use beyond high school


Tool for life
Shows growth and improvement

Suggestions for developing and maintaining Portfolio:


Education

Diplomas, certificates, CEUs, licenses

Assessments, test results (e.g. GRE scores), appraisals (e.g. 180 or 360
feedback), grade reports

Awards, honors, honor society memberships

Internships, apprenticeships, special projects (e.g. senior capstone)

Writing samples

Workshops, seminars, conferences attended

Independent learning (things you've learned on your own, or taught


yourself)

Activities

Leadership positions held

Hobbies or Interests (time devoted to or photos)

Participation in team sports

Service project participation

Volunteer activities

Organizations joined (all)

Public speaking/presentations or performances

Awards

Work-Related Activities

Resume

Performance reports, appraisals (e.g. internship/student teaching


evaluations), Letter of nomination and/or recommendation

Accomplishments (could include newspaper clippings that detail your


achievements)

Military training, citations (complete description of duties, activities)

Awards and Professional licenses

Publications, reports, published articles

Training materials, Samples of brochures, flyers made

Attendance records and Organization charts

Customer surveys , Documentation of accomplishments - increase in sales,


decrease in claims

Personal Qualities or Strengths

Strengths (personal qualities that will help you contribute to an employer)

Teamwork and people skills, problem-solving, budgeting, planning and


organization, time management, energy, discipline, motivation,
persistence, responsibility, dependability, etc.

Contributing to your family (teaching, caring for siblings, cooking - all


require planning, responsibility, dependability)

Helping your friends or working on extracurricular projects (may require


teamwork, problem-solving skills, teaching skills, people skills)

Raising a family and /or running a household (requires budgeting,


organization, time management skills, adaptability)

Career Exploration and Assessment

Before you begin to work on your Career Portfolio, it is important to spend time
thinking about what you like to do and exploring different career areas. The time
you spend now doing career exploration and assessment will help you decide
which businesses/colleges to apply to in the future. There are many tools and
activities that you can use to gather some information about yourselfyour
particular learning style, strengths, abilities.

Letter of introduction
A well-written introduction is an important requirement of the Career
Portfolio. This letter introduces you to prospective employers and colleges.
It should be both personal and informative and spotlight your best work.
Your career aspirations and goals.
The skills and abilities that would make you successful in a particular
career or at a particular college.

Career-Pursuit Information
This part of the portfolio gives businesses/colleges important information.
Resume
If you already have a resume, transfer the information it contains into the format
Presented here.
Letters of Recommendation
(1) Employment-related: A letter from a past employer evaluating your work
performance.

(2) Character-related: A letter from a person who has known you for more than
one year and can testify to your personal and/or academic attributes. It is
important that you be recommended as a good citizen and a responsible person.
Samples of work:
Possible examples of academic work:

Research papers, book reports, essays

Maths, science and computer projects

Pictures, projects, descriptions of activities relating to personal interests


and hobbies (i.e., photography, poetry, cooking, woodworking, etc.)
Pictures, projects, descriptions of activities relating to community
involvement outside of school (i.e., Scouts, religious organizations, 4-H,
etc.)

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the meaning of Portfolio.


2. What is meant by Personal career portfolio Design?
3. What is Personal portfolio?
4. Explain the Key elements of Personal/Career portfolio.
5. Provide suggestions for developing and maintaining Portfolio.
6.

What is Career Exploration and Assessment?

7. What is meant by Letter of introduction?


8. Brief about the Career-Pursuit Information.
9. What are the types of Sample work?
1.6 CONSTRUCTING A CV WRITING, MAINTAINING AND PRESENTING

Meaning of CV and Resume.


You are probably familiar with a resume, but may or may not have heard the
term CV. A CV, or curriculum vitae, is a written profile of your professional
qualifications. It can vary in length from one to several pages, depending upon
the variety and number of your experiences. (A resume, in contrast, is a 1-2 page
overview of your job experiences.) A CV is appropriate for the health care
professional because potential employers typically do not receive a large number
of applications (i.e. < 20) for each position. In other fields, an employer may
receive hundreds of applications for one position and so will desire brevity.
Although they are actually different, the terms CV and resume are used
interchangeably by many people.
A CV or Curriculum Vitae is:
* Your Life History
* Your Job History
* Your Achievements
* Your Skills
A CV or curriculum vitae is a marketing tool. With your CV you will be able to
promote yourself. Imagine the CV as being a brochure that will list the benefits of
a particular service.
Organizing CV:
Keeping your CV concise and to the point is a difficult task. Selecting a
comprehensive structure and format will help you to get success. There are many
layouts to choose from, and they vary from country to country.

The top of every CV should contain contact information. Your name is typically
centered, and may be set in larger and/or boldface type to attract attention.
Remember to:

Place your complete name, address and telephone number at the top of
the page. You may also want to include an e-mail address. Make sure that
the telephone number is the number at which you would like to be
contacted.

If you dont want your current employer to know youre looking for
another job, then do not put your current job phone number down as the
contact number.

Think carefully before including a second permanent address. This can


be confusing to employers who will not know where to contact you.

After the contact information, you should strongly consider the following
headings:
Education

Start with your most recent educational experience first (this is


called reverse chronological order).

For each degree you have obtained, spell out the full name of the
degree (i.e. Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy Doctor of
Pharmacy) and the full name of the university. Then note the year
of graduation. If you are currently working on a degree, put the
word candidate after the name of the degree, spell out the full
name of the university, and note the expected year of graduation.

If you have no degree from your pre-pharmacy coursework, then it


is acceptable to use the words Pre-pharmacy studies.

Residency, fellowship, and certificate information should be

included under the education heading.

Do not include information from/about high school.

Specialized Training/Certification

This

includes

CPR,

ACLS,

BCPS,

immunizations,

emergency

contraceptionany similar professional certification you have earned.

Use the full certification name and note the year the certification was
earned. You can include a short description of the certification if you feel it
is not self-explanatory.

Understand that certification is not the same as a certificate. If you are


certified in some area, it means you have received specialized training in a
particular skill and that you have shown you can perform that skill at a
pre-specified level. A certificate involves more coursework and qualifies
you to work in a particular area not to perform a specific skill.

Experience

Use the heading Professional Experience if you have any


pharmacy or other professional health care experience.

Include related jobs, rotations, and volunteer experience

Start

with

your

most

recent

experience

first

(reverse

chronological order).
Information to include:

Time interval employed (list start and stop month/year; use year only if
you held the job for more than a year)

Position title

Name and location of employer

Name and contact number of a supervisor

Non-pharmacy or non-professional experiences can go under the


category of Other Related Experience. Be sure to describe only
transferable skills (i.e. skills you gained at other nonpharmacy jobs that
would enhance your value to a pharmacy employer. Any jobs involving
teaching, triage, or interaction with members of the public may involve
skills transferable to the pharmacy profession. It all depends upon how
you present the skills on paper).

A short description/list of projects you completed or notable activities


performed while on the job is a nice touch; it is probably not necessary to
list your standard job duties unless they are out-of-the-ordinary.

Rotations are good to list when you dont have much else to place on the
CV. If youre more than a couple of years out from school, drop the
rotation information unless skills that you learned at a particular rotation
may play a direct role in the job you are applying for. Include the same
information as for a job; and avoid site-specific rotation descriptions (e.g.,
instead of white medicine, use the easy-to-understand adult internal
medicine). Spell out names and do not use abbreviations (for example,
heme/onc is wrong, Hematology/Oncology is correctalso be sure to spell
out terms like Medicine Service, and University Hospital and Medical
Center).

If you have experience teaching courses that you want to highlight, you
may include Teaching Experience as a third experience heading.

Presentations

Include the presentation title, name of group presented to, and year. The
location of the meeting (city and state) is optional.

If you have several presentations, you can separate out poster


presentations, invited oral presentations, in services, class lectures
whatever works.

Dont list contact names for the presentation, but have a copy of all
handouts from the presentations ready to present during an interview.

Publications

Dont include site-specific newsletter publicationsthese should be listed


with job or rotation as projects.

If you have more than four, divide them into peer-reviewed and non-peerreviewed.

Cite the published material using the official citation method noted in the
Uniform Requirements for References in Manuscripts submitted to
Biomedical Journals, except list all authors (not just the first three).

Related Awards and Activities

For awards, list title and year granted. You may describe the award briefly
if you think it will not be self-explanatory.

For Deans List, cite the quarter(s) and year(s).

For committee memberships (general and ad hoc), list committee name


and time spent in committee.

List any association offices held.

Professional Affiliations

List all professional associations of which you are currently a member.


Spell out the full name of the associationsdo not use abbreviations.

Licensure

List name of state and type of license only.

CV Presentation:
The quality and presentation of your CV is vital when selling yourself. The
appearance of your CV is an indication to a prospective employer of the type of
person that may be working in their environment. There is no exact format for
compiling a CV, but the following guideline is a sure fire way to avoid yours
being rejected.

Things should be avoided in CV presentation:


Omit items that have nothing to do with your profession. Besides the fact that the
information is irrelevant, there are two other important considerations. First,
listing certain kinds of personal information can enable unscrupulous people to
gain enough information about you to commit fraud in your name. Second,
potential employers typically dont WANT to know anything that could put them
at risk of a discrimination suit later on. Equal opportunity employment clauses
state that some of the items listed below could provide a basis for discrimination,
so employers would not want to see this type of information. Include only
information that is pertinent to the professional nature of the position for which
you are applying.
Leave all these things off your CV:

Social security number

Marital status

Description of health

Citizenship

Age

Pharmacist or intern license number

Irrelevant

awards,

publications,

scholarships,

associations,

and

memberships

Recreational activities or hobbies

Personal references

Travel history

Previous pay rates

Reasons for leaving previous jobs

Components of your name which you really never use (i.e. middle names)

The words References available upon request.

Standard for formatting and layout in CV Presentation:


CVs and resumes can be presented in a variety of ways. This is an opportunity
for you to be creative. However, the following standards should be followed:
Ensure that your CV is neat and visually appealing:

Choose high quality paper in white or off-white


Have the final version professionally reproduced in a singlesided format

Use a laser printerhandwriting, typing and dot matrix


printing look unprofessional

Font case and size:

Times New Roman is recommended

12 point font size will be the easiest to read; do not use smaller than 10
point font

Do not use more than two fonts on your resume

Use bullets to aid organization, but be careful not to overuse them. Too
many bullets lead to a cluttered appearance.

Be consistent. Choose a pattern of spacing, an order of information


presentation or a format of highlighting that is standard throughout the
document. This will avoid a patched appearance.

Grammer:
The standard grammar for a CV differs somewhat from everyday professional
writing. Some general points of difference are listed below:
Use past tense, even for descriptions of currently held positions, to
promote consistency.

Do not use personal pronouns

For the most part, use short, simple phrases that begin with action verbs.

Check for grammar. Misspellings, poorly constructed sentences, and


inappropriate use of

Punctuation communicates negative impressions about a candidate. Do


not rely on the computer grammar check or spell check.

Be sure to catch all spelling errors, grammatical weaknesses, unusual


punctuation, and inconsistent capitalization. Proofread it numerous times,
put it down for a week, and then proofread it again to catch any hidden
mistakes.

Closing thoughts:

Sell yourself. Create a good first impression by highlighting skills and


abilities appropriate to the position. List your qualifications in order of
relevance, from most to least.

Don't sell yourself short. This is by far the biggest mistake of all CVs. Your
experiences are worthy for review by hiring managers. Treat your resume
as an advertisement for you.

Be sure to thoroughly "sell" yourself by highlighting all of your strengths.


If you've got a valuable asset that doesn't seem to fit into any existing
components of your CV, list it as its own segment or highlight it in the
cover letter.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. What is a CV and is it any different than a resume?
2. How should you organize your CV?
3. What things should you avoid putting on your CV?
4. How to present a CV?
5. What are the things to be considered for standard formatting and layout
in CV presentation?
6. What about grammar details to be cared in resume preperation?

UNIT 2

2. EVALUATE PROGRESS
Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,


The concept of evaluate progress.
Overview of goal or objectives,targets
Setting Goals
Responding to feedback
Steps for responding to feedback
Resetting aims and planning for resetting aims.

Evaluating progress includes formal review of both use data and the activities
carried out as part of the action plan as compared to your performance goals.
Evaluation results and information gathered during the formal review process is
used by many organizations to create new action plans, identify best practices,
and set new performance goals.
Key steps involved include:
Measure results - Compare current performance to established goals.
Gather data and compare results to goals to determine accomplishments.
Key steps in measuring results include:
Gather tracking data

Review and cost data (capital and operating expenses).

Organize reports and data from tracking and monitoring efforts.

Analyze efficiency achievements based on your established performance


metrics. (See earlier Assess Performance and Set Goals sections.)

Benchmark

Compare performance to baselines.

Compare performance against established goals for:


o

environmental performance

financial savings.

To achieve a goal or a vision you must plan how to make it happen.


You cannot 'do' a goal or a vision. Instead you must do the things that enable it usually several things, in several steps.
A goal without a plan remains just a goal - many people have visions, intentions,
ideas, dreams which never happen, because they are not planned.

Objectives .
A goal or objective is a projected state of affairs that a person or a system plans
or intends to achievea personal or organizational desired end-point in some
sort of assumed development. Many people endeavor to reach goals within a
finite time by setting deadlines.
A desire or an intention becomes a goal if and only if\one activates an action for
achieving it.It is roughly similar to purpose or aim, the anticipated result which
guides action, or an end, which is an object, either a physical object or an abstract
object, that has intrinsic value.
Performance goals drive management activities and promote continuous
improvement. Setting clear and measurable goals is critical for understanding
intended results, developing effective strategies, and reaping financial gains.

Review Action Plan

After reviewing performance data, the next steps is to understand the factors
affecting the results as well as the additional benefits of the improved
performance.
This review should look at the effectiveness of your action plan. Where activities
and projects were successful, document best practices to share throughout the
organization. Where goals were not met, many organizations determine the
cause and decide what corrective or preventive actions should be taken.
Key steps in reviewing the action plan include:

Get feedback Solicit feedback and ideas on the plan from the team,
implementation staff, and other departments.

Gauge awareness Assess changes in employee and organizational


awareness of issues.

Identify critical factors Identify factors that contributed to surpassing


or missing targets.

Quantify side benefits Identify and quantify, if possible, side benefits


arising

from

management

activities

such

as

employee

comfort,

productivity improvement, impact on sales, reduced operation and


maintenance expenses, or better public/community relations.

Regular evaluation of performance and the effectiveness of management


initiatives also allow managers to:

Measure the effectiveness of projects and programs implemented

Make informed decisions about future projects

Reward individuals and teams for accomplishments

Document additional savings opportunities as well as non-quantifiable


benefits that can be leveraged for future initiatives.

Evaluate progress:

What is working in my plan?

Why is it working?

What measure or system can I use to track my progress?

If something is not working, what about it isnt?

What can I do about it?

When will I do it?

What is my commitment level?

How can I remember my commitment to my goal?

If you get sidetracked from your goal, ask yourself the following questions:

Am I repeating an old pattern of not giving something enough time?

Do I want to quit out of sheer boredom?

Is wanting to quit a warning sign of a repeated pattern I fall into?

How can I make the plan more enticing for me to follow without
compromising the entire plan?

How does my plan support my mission statement?

Targets:
A Target is any entity whose existence is the object of goal accomplishment by another
entity's intended action results.
Make sure that your targets are SMART:
6. Specific: they are easy to understand
7. Measurable if possible ( that is, you can attach numbers to them)
8. Acheivable
9. Realistic

10. Time-related
Targets are shorter-term challenges that help you to achieve your aims and objectives. For
example, short-term targets may relate to gaining scores of at least 60 percent on your
next three pieces of work.
RESPONDING TO FEEDBACK (JOB):
Some feedback is easy to take. Someone makes an awesome suggestion that makes a ton
of sense or simply loves what you are doing and wants to tell you so. Some feedback isnt
as easy - someone doesnt like something youve done and wants to let you know about
it.
Responding to Feedback on the Job From time to time, your employer will want to
give you feedback on your progress and performance at work. Generally, you'll get a
"Great job!" But occasionally, your supervisor will let you know something didn't go
well. You may instinctively become defensive, feeling like you're being blamed. Stop!
Negative feedback can be a valuable opportunity to learn how to do things better next
time. Here's how to respond and benefit from it.
1. Listen to your employer's feedback. Pay attention to the content, not the tone. What's
the problem? What part did you play in it? Summarize what you hear your supervisor
saying to show that you understand what's being said, even if you don't agree with it. For
example: "You wanted me to contact John by the end of the day yesterday to make sure
he could come to tomorrow's meeting, and since I didn't contact him until this morning,
he no longer had room in his schedule and won't be able to make the meeting."
2. Acknowledge whatever part of the situation you're responsible for. This doesn't
mean taking on all the blame! But if an important phone call wasn't made, and it was
your job to make it, take responsibility for letting it slip through the cracks. For example,

you could say, "You're absolutely right, I should have let you know that I wasn't going to
be able to call John until this morning."
3. Offer your own perspective on the situation:

Give an overall evaluation of your performance. If you disagree with your


supervisor's point of view, try expressing it by saying, "While you think I did
______, I feel I did __________."

Mention at least two things you did well.

Describe at least one thing you could have done better.

Discuss what you might do to prevent the problem from happening again.

4. Ask what else you might do to improve your performance. Listen and summarize
what your supervisor says to show that you understand. Take notes if you need help
remembering the conversation.

RESETTING AIMS (Goals):


One of the biggest mistakes goal setters make is not to re-set goals after a goal has been
achieved. Re-setting is absolutely necessary if motivation and momentum are to me
maintained. If re-setting doesn't take place, you run the risk of losing interest, direction,
and feelings of progress.
Begin with a clear goal, and an outline of what will make your goal happen.
Whatever the aim, all good plans tend to include:
1. A clearly defined aim.
2. Linked steps or stages or elements - resources, actions, knowledge, etc - the
factors of cause and effect.
3. Relevant and achievable proportions and timings (for steps, stages, elements)
Note that the overall aim or vision does not have to be limited or constrained.

Where aims and visions are concerned virtually anything is possible - for an individual
person or an organization - provided the above goal planning criteria are used.
Here is a simple outline goal planning template and process, which can be used as the full
planning method for certain personal aims, or as an initial outline planning tool for the
most complex organizational vision.
Reasons for failure:

not being methodical

lack of commitment to solving the problem

misinterpreting the problem

lack of. knowledge of the techniques and processes involved in problelI1 solving

inability to use the techniques effectively

using a method inappropriate to the particular problem

insufficient or inaccurate information

inability to combine analytical and creative thinking

failure to ensure effective implementation.

Well-stated goals guide daily decision-making and are the basis for tracking and
measuring progress.

Goal planning template


Define your aim - clearly and measurably.
My aim/vision/goal:

Measures:

Timescale:

1. Write down your aim or vision. Describe it. Clearly define it so that a stranger
could understand it and know what it means.
2. Attach some measures or parameters or standards (scale, values, comparative
references, etc) to prove that it is achieved.
3. Commit to a timescale - even if it is five or ten years away.
4. Then ask yourself and identify: What factors would directly cause the aim to be
achieved? Insert these below.
Finally, you should assess how effectively you are fulfilling all of your commitments at
all stages. Once you have developed an initial overview of your activities and tasks you
will need to reassess these as priorities and commitments change.
REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) Define about the Evaluating progress.
2) Describe about objectives, Targets.
3) Explain the steps for responding to Feedback?
4) Describe about the Re-setting aims and Reasons for failure:
5) Describe about Goal planning template.

UNIT 3

INTERPERSONAL AND TRANSFERABLE BUSINESS SKILLS:


Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied
during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or
results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer

to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations


through social communication and interactions.

Assertiveness Training
Basic or Advanced Assertiveness Courses and Classes offer key techniques to
deal with Bullying, Confrontations and Difficult People.
Business Networking Skills
Most people share an uneasiness of walking into a group of strangers and
socializing with charm and wit. Learn how to be more at ease in the networking
arena and build the kind of relationships that will develop your company and
take the sting out of events.
Communication Skills Training
The single most important skill you have to have in business is to be able to
communicate effectively with colleagues and customers. From making sure
you're understood to delivering difficult messages to handling conflict, just about
everyone could do with polishing their skills to become more effective
communicators.

Conflict Management Training


Many people manage conflict by avoiding it. Whether its workplace disputes,
difficult people or unresolved conflicts the thing to aim for is resolution,
otherwise, what's the point? Here we help people get to the heart of the problem
so they can get to the heart of the solution.
Interview Skills Training

Getting the job you want is a key career and potentially life-changing time.
Having some solid interview techniques and skills can make all the difference
between you getting what you want or you being disappointed because once
again, the interview didn't go as well as you wanted it to.
Personal Impact Training
Many of us aren't very adept at understanding the personal impact we make on
others. Here you get to look at what makes an impact and how you can make the
impression you want without compromising who you are.
Stress Management Training
Stress makes it difficult to see the wood for the trees. If you're under pressure or
you manage people who are, this program helps you create a balanced, effective
life style.
Work Life Balance
Two for the Price of one. Striking the right balance between Work and Home.

Transferable skills
Generic (or general) transferable skills are those skills, abilities and personal
attributes which you can use in a wide range of activities, both in and out of
employment, and that are not specific to the subject you studied.

There exist many transferable skills, but most can be summarized under four
main headings:
Communication and presentation skills (oral, written and graphic);
Teamwork or interpersonal skills (e.g. negotiating, listening, sharing,
empathizing);
Management or organizing and planning skills (including self management
skills such as integrity, honesty and ethical behavior); and Intellectual and
creative skills (such as problem solving and 'thinking beyond the square').
Skills that you have developed in a specific subject area at university (e.g.
sociology, psychology, archaeology) may be transferred from that context into
another (e.g. another topic or a community role or a employment-related task).
To be successful in the workplace, employees have to possess transferable skills.
Knowing about these skills will help teens and adults prepare to be successful in
the workplace. Transferable skills are a product of our talents, traits and
knowledge. These skills determine how you respond to new activities, work
situations or jobs.
Transferable skills are non-job specific skills that you have acquired during any
activity or life experiences. Student activities and experiences include campus
and community activities, class projects, and assignments, hobbies, athletic
activities, internships and summer part-time jobs.

Transferable skills fall into three (3) groups: Working with people, working with
things, and working with data/information. These terms are defined below:
Working with people skills happen when people sell, train, advice, and negotiate.

Working with things skills occur when people repair, operate machinery, sketch,
survey, or troubleshoot.

3.1 PROBLEM SOLVING:


Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
Meaning of Problem.

The concept of Problem solving.


Problem solving steps - Problem analysis - Identifying Success Criteria Understanding

the

Problem

Environment-Generating

Alternative

Solutions - Analyzing Risks, Assumptions, and Impacts - Selecting the


Best Solution.
Key areas

Five Whys, Cause and Effect Analysis, CATWOE, Drill Down

, Critical Success Factors , SWOT Analysis , PEST Analysis , Value


Chain Analysis , Flow Charts , Swim Lane Diagrams , Impact Analysis,
The Ladder of Inference,

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis ,

Cost/Benefit Analysis or Decision Tree Analysis, Grid Analysis


The impact of Brainstorming for generating solutions.

Meaning of Problem:
Problem is a chance for you to do your best.
A problem is the difference between the actual state and desired state.
A problem is an opportunity for improvement.

Most people rush to find solution before knowing the real problem.
Most people spend more time and energy going around problems than in trying
to solve them. - Henry Ford

Problem solving:

Problem solving is a tool, a skill and a process. It is a tool because it can help you
to solve an immediate problem or to achieve a goal. It is a skill because once you
have learnt it you can use it repeatedly, like the ability to ride a bicycle, add
numbers or speak a language.
Its good to know that there are many powerful problem-solving tools that can
lend a hand helping you determine the nature of the issue youre dealing with,
generate good options, analyze risks and impacts, and, finally, select the best
solution.

This guide to problem solving is designed with exactly that in mind. It helps you
learn the key steps of problem solving, and it assists you in choosing some of the
best tools and approaches. Read on to discover more about some of the most
popular tools for problem solving, how to apply them with flexibility, and how
to use them to good effect.
Six Key Steps
Most problem solving boils down to six steps:
1. Defining the problem or problem analysis
2. Identifying success criteria
3. Understanding the problem environment
4. Generating alternative solutions
5. Analyzing risks, hidden assumptions, and unexpected impacts
6. Selecting the best solution
Step 1: Defining the Problem or Problem analysis

First it is need to check whether its worth spending time to solve this problem. Is
the problem significant and strategic? Will solving it add value to you, your
organization, or your customers? And if it should be solved, is it your
responsibility to do so? If not, consider leaving the problem unsolved or pass it
on to the person whose responsibility it is to deliver a solution.
If you decide to go ahead, then its often worth investing some time and effort in
fully understanding the problem. This is particularly the case when youre
dealing with problems that will take several months to solve. In this situation, its
worthwhile to determine before you start that youre solving the true problem
rather than just treating the symptoms of a deeper, underlying issue.

To do this, consider using the Five Whys technique, Cause and Effect Analysis, or
CATWOE. Of these three tools, Five Whys is the simplest and is ideal for smaller
problems. It can, however, lead you down a single path where you ignore other
options. Cause and Effect Analysis and CATWOE help you avoid this problem,
so theyre best for larger problems with greater potential impact.
Five Whys
This simple but effective tool prompts you to ask why the problem exists. After
that, you keep on asking why? to those answers until you uncover the real root
cause of the problem.

Cause and Effect Analysis

This technique involves drawing a fishbone-like diagram that helps you


brainstorm the possible underlying causes of your problem. This pushes you to
consider many more of the possible causes of your problem than you might
naturally consider.

CATWOE
The CATWOE tool helps you look at the situation from a number of different
points of view from customer perspectives to environmental constraints so
that you can make sure that youre solving the right problem, and not just a
symptom of a larger problem.

Drill Down
This helps you break down a large and complex problem into its component
parts. By doing so, you can develop plans that deal with each of these parts. It
also shows you where you need to conduct more detailed research.

Step 2: Identifying Success Criteria


Once youve identified the root cause of your problem, the next step is to
understand whats important for success. In other words, which areas of activity
need to be completed successfully for your problem-solving project to be judged
a success?
Critical Success Factors

Critical Success Factors (CSFs) are the areas of your business or project that are
absolutely essential to its success. By identifying and communicating these CSFs,
you help ensure that your business or project is well focused and you can avoid
wasting effort and resources on less important areas.
Step 3: Understanding the Problem Environment
Sometimes people take this environmental analysis step intuitively. For smaller
problems, you may not need to go through any elaborate investigation to
understand your current situation. If, however, you want to make significant
changes or if you need to have a strong grasp of the big picture before moving
ahead, then this step is essential.

Perhaps the most useful tool for doing this is a SWOT Analysis. Used on a
personal, organizational, or competitive basis, this tool helps you identify the
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are related to the problem
at hand. By using this technique, you can think about these questions:
What strengths and opportunities can you build upon to come up with a
solution?
What weaknesses and threats do you need to keep in mind when you evaluate
and eventually choose a solution?
SWOT Analysis
SWOT Analysis is a simple but powerful framework for analyzing your
Strengths and Weaknesses, as well as the Opportunities and Threats that you face
in your specific situation. This helps you focus on your strengths, minimize

threats, and take the greatest possible advantage of the opportunities that are
available to you.
Porters Five Forces
This simple but powerful tool allows you to see where power lies in a business
situation. This is often fundamental to understanding what you can expect from
other people and organizations. Five Forces Analysis is based on an analysis of
supplier power, customer power, threat of substitution, ease of new entry, and
competitive rivalry. This tool is particularly useful because it helps you
understand both the strengths and weaknesses of your current competitive
position, as well as those of a strategic position youre looking to move into.

PEST Analysis
PEST Analysis is a simple but important and widely used tool that helps you
understand the big picture of the Political, Economic, Sociocultural, and
Technological environment in which youre operating. PEST is used by business
leaders worldwide to build their vision of the future. It can help you understand
some of the fundamental forces that could lie behind the problem youre
experiencing.
Value Chain Analysis
This helps you think about where you add value for your customers within your
business process. This way, you can understand whether there are issues at any
of these points. It can also help you spot situations where youre failing to deliver
what you customer wants and expects.

Flow Charts
Flow charts are easy-to-understand diagrams that show how steps in a process
fit together. They help you recognize and clarify the details of how things
currently work. This allows people to understand and discuss processes, and
identify any flaws within them.
Swim Lane Diagrams
These diagrams take flow charts a step further by allowing you to map
interactions in processes between departments and teams. Many problems are
caused by confusion and failure at the point of handover between different
groups of people. You can easily identify these possible points of failure with
Swim Lane Diagrams.

Step 4: Generating Alternative Solutions


After youve understood the context of the problem, its time to actually start
generating potential solutions. Too often, however, this is the stage of the
problem-solving process at which people first jump in (in fact, often people just
pick the first solution they can think of.) Theyve identified the problem, and
they just want to get answers. But if you bypass earlier steps of analysis, you risk
developing solutions that only disguise the problem or you may create an even
greater problem down the road. This can be a key failure if the problem is a
major one, or if developing the initial, failed solution takes a long time.
When you are ready to come up with solutions, there are several tools you can
use to kick-start your creative processes.

Once youve generated a set of ideas and potential solutions, you need to start
organizing these many ideas are likely to be different versions of the same basic
concept.

Brainstorming is a popular and effective way to generate solutions to a


problem. Use it when you have a team of people who want to look at a problem
with fresh eyes and open minds. An extension of this approach is Reverse
Brainstorming.
TRIZ can help you generate a comprehensive list of solutions by drawing on
rigorously analyzed past solutions to generalized problems. While TRIZ is
normally only used to solve engineering problems, its comprehensive approach
makes it particularly powerful in this context.
Use an Affinity Diagram to help you group the ideas you developed and show
you how to create relationships between ideas. By doing this, you may also gain
further insight into the problem, and you may discover hidden linkages. This can
lead to some great new alternatives that you would not have otherwise seen.

Step 5: Analyzing Risks, Assumptions, and Impacts


So, you now have a set of potential solutions to your well-defined problem.
Before you take the final step and choose one, you need to test the ideas to make
sure that theyre sound. This involves understanding the risks involved in each
alternative, checking that the assumptions behind them are sound, and
projecting the likely outcomes of the change to make sure that there are no
serious negative consequences. The most important tool you need to use here is

Risk Analysis. The basis of risk analysis is that risk = probability of event x cost
of event. With this tool, you first identify the potential risks of your solution.
Another useful tool is Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, or FMEA, which
helps you look at the possible points of failure in your solution. This helps you
systematically identify all the points at which a solution could fail. By looking at
a solution from this negative perspective, you can develop a solution that is
robust enough to succeed.
The Ladder of Inference provides a structured approach for (1) checking
whether your assumptions are correct and (2) ensuring that youve based your
proposed solution on correct logic and well-gathered data.
Finally, Impact Analysis helps you uncover the unexpected effects that changes
might have on your organization and the people involved. This helps you avoid
that dreadful, career-limiting situation in which the changes you champion make
the situation worse rather than better.

Step 6: Selecting the Best Solution


This is where all of your preparatory work sees a payoff. At this point, youre
confident that the solutions youre evaluating are appropriate, that theyll solve
the real problem, and that theyre consistent with the strategic direction of the
company.
For small or medium-sized decisions, use Cash Flow Forecasting to assess the
viability of the project, and then carry out a Cost/Benefit Analysis or Decision
Tree Analysis to help you decide which solution provides the best financial

return. (For more complex or larger decisions, you may want to get the help of
your finance department or your accountant to ensure that the analysis is
comprehensive and correctly structured.)
The amount of time you invest in this will depend on how important the decision
is. For high-impact decisions, you may also want to use Six Thinking Hats to
ensure that youve considered all points of view in a balanced way.
Typically, there are a number of factors that need to be taken into account when
youre choosing between several alternatives: cost, impact, timing, and so on.
Grid Analysis is a powerful tool for assessing the relative importance of each
and helping you identify the best solution.

With all of those preliminary concerns addressed, its now a much simpler matter
of evaluating the merits of each solution and choosing the best one. However,
who should be involved in the decision? The Vroom-Yetto-Jago Decision Model
gives you a useful (if slightly theoretical) guide for deciding whether you should
choose a solution yourself or involve others.
If you need the input of many other people, then techniques like Multi-Voting
and Nominal Group Technique can help you make sure that everyone feels
theyve had fair input into the final decision.
The six-step problem-solving process is a useful starting point for most
problems, and it can be adopted according to the circumstances. Each is powerful
in its own way and when applied to a particular type of situation so its well
worth exploring them and learning to use them.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is meant by Problem?


What is Problem solving?
Explain the Problem solving steps?
What are the tools used for problem solving?How will you Generating Alternative Solutions?
Explain the importance of Brainstorming for generating solutions.
What are the tools used for choosing the solution.
Define the following concepts -

Five Whys, Cause and Effect Analysis,

CATWOE, Drill Down , Critical Success Factors , SWOT Analysis ,


PEST Analysis , Value Chain Analysis , Flow Charts , Swim Lane
Diagrams , Impact Analysis, The Ladder of Inference, Failure Mode
and Effects Analysis , Cost/Benefit Analysis or Decision Tree Analysis,
Grid Analysis.

3.2 BRAINSTORMING:
Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,


The fundamentals of Brainstorming
The meaning of Brainstorming and Lateral Thinking
The concept of Group Brainstorming
To importance of brainstorming tool in problem solving for generating
solutions.

Brainstorming An overview:
Generating many radical and useful ideas
Brainstorming is a useful and popular tool that you can use to develop highly
creative solutions to a problem. It is particularly helpful when you need to break
out of stale, established patterns of thinking, so that you can develop new ways
of looking at things. This can be when you need to develop new opportunities,
where you want to improve the service that you offer, or when existing
approaches just aren't giving you the results you want.
Used with your team, it helps you bring the experience of all team members into
play during problem solving. This increases the richness of solutions explored
(meaning that you can find better solutions to the problems you face, and make
better decisions.) It can also help you get buy in from team members for the
solution chosen - after all, they have helped create that solution.

Brainstorming and Lateral Thinking

Brainstorming is a lateral thinking process. It asks that people come up with


ideas and thoughts that seem at first to be a bit shocking or crazy. You can then
change and improve them into ideas that are useful, and often stunningly
original.
During brainstorming sessions there should therefore be no criticism of ideas:
You are trying to open up possibilities and break down wrong assumptions
about the limits of the problem. Judgments and analysis at this stage will stunt
idea generation.
Ideas should only be evaluated at the end of the brainstorming session - you can
then explore solutions further using conventional approaches.
If your ideas begin to dry up, you can 'seed' the session with, for example, a
random word (see Random Input).
Individual Brainstorming
When you brainstorm on your own you will tend to produce a wider range of
ideas than with group brainstorming - you do not have to worry about other
people's egos or opinions, and can therefore be more freely creative. You may
not, however, develop ideas as effectively as you do not have the experience of a
group to help you.
When Brainstorming on your own, it can be helpful to use Mind Maps to arrange
and develop ideas.

Group Brainstorming

Group brainstorming can be very effective as it uses the experience and creativity
of all members of the group. When individual members reach their limit on an
idea, another member's creativity and experience can take the idea to the next
stage. Therefore, group brainstorming tends to develop ideas in more depth than
individual brainstorming.
Brainstorming in a group can be risky for individuals. Valuable but strange
suggestions may appear stupid at first sight. Because of this, you need to chair
sessions tightly so that uncreative people do not crush these ideas and leave
group members feeling humiliated.
How to Use the Tool:
To run a group brainstorming session effectively, do the following:
Define the problem you want solved clearly, and lay out any criteria to be
met.
Keep the session focused on the problem.
Ensure that no one criticizes or evaluates ideas during the session. Criticism
introduces an element of risk for group members when putting forward
an idea. This stifles creativity and cripples the free running nature of a
good brainstorming session.
Encourage an enthusiastic, uncritical attitude among members of the group.
Try to get everyone to contribute and develop ideas, including the quietest
members of the group.
Let people have fun brainstorming. Encourage them to come up with as
many ideas as possible, from solidly practical ones to wildly impractical
ones. Welcome creativity.
Ensure that no train of thought is followed for too long.

Encourage people to develop other people's ideas, or to use other ideas to


create new ones.
Appoint one person to note down ideas that come out of the session. A good
way of doing this is to use a flip chart. This should be studied and
evaluated after the session.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

Define Brainstorming.
What is meant by Brainstorming and Lateral Thinking?
What is Group Brainstorming?
How to Use the Tool?

3.3 MIND MAPPING:

Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
The concept of mind map and its origin
The applications of mind map
The guidelines of Mind map
The Strengths of Mind Mapping.
Mind mapping diagram for a business scenario.

A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items
linked to and arranged radically around a central key word or idea. It is used to
generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas, and as an aid in study,
organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing. Mind maps have
been used for centuries, for learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking,
and problem solving by educators, engineers, psychologists and people in
general.
Mind maps were developed in the late 60s by Tony Buzan, a British psychologist
and a business creativity guru, as a way of helping students make notes that
used only key words and images. They are much quicker to make, and because
of their visual quality much easier to remember and review. He made the
modern Mind Map popular in the 60s.
Mind Maps are useful for:
Summarizing information.
Consolidating information from different research sources.

Thinking through complex problems.


Presenting information in a format that shows the overall structure of your
subject.
They are very quick to review as you can often refresh information in your mind
just by glancing at one. In the same way, they can be effective mnemonics.
Remembering the shape and structure of a Mind Map can give you the cues you
need to remember the information within it. As such, they engage much more of
your brain in the process of assimilating and connecting facts, compared with
conventional notes.

Mind map guidelines:


Tony Buzan suggests using the following foundation structures for Mind
Mapping:
Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors.
Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your Mind Map.
Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.
Each word/image must be alone and sitting on its own line.
The lines must be connected, starting from the central image. The central
lines are thicker, organic and flowing, becoming thinner as they radiate
out from the centre.
Make the lines the same length as the word/image.
Use colors your own code throughout the Mind Map.
Develop your own personal style of Mind Mapping.
Use emphasis and show associations in your Mind Map.

Keep the Mind Map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or
outlines to embrace your branches.

Mind mapping diagram for Business:

Strengths of Mind Mapping:


Simplicity: ease of use.
Associative: any idea probably has many links.
Visual: easy to remember.
Radial: always allows you to work on all directions.
Overview: help to see the big picture and relationship between issues

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
What is mind mapping?
What are the applications of mind map
What are the guidelines to be followed while Mind mapping?
Explain the Strengths of Mind Mapping.
Give a Mind mapping example with a diagram.

3.4 GENERATING SOLUTIONS:

Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
The process of Generating solutions.
The approaches to generate solutions (Bottom-up) or (top-down).
The origin of solutions (where the solutions would come from).
Generating solutions process is all about finding various ways to remove the
causes of the problem, thus, effectively solving it. The earlier processes of
innovative problem solving, whether framing or diagnosis, are just preparations
for the stage of generating solutions to the original problem. It is at this process
where the intuition is the most crucial. We might have creative leap in seeing
solution without going through all the earlier processes.
The process consists of answering the following questions;
Is the problem a routine/standard, unique or the combination of both?
Can we solve it intuitively right away? (Top-down)
Can we solve parts of the problem and aggregate them? (Bottom-up)
What are the solutions?

Is the problem a routine/standard, unique or combination of both?


By answer whether the problem is a routine/standard, unique or the combination
of both, it is very useful in finding where the solutions would come from.

If the problem is a routine/standard type, we can identify the boxes of


known problems and apply its solutions to our problem directly. The

generation of solutions for this type would concentrate on finding existing


knowledge-base on how to solve a problem. It is more important to know
where to find the relevant knowledge-base than to come up with your
original solution which might very well run the risk of reinvent the wheel.

If the problem is indeed a unique type, it is more important to focus on how


to creatively solve the problem in an original way. The focus would shift to
creative techniques such as brain-storming, visualization, backward
induction, lateral thinking. The preparation works such as framing,
problems structure, issue analysis are important ingredients to make
creative leap in solving problem. It is crucial that one must not kill the
possible solutions from birth, i.e. in throwing ideas to the table on how to
solve the problem; one must delay the evaluation of particular idea until
each idea is develop into a well-thought-of solution or its element.

If the problem is a combination of both, it is important to identify which


part of the problem is routine/standard and which is not. Those that are
routine can be solved using a boxes technique and those that are unique
elements must be solved creatively

Can we solve it intuitively right away? (Top-down)


Once you identify the problem type, you can now use various outputs from your
framing and diagnosis process to assist you in arriving at the solution. If some
case, especially when the problem is not complex or your intuition perform
miracle, you can solve it right away once you know the real causes to the
problem.

If you answer yes to the top-down question. That would mean you intuitively
grasp the solution to the problem as a whole. Most of the time, its because you
could see the pattern that the problem is a generic one that can apply other
known generic solutions to it. You might also find proper analogy that
transforms solution from one area to your target problems area. You could easily
search the boxes f or solutions.
On a rare occasion, your intuition work out magic. You might very well develop
original solution to the problem intuitively. The remaining work is to provide
details in solving various parts of the problem. Therefore, it is called top-down
approach.

Can we solve parts of the problem and aggregate them? (Bottom-up)


Most of the cases, especially in complex problems, it is difficult to solve the
overall problem right away. The advantage of painful problem structuring and
issue pyramid is that they provide a very clear pyramid structure to the problem.
Therefore, as we break the problem down to sub-issues/problems, it is easier for us to
solve smaller problems and slowly aggregate them into the original problem. We use the
same technique in solving smaller problems, i.e. see which is routine and which
is unique and solve them accordingly.
It is very crucial to check whether the smaller solutions integrate back to
effectively solve the original problem as many times it doesnt quite sum up or
there can be unnecessary repetition in the set of solutions.
What are the solutions?

Once we have some ideas of alternative solutions to the problem. We must


develop them in such a way that they become clearer both in term of concept and
the process.
Each solution should contain a clear process or steps in solving the problem, the
resources required, assumptions and the output/outcome of the solution as well
as other unique aspects of the solutions such as the degree of acceptability by the
stakeholders and the practicality of the solutions.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
What are the solutions?
Explain the process of generating solutions.
What is Bottom-up approach for generating solution?
What is Top-down approach for generating solution?
Where the solutions would come from?

3.5 CHOOSING A SOLUTION:

Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
The Process of choosing solution.
To make the right choices by selecting the proper solution to solve the
problem.
The Pros-Cons analysis Technique for choosing solution.
The approaches considered for choosing solution Analysis Intuition.

This is the stage at which you evaluate the possible solutions and select that
which will be most effective in solving the problem. It's a process of. Decision
making based on a comparison of the potential outcome of alternative solutions.
This involves
identifying all the features of an ideal solution, including the constraints it
has to meet
eliminating solutions which do not meet the constraints
evaluating the remaining solutions against the outcome required
assessing the risks associated with the 'best' solution
making the decision to implement this solution
A problem is only solved when a solution has been implemented. In some
situations, before this can take place, you need to gain acceptance of the solution
by other people, or get their authority to implement it. This may involve various
strategies of persuasion.
Learning how to make the right choices is all about selecting the proper solution
to solve the problem. It consists of finding the best-fitting solution for solving the
problem. In doing so, we must compare each solution against the other. Then, we
can select the one that yields the best combination of benefits and risks. Former
CIA analyst, Morgan D. Jones has developed a choice-making technique that has
been proven to be very useful in making the best choices between various
alternatives. The technique is called Pros-Cons-Fixes (PCF).

PCFs advantage over other Pros-Cons analysis is that it focuses on eliminating


unnecessary & biased negativity in human reasoning. The PCF process consists
of the following steps:
List all the Pros.
List all the Cons.
Review and consolidate the Cons for merging and elimination.
Neutralize as many Cons as possible.
Compare the Pros and unalterable Cons against all options; pick one option at
a time.

1. List all the Pros


First, we try to list the Pros of a particular solution in as many varied dimensions
as possible: benefits, advantages, merit, strength, practicality, acceptability, costeffectiveness, innovativeness, scalability, sustainability, etc.

2. List all the Cons


We then list all the Cons in as many varied dimensions as possible, especially in
terms of risk, danger, disadvantage, weakness, threat, unacceptability, cost, etc.

3. Review and consolidate the Cons for merging and elimination


We try to rethink about the Cons; try to group and consolidate them, find their
common attributes and eliminate those that are not relevant.

4. Neutralize as many Cons as possible


Frequently, the reason many Cons arise is because the solutions remain simply
too new and have never really been thought -through before. Therefore, spotting

the Cons in each solution can actually help modify and improve that particular
solution. By neutralizing as many Cons as possible, we are able to think of what
can be done or what measure can be taken, to either convert each Con into a Pro
or to neutralize the various Cons.

Choose an Alternative:
Individuals need to give their opinions and not be intimidated by personnel they
perceive to have more power. They should not be afraid that they may be
ridiculed if a decision turns out not to be the correct one. If this process is not
followed, decisions can go wrong even though they may have been viable
solutions.

Analysis, intuition, or a combination of both helps to decide a course of action.


Analysis is the use of statistical methods to quantify the process of making
choices among alternatives. Intuition occurs when understanding something
takes place without using a rational thought process. It is arriving at a
Conclusion using feelings.

Evaluating information using analysis. Analysis is putting the facts in order and
making a decision based on the importance of each fact. Intuition is reviewing
the same facts and trying to see a pattern. An analytical approach is better in a
non-time critical situation when a large quantity of data is available with an
inexperienced decision-maker. During an analytical decision process, keep it as
Simple as possible. Simplify the decision process by gradually eliminating
decision criteria and alternatives.

Evaluating information using intuition. An intuitive approach is most useful in


high-speed, high-risk, and uncertain situations with experienced decisionmakers. In situations where speed and uncertainty are key factors, the intuitive
approach requires the decision maker to have the option to choose a workable
solution, and then continually refine the solution as new information becomes
available. Experience can improve the intuitive decision-making process.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

Explain the Process of choosing solution.


How to make the right choices by selecting the proper solution to solve the
problem?
Explain about the Pros-Cons analysis Technique.
What are the approaches considered for choosing solution?

3.6 CREATIVE THINKING:


Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,

The meaning of creativity.


The basics of Creative thinking.
The importance of Creative Thinking.

The concept of Creativity techniques.


The Characteristics of the Creative Person.
The different types of Creative Methods.
The creative thinking skills- key elements.
Creativity is a mental and social process involving the generation of new ideas or
concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or
concepts. Creativity is fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious
insight. An alternative conception of creativeness is that it is simply the act of
making something new.
Much of the thinking done in formal education emphasizes the skills of analysis-teaching students how to understand claims, follow or create a logical argument,
figure out the answer, eliminate the incorrect paths and focus on the correct one.
However, there is another kind of thinking, one that focuses on exploring ideas,
generating possibilities, looking for many right answers rather than just one.
Both of these kinds of thinking are vital to a successful working life, yet the latter
one tends to be ignored until after college.
Overview of Creativity:
Ability. A simple definition is that creativity is the ability to imagine or invent
something new. As we will see below, creativity is not the ability to create out of
nothing (only God can do that), but the ability to generate new ideas by
combining, changing, or reapplying existing ideas. Some creative ideas are
astonishing and brilliant, while others are just simple, good, practical ideas that
no one seems to have thought of yet.

Believe it or not, everyone has substantial creative ability. Just look at how
creative children are. In adults, creativity has too often been suppressed through
education, but it is still there and can be reawakened. Often all that's needed to
be creative is to make a commitment to creativity and to take the time for it.
An Attitude. Creativity is also an attitude: the ability to accept change and
newness, a willingness to play with ideas and possibilities, a flexibility of
outlook, the habit of enjoying the good, while looking for ways to improve it. We
are socialized into accepting only a small number of permitted or normal things,
like chocolate-covered strawberries, for example. The creative person realizes
that there are other possibilities, like peanut butter and banana sandwiches, or
chocolate-covered prunes.
A Process. Creative people work hard and continually to improve ideas and
solutions, by making gradual alterations and refinements to their works.
Contrary to the mythology surrounding creativity, very, very few works of
creative excellence are produced with a single stroke of brilliance or in a frenzy
of rapid activity. Much closer to the real truth are the stories of companies who
had to take the invention away from the inventor in order to market it because
the inventor would have kept on tweaking it and fiddling with it, always trying
to make it a little better.
The creative person knows that there is always room for improvement.
The Importance of Creative Thinking
Creative thinking can make you millions!
Creative thinking is usually discouraged in children.
Most people are not very creative, but they can be!

Open your mind to new ideas and new ways of thinking.


Do something different each day to flex your mind.

Creative Thinking
suspended judgment

generative

diffuse

divergent

subjective

lateral

an answer

possibility

right brain

visual

associative

richness, novelty

In an activity like problem solving, both kinds of thinking are important to us.
First, we must analyze the problem; then we must generate possible solutions;
next we must choose and implement the best solution; and finally, we must
evaluate the effectiveness of the solution. As you can see, this process reveals an
alternation between the two kinds of thinking, critical and creative. In practice,
both kinds of thinking operate together much of the time and are not really
independent of each other.
Creativity techniques are methods that encourage original thoughts and
divergent thinking. Some techniques require groups of two or more people while
other techniques can be accomplished alone. These methods include word
games, written exercises and different types of improvisation. Creativity
techniques can be used to develop new materials for artistic purposes or to solve
problems.

Most creativity techniques use associations between the goal (or the problem),
the current state (which may be an imperfect solution to the problem), and some
stimulus (possibly selected randomly).
Characteristics of the Creative Person
curious
seeks problems
enjoys challenge
optimistic
able to suspend judgment
comfortable with imagination
sees problems as opportunities
sees problems as interesting
problems are emotionally acceptable
challenges assumptions
Doesnt give up easily: perseveres, works hard
Creative Methods
Several methods have been identified for producing creative results. Here are the
five classic ones:

Evolution. This is the method of incremental improvement. New ideas stem


from other ideas, new solutions from previous ones, the new ones slightly
improved over the old ones. Many of the very sophisticated things we enjoy
today developed through a long period of constant incrementation. Making
something a little better here, a little better there gradually makes it something a
lot better--even entirely different from the original.
For example, look at the history of the automobile or any product of
technological progress. With each new model, improvements are made. Each new
model builds upon the collective creativity of previous models, so that over
time, improvements in economy, comfort, and durability take place. Here the
creativity lies in the refinement, the step-by-step improvement, rather than in
something completely new.
The evolutionary method of creativity also reminds us of that critical principle:
Every problem that has been solved can be solved again in a better way. Creative
thinkers do not subscribe to the idea that once a problem has been solved, it can
be forgotten, or to the notion that "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." A creative
thinker's philosophy is that "there is no such thing as an insignificant
improvement."
Synthesis. With this method, two or more existing ideas are combined into a
third, new idea. Combining the ideas of a magazine and an audio tape gives the
idea of a magazine you can listen to, one useful for blind people or freeway
commuters.

For example, someone noticed that a lot of people on dates went first to dinner
and then to the theater. Why not combine these two events into one? Thus, the
dinner theater, where people go first to eat and then to see a play or other
entertainment.

Revolution. Sometimes the best new idea is a completely different one, an


marked change from the previous ones. While an evolutionary improvement
philosophy might cause a professor to ask, "How can I make my lectures better
and better?" a revolutionary idea might be, "Why not stop lecturing and have the
students teach each other, working as teams or presenting reports?"

For example, the evolutionary technology in fighting termites eating away at


houses has been to develop safer and faster pesticides and gasses to kill them. A
somewhat revolutionary change has been to abandon gasses altogether in favor
of liquid nitrogen, which freezes them to death or microwaves, which bake them.
A truly revolutionary creative idea would be to ask, "How can we prevent them
from eating houses in the first place?" A new termite bait that is placed in the
ground in a perimeter around a house provides one answer to this question.

Re-application. Look at something old in a new way. Go beyond labels. Unfixate,


remove prejudices, expectations and assumptions and discover how something
can be reapplied. One creative person might go to the junkyard and see art in an
old model T transmission. He paints it up and puts it in his living room. Another
creative person might see in the same transmission the necessary gears for a
multi-speed hot walker for his horse. He hooks it to some poles and a motor and
puts it in his corral.

For example, a paperclip can be used as a tiny screwdriver if filed down; paint
can be used as a kind of glue to prevent screws from loosening in machinery;
dishwashing detergents can be used to remove the DNA from bacteria in a lab;
general purpose spray cleaners can be used to kill ants.
Changing direction. Many creative breakthroughs occur when attention is
shifted from one angle of a problem to another. This is sometimes called creative
insight.
A classic example is that of the highway department trying to keep kids from
skateboarding in a concrete-lined drainage ditch. The highway department put
up a fence to keep the kids out; the kids went around it. The department then put
up a longer fence; the kids cut a hole in it. The department then put up a stronger
fence; it, too, was cut. The department then put a threatening sign on the fence; it
was ignored.
This example reveals a critical truth in problem solving: the goal is to solve the
problem, not to implement a particular solution. When one solution path is not
working, shift to another. There is no commitment to a particular path, only to a
particular goal. Path fixation can sometimes be a problem for those who do not
understand this; they become overcommitted to a path that does not work and
only frustration results.
In problem-solving contexts, the random word creativity technique is perhaps
the simplest method. A person confronted with a problem is presented with a
randomly generated word, in the hopes of a solution arising from any
associations between the word and the problem. A random image, sound, or

article can be used instead of a random word as a kind of creativity goad or


provocation.
Creative thinking key elements:
The creative thinking skills can be divided into several key elements:

fluency - producing many ideas

Flexibility - producing a broad range of ideas. originality - producing


uncommon ideas

Elaboration - developing ideas.

Effective problem solving requires a controlled mixture of analytical and creative


thinking.
REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is meant by Creativity?


Explain the basics of Creative thinking.
Describe the importance of Creative Thinking
Explain the concept of Creativity techniques
What are the Characteristics of a Creative Person?
What is the different type of Creative Methods?
Explain the several Creative thinking skills key elements.

3.7 VERBAL COMMUNICATION:

Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
The concept of Verbal Communication.
The importance of verbal communication.
Ways to acquire better verbal communication.
Steps to improve your verbal communication.
The types of verbal communication.

Verbal Communication
Verbal communication can be defined as communicating your thoughts through
words. Such thoughts may be ideas, opinions, directions, dissatisfaction,
objections, your emotions and pleasures.
Good verbal communication - Importance
When it comes to business, verbal communication is very important for the
reason being that you are dealing with a variety of people through out the day.
Now take for example the way you converse with a family member or friend
around your same age, you interact with them with a lot of confidence, there is
without doubt that verbal communication is expressed with much ease, and
perhaps you may speak differently from the way you speak with a person related
to business.
Imagine if you expressed yourself the same way with a customer who has
different culture, is much older than you and have many years of experience in
his field. Most likely your thoughts will be difficult to express. Thus it is
necessary to have proper skill when using verbal communication while dealing
with different people.

Acquiring Verbal communication


First of all you need to be aware of the fact that you must be flexible with people
depending on the circumstances. Let us say you are presenting a speech in front
of an audience at work, and you express your thoughts using business
vocabulary. Now what if your audience where to be unfamiliar with the terms

you are using, it is without question you will notice the audience lose focused
attention to what you are saying , so then you must be flexible and change the
way you are expressing your thoughts by using words that are more
comprehendible to the audience.

It is suggested to build skills by attending a college course related to business


communication. When you are attending the class you will then be forced to
communicate more organized. Try to use the opportunity to overcome the fear of
talking to a big crowd and a stranger while you are in class.

Besides attending a class that teaches business communication, you may also
want to consider working in a job-field that involves working with strangers,
such job can be a form of practice to gain confidence in yourself and help reduce
shyness and intimidation.

Another form of practice can be talking to older relatives and friends, about a
topic that involves expressing emotions and strong opinions or a discussion that
may concern experiences. Such communication helps you to accumulate skills to
express yourself in a more formal and proper manner.

When practicing with your relatives or friends it is important for you to back up
your opinions or statements with facts. In order to have references about your
subject it is suggested to read and study about it. Like for example, if you where
to discuss the issue that we are all facing today such as the world's economy for
instance, and then you may obtain the facts from the news paper, the news,
Internet, and you can even get it from books.

Verbal communication requires the use of words, vocabulary, numbers and


symbols and is organized in sentences using language.
Mastering linguistic skill is not reserved for the selected few. It is a skill that each
and every one should develop for personal growth and to improve relationships
and interactions. Everyone's brain is forever having thoughts and they are
primarily with words. Words spoken, listened to or written affect your life as
well as others. They have the power to create emotions and move people to take
action. When verbal communication is delivered accurately and clearly, you
activate the mind and encourage creativity.
You create your reality with your senses, the eyes, ears and feelings and words
and symbols are used to create the meanings. This is why you are encouraged to
read and watch informative materials, listen to motivational audio programs and
attend classes or seminars that relate to your line of work or objectives. Positive
and uplifting spoken or written messages motivate and inspire.

Ways to improve verbal communication.


Using positive words to challenge limiting beliefs.
Verbal communication includes phrasing your words clearly and positively. Your
words and the explanations you give affect thoughts and determine emotions.
Verbal communication that includes questions helps you challenge beliefs.
According to Michael Hall, a belief is a thought to which you have said "yes", and
you have affirmed by saying, "I believe this". It takes questions worded
specifically before you can fully agree.

Your customers, children or partners agreeing and saying "Yes" to your


suggestions and opinions indicate that you were able to influence and change
their beliefs and thoughts from your spoken or written persuasion.

Telling or narrating a story.


One of the ways to let others understand your message is by telling a story,
reading a quote or telling a joke. Verbal communication through stories carries
power to induce the person to relate to what you are saying or suggesting. A joke
usually helps people relax more and is opened to listen to you.

Asking the right questions.


Questioning yourself or others with precise words allow for answers. It will
make a difference if you were to ask a "why" or a "how" question. The former
gives you a lot of reasons, understandings and explanations while the later set
your brain thinking for a solution, useful information and a strategy.
By asking questions and wording them specifically, you will invite a positive
debate and interaction that will benefit all involved. You become a better listener
and entice others to do the same. Unnecessary arguments are reduced when you
are able to express yourself with great command of your language skills.

Think and prepare before you speak.


Whether you are going to speak in public, talk to your boss, spouse or children,
you have to think before you utter those words. Verbal abuse happens when you
express yourself without thinking and instead allow your emotions to take over.

Thinking, preparing and imagining the most desirable outcome in your mind
allow you to practice your presentation and getting them right.
Reduce your usage of verbal pauses.
Have you ever listened to how you speak and render your conversations? If you
haven't and are unaware, request for someone to do so. How many times did you
stop your sentences and added an "ah", "um" or "well"? You can also record your
verbal communication and listen back to your style of speaking.
Avoid careless language.
Use your phrases with care. Talk and write in ways that allow for accurate
description of your experience, thoughts or ideas. Don't expect people to assume
and guess what you are trying to say. Speak with specificity by avoiding words
like always, never, every, or all.

Types of verbal communication


Understanding these different modes of group discussion and their protocols
provides a powerful verbal communication coaching tool.
1. Debate is what we see most of in conventional conversation: I put up my point
of view, you put up yours - and we try to knock each other out. This is an
inappropriate style if what you want is meaningful interaction. Constructive
communication is productive dialogue and skillful discussions where new
insights can emerge through healthy give and take.

2. Discussion focuses on decisions and actions. I may still want to see my view
prevail, but theres some concession to listen to others viewpoints, exchange
facts and opinions and perhaps even alter my position as a result. In terms of our
conversational continuum, polite discussion is different to skillful discussion.
Polite discussion is really a veiled version of debate. Its polite only insofar as
conflict, controversy and hard-to-handle issues are kept concealed under the
surface. Polite discussion is actually anything but. Its riddled with hidden
agendas, corridor talk, secret lobbying, dissembling, manipulation, factionalism
and thinly veiled competition.
3. Dialogue is designed to promote a free-flowing interchange of ideas and create
an open, equal and collaborative conversational climate. In dialogue:
The point of the conversation is to share perspectives and understandings;
People talk together to find meanings and develop new ideas and concepts feeding off each others contributions;
The purpose is to go past the understanding of individual team members - to
explore issues creatively from many points of view.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is Verbal Communication?


Why is good verbal communication so important?
How to acquire better verbal communication?
How to improve your verbal communication?
What are the types of verbal communication?

3.8 EFFECTIVE LISTENING:


Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,

The concept of listening.


The need for listening.
The listening process.
The elements of listening.
The Listening strategies.
The Commandments of listening.

Listening helps one obtain adequate data to solve problems. Listening motivates
the speaker or the complaining employee or the deliberating subordinate.
Listening improves or lifts up the image of the listener, especially the manager.
Listening makes one a leader, an efficient mediator and a deft trouble-shooter.
Now what we have to master is the listening, since there are a lot of good things
supporting good listening.
Elements of listening

Attentiveness to speaker

Eye contact

Intention be fully awake and aware

Openness: to other person and your own

Paying attention

Listening to yourself

Feedback

Body language

Change in pattern

Prof.Asha Kaul (2004, pp.45-46) has identified three essentials for good listening.
They are 1) positive attitude 2) concentration 3) interaction by question-answer
sequence. (Positive attitude towards the speaker or the situation keeps the
listener's mind open and thus the message gets imbibed. Secondly, careful
listening with concentration and evaluating of the speaker's point of view helps
one get the best of the listening. Thirdly, interaction with the speaker by posing
honest questions on un-clarified issues would promote effectiveness of listening.

Lesikar and Flately (2002,pp.407-408) have proposed Ten Commandments of


listening. We reproduce them here and their essential meaning.
1. Listener should stop talking. Talking distracts both speaker and more so the
listener.
2. Put the speaker at ease.
3. Show the speaker that you are interested in listening to him. Then only, the
speaker gives his best.
4. Remove distractions. Listener's idle behaviors like shuffling papers, scribbling
etc. would distract both.
5. Place yourself in speaker's shoes to look at things from his viewpoint.
6. Be patient and let the speaker take his own time to make his point without
hurrying.
7. Control your temper at any provocation from the speaker.
8. Go easy on criticism and argument.
9. Pose honest questions.
10. The first commandment, stop talking, is repeated as tenth commandment
since it is very important.

We would propose here a fairly comprehensive framework of listening strategies


by synthesizing all the words of wisdom about effective listening.
Positive Attitude
The listener should look for positive things and ignore negative things. A person
who sets about for positive things would definitely encounter positive points and
the converse is true of negative attitude. Negative attitude closes the mind and

misses the best points. Positive attitude is springboard for subsequent successes
in the listening process.

Remove internal and external distractions


An unprepared mind or preoccupied listener is a distraction for himself. The
distractions created by the listener himself are internal distractions. Failing to
give thought to the topic and being busy with something else is a self-created
internal distraction. Knowingly or unknowingly, the listener himself either
tolerates the distractions or encourages them. For example, if the listener does
not close his mobile phone, it would distract him, which he himself permitted.
Similarly, encouraging the co-listeners to discuss points or pose questions while
listening is a self-created distraction. External distractions include bad public
address system, disturbing public program in the close neighborhood etc.
Attentive Posture
The listener's forward bends posture, his encouraging small questions, agreeing
with the speaker on key points, clapping frequently for good points etc
encourage the speaker to give his best. Listener should not interrupt the speaker
for no good reason. The listener should not question just for the sake of
questioning. Besides this, frequent questioning disrupts the process of both the
speaker and the listener.
One should be actively involved in taking the message. Active involvement
drives monotony away. Yawing which often results out of monotony discourages
the speaker. The speaker should be properly and carefully involved so as to
obviate monotony and frequent yawns.

Interaction by way of questioning and paraphrasing


There may be missing links between the presentation and what the listener has to
understand, which float on the surface of listener's mind as questions. The
listener has to pose those queries and get them answered, but in that process he
should not interrupt the presentation with dishonest questions or too frequent
trivial questions.
Right questioning not only helps the speaker establish the logic but also helps the
listener avoid boredom and understand the message. In the interaction, if the
listener briefly paraphrases or restates what the speaker said, the listening goes
far towards achieving its purpose.
Active involvement
The listener should be actively involved in the message. All the above strategies
contribute to this. The attention should be undivided. Active involvement
demands attentive, evaluative, critical, sensitive listening. Look for meaning,
which lies buried somewhere beyond words. Meaning may be deep beneath the
words, or in eyes, or in intonation and other non-verbal cues. Meaning gets born
of the combination of both verbal and non-verbal message, whose understanding
is possible with active involvement only. Active involvement demands high
concentration. For this, the listener has to stop talking both within and without.
The listener has to sincerely desire to understand the speaker and think from his
angle. A person, who tries to understand others first is understood by others
well.

Taking Notes
The best method to being on the track of the presentation is taking notes on key
ideas, supporting facts and major sub-topics. Note taking keeps one within the
structure of the presentation. Besides this, the listener who is taking notes is an
encouraging scene for the speaker to give his best.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
Explain the concept of listening.
Explain the need for listening.
Describe the listening process.
What are the elements of listening?
Explain about the Listening strategies.
Explain the Commandments of listening.

3.9 RESPECT OF OTHERS OPINION:


Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,

The Meaning of respect.


The values of Respect in Organizations.
The concept of disrespect.
To educate staffs in order to give respect.
The principles of respecting others.
The golden rule for respecting others.
Team work impact of respect.
The most important Measures of Success.
The reason to respect yourself.
To develop our Expertise?

Meaning of respect:
Respect is a beautiful thing. We should respect each other, because if we want to
be respected we have to respect others. Students should respect Teachers to be
respected. Respect is also dignity between human beings and it involves
esteem. Respect is to make room for others who express their opinions without
discrimination or punishment; it is not to mistreat people, animals, nature, etc.,
simply because we believe some are better.

The Value of Respect in Modern Organizations


Respect is an important value in every culture. We are all taught to respect other
people; whether they are older or younger than us. We are also taught to respect
properties and belongings that are not ours. However, many working employees
found themselves not being respected either by their subordinates or superiors at
their workplace. Many have complained that they have experienced different
kinds of uncivil behaviors, verbal and nonverbal abuse as well as bullying and
humiliation from their superiors. These uncivil behaviors can include silent
treatment, demeaning jokes, scapegoating, backstabbing, and harassment.
Examine Your Own Behavior First
When you start experiencing uncivil behaviors from people around you, you will
feel uncomfortable. So, start to reflect on your own actions first. Have you shown
any disrespect to your staff or colleagues? There may be many incidents which
you may not recall well. You may have done so consistently or unintentionally.
You may even have done so because you have seen your peers doing so.
Apologize to the person(s)
After you have examined yourself, gather the courage within you to own up to
your ignorance. Do this as soon as possible. You may apologize openly or behind
closed doors. Owning up to your ignorance takes a lot of courage. You will be
appreciated for your effort. Apologizing can prevent ugly litigations and staff
attrition, something you do not wish to happen to you.

Lead By Example
You do not have to wait for your superiors to realize that respect in the
workplace is an important value. You can start doing so this is lead by example.
Make it clear that you do not tolerate disrespect at the workplace. Reprimand
anyone showing disrespect to others immediately. When others see you showing
respect to your colleagues, they will do the same too. The workplace
environment will indeed be different.
Document the Aggressive Behaviors
There are arrogant people in any organization who look down upon others. They
feel that their positions allow them to behave aggressively toward their
subordinates. If you should meet such people, you can document what they say.
Carry with you a voice recorder. When you are verbally abused, record what is
said by that superior. You need to report to the HR department immediately.
Produce the evidence when you are asked to. When the case involve
discrimination against beliefs, racial and sexual, get legal counsels immediately.

Get the HR to educate staff on the value of respect


Aggressive behaviors are usually the cause of internal conflicts among staff.
Suggest to the HR to engage an organization trainer to educate staff on this
value. Make sure everybody attends the training and have some follow up
observations done after the training. You can suggest to the HR to include a
phrase or two about aggressive and uncivil behaviors in the Employees
Handbook. Everyone in the organization will be more careful with what they say
or do towards others. As human is considered a precious factor in every
productivity process, the HR of every organization have to make sure these

uncivil behaviors are handled properly. If not, there will be a sharp fall in
productivity. Nobody will want to work in such an unpleasant environment
again.

Give opportunities to your colleagues or staff to express their appreciation for


one another
This is for you if you are a boss of an organization. Organize some activities
where everyone in your organization can participate. Let them help each other.
Give them a chance to thank and praise each other. Let them know your
organization appreciates them too. If you are not in any superior positions, you
can still do something. Be the first to show appreciation to your colleagues.
Respect their actions and thoughts. In return, you will be respect too.
Commit to the principle of respecting others and their individuality
Everyone has different behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, lifestyle, perspectives and
visions. It is because of these, everyone deserves to be respected. You have your
own individuality too. You also demand respect from others, especially your
colleagues and staff. So, you have to be committed to this principle all the time!
Take a firm stand against uncivil behaviors all the time. Do not let anyone in your
organization get away with it. It is contagious! Many employees, for fear of
losing their work and future, choose to keep quiet and silently endure the stress
and depression. You can imagine what that will do to an organizations
reputation.

Only people who respect others and insist on doing so will find themselves being
labeled as effective individuals. Keep your job and sanity. Show others the
respect they deserve.

Golden rule for respecting others:


Be tolerant of differences
Use good manners, not bad language
Be considerate of the feelings of others
Dont threaten, hit or hurt anyone
Deal peacefully with anger, insults and
Disagreements

Work Ethics consist of 10 components, attendance, character, teamwork,


appearance, self-esteem, productivity, organization, communication, leadership
and respect.
Teamwork is important, because whether we are in class or at work, we have to
work well with others, you will accomplish more when you all work together.
We have to be respectful of others and keep their confidences. We may not like
our co- workers or fellow students, but you must work with them.
Respect is important, because it is best to respect ourselves and others. We have
to respect each others feelings, religion, and cultures. Let others know that we
respect their differences. We have to give respect to receive respect.

The Most Important Measure of Success


Being respected by others is very important to each of us. A survey done by the
Gallup organization found that the most prominent living Americans rated the
respect of others as the most important measure of success in life. They worked
very hard to earn the respect of their parents, the respect of their spouses and
children, the respect of their peers and colleagues, and the respect of mankind at
large.

Why You Respect Yourself


It seems that we truly respect ourselves only when we feel that we are respected
by others, and we will go to great lengths to earn and keep that respect. When we
feel that someone respects us for who we are and what we have accomplished,
we tend to be more open to that persons influence.
Develop Your Expertise
Another way to put ourselves in a position of being respected by others is to
develop our expertise. Expertise is closely tied to knowledge, but it is a little
different. Expertise is the ability to do, the ability to perform well in your chosen
field. Men and women with expertise are those who practice over and over in
whatever they do until they become known far and wide as the very best in their
field.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is meant by respect?


2. Define the values of Respect in Organizations.
3. What is disrespect?
4. How to educate staffs in order to give respect to others?
5. What is the principle of respecting others?
6. Explain the golden rule for respecting others.
7. Why to give respect to others in team work?
8. What are the most Important Measures of Success?
9. Why You Respect Yourself?
10. How to develop Your Expertise?

3.10 INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES:


Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,

Introduction Interview
The different types of interviews.
The Types of difficult Interviews
Handling different kind of candidates
Conducting the Interview sequence of questions
Gathering Information
Opening and Closing an Interview
Evaluation of candidates
Effective communication techniques

Introduction

Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant's
experiences. The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around a topic.
Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents to questionnaires,
e.g., to further investigate their responses. Usually open-ended questions are
asked during interviews.

An interview is a 2-way communication ; however, it should be controlled by


the interviewer
Every interviewee is a guest in your organization and should be treated in
such a manner
Always welcome the interviewees with a warm greeting
Encourage interviewees to respond positively and share the information
It is always better to take notes during Interview
Good interviews flow smoothly when both the interviewer and the candidate
take part in an information exchange
Types of Interviews
1. Informal, conversational interview - no predetermined questions are
asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable as possible to the
interviewee's nature and priorities; during the interview, the interviewer
"goes with the flow".
2. General interview guide approach - the guide approach is intended to
ensure that the same general areas of information are collected from each
interviewee; this provides more focus than the conversational approach,
but still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting
information from the interviewee.

3. Standardized, open-ended interview - here, the same open-ended


questions are asked to all interviewees (an open-ended question is where
respondents are free to choose how to answer the question, i.e., they don't
select "yes" or "no" or provide a numeric rating, etc.); this approach
facilitates faster interviews that can be more easily analyzed and
compared.

4. Closed, fixed-response interview - where all interviewees are asked the


same questions and asked to choose answers from among the same set of
alternatives. This format is useful for those not practiced in interviewing.
Types of Topics in Questions

1. Behaviors - about what a person has done or is doing


2. Opinions/values - about what a person thinks about a topic
3. Feelings - note that respondents sometimes respond with "I think ..." so be
careful to note that you're looking for feelings
4. Knowledge - to get facts about a topic
5. Sensory - about what people have seen, touched, heard, tasted or smelled
6. Background/demographics - standard background questions, such as age,
education, etc.
Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past, present or future.

Types of difficult Interviews


Some interviewees demand particularly focused interviewing techniques.

In order to get an accurate assessment of a candidates ability, the


interviewers ability to handle different types of candidate is very
important.
Before Interviewing, develop an understanding of the following types of
candidates:
Nervous candidate
Uncommunicative candidate
Talkative candidate

Handling a nervous candidate


Give them an especially warm greeting
Engage in more small talk than usual
Point out various facilities or areas of interest within your organization
Start with specific , fact-based questions that are easy for the candidate to
answer and unlikely to be stressful
Speak slowly in a relaxed, informal manner

Handling an uncommunicative candidate


Many reserved or uncommunicative candidates simply need to be
encouraged to share their thoughts
Using silence can be effective

If the candidate is having trouble in answering questions related to their


strengths and weaknesses, tell them that you will give them some time to
think about it and come back to the question later
Handling a talkative candidate
Candidates who talk too much , often about things unrelated to the job or
interview can be challenging
Tell the candidate that you will be following a structure, and stress on the
time available for each section of the interview
When necessary, remind the candidate of the time limits
Redirect the conversation as politely as possible

Telephone Interviews
The telephone interview is the most common way to perform an initial
screening interview. This helps the interviewer and the candidate get a general
sense if they are mutually interested in pursuing discussion beyond the first
interview. This type of interviewing also saves time and money. They may be
tape recorded for the review of other interviewers. The goal, for the candidate
during the phone interview, is to arrange a face to face meeting.
Computer Interviews
The computer interview involves answering a series of multiple-choice
questions for a potential job interview or simply for the submission of a resume.
Some of these interviews are done through the telephone or by accessing a web
site. One type is done with pushing the appropriate buttons on the telephone for

the answer you are submitting. Wal-Mart uses this method for screening cashiers,
stockers, and customer service representatives.
Another type of computer interviews provided by accessing a website while
using a computer keyboard and a mouse. Lowes Home Improvement uses this
type of screening. Some of the questions on both of these types of interviews are
related to ethics. As an example, If you see a fellow co-worker take a candy bar
and eat it, do you a. Confront co-worker, b. Tell the supervisor, c. Do nothing."
Video Interviews
Videophone and Video Conferencing interviews provide the transfer of audio
and video between remote sites. More than half of the largest U.S. companies
already utilize videoconferencing. It is a convenient communication method and
an alternative to the more costly face-to-face meetings. Anyone, anywhere in the
world can perform videoconferencing with the use of a microphone, camera and
compatible software. Videoconferencing is available on the Internet. Its continual
drop in cost is making it a popular resource for businesses as well as for home
use.
Peer interviewing - Where coworkers interview potential new hires - offers you
the chance to create a great team. In peer interviewing, members of a work group
help choose new employees. Traditionally, employers relied on supervisors to
screen candidates. But, nowadays, supervisors, peers and even subordinates may
take part in the interview process. Peer interviewing can be a valuable interview
technique, under the right circumstances
Conducting the Interview

There are 3 steps to follow while conducting an Interview:


Open the Interview (Put the candidate at ease)
Gather Information (Ask questions & listen to responses)
Close the Interview (Create a positive impression of your organization )

Opening an Interview
While opening an interview, your purpose is to put both you and candidate at
ease, and set the stage for an open conversation
There are 3 steps you should complete when opening the interview:
Build rapport
State the agenda
Ask for acceptance

Gathering Information
Gathering Information represents 70 to 80 percent of the interview
There are 3 steps you should complete when gathering information from the
interviewee:
Ask lead questions
Ask follow-up questions
Transition to the next subject

Closing an Interview
The close of the interview is used to indicate to the candidate that the
information gathering portion is complete and the interview is about to
wind down.

Take the following 4 steps when closing an interview:


Ask for and answer questions
Promote the organization and the job
Outline next steps
Thank the candidate

Evaluation of candidates
Manage your bias
Interviewer should be very careful to identify and overcome any biases
Bias is a form of extreme generalization. You may generalize that a candidate
lacks written communication skills because of last two people hired from the
same college had poor written communication skills

2 steps to evaluate the candidate:

Summarize the interview (Refer the candidates resume and the


notes taken during interview)

Score the candidate (Review Job requirement, mention success


factors, and calculate)

Effective communication techniques

Effective communication techniques include:


Active Listening (Follow 70/30 rule: Listen 70 percent of the time Talk 30
percent of the time)
Nonverbal behavior (silence, lean forward, eye contact)

Verbal devices (Restatement, expanders (I see, Thats interesting)


Summary
A successful interview should determine if there is a match between the
individual and the job
Be prepared for the interview.

Analyze candidates resume before the interview and frame the lead
questions.

Follow a structured process.


Develop a simple outline that covers general job duties.
Behave politely with the candidates.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is an Interview?
What are the different types of Interviews?
How to handle difficult interviews?
How to handle different kind of candidates?
How to Conduct the Interview?
How to Gather Information for an interview?
What is video and Computer interviews?
How to Open and Close an Interview?
How to evaluate the interview candidates?
What are the effective communication techniques?

3.11 NEGOTIATION:
Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
Introduction about Negotiation.
The Negotiation Techniques.
Types of negotiation in organizations - Day-to-day / Managerial
Negotiations - Commercial Negotiations - Legal Negotiations
Necessity of negotiation.

Handling difficult negotiators.


Defined:

Negotiation is usually considered as a compromise to settle an

argument or issue to benefit ourselves as much as possible.


Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth, for the purpose of
reaching a joint agreement about differing needs or ideas. It is a collection of
behaviors

that

involves

communication,

sales,

marketing,

psychology,

sociology, assertiveness and conflict resolution. A negotiator may be a buyer or


seller, a customer or supplier, a boss or employee, a business partner, a diplomat
or a civil servant. On a more personal level negotiation takes place between
spouses friends, parents or children.
It is a process of interaction by which two or more parties who consider that they
need to be jointly involved in an outcome, but who initially have different
objectives, seek by the use of argument and persuasion to resolve their difference
in order to achieve a mutually acceptable solution. Another important
consideration is that negotiation implies acceptance by both parties that
agreement between them is required before a decision can be implemented.
The art of negotiation is based on attempting to reconcile what constitutes a good
result for the other party. To achieve a situation where both sides win something
for themselves, you need to be well prepared, alert and flexible. There are seven
basic principles common to all forms of negotiation.

There are minimum two parties involved in the negotiation process. There
exists some common interest, either in the subject matter of the

negotiation or in the negotiating context that puts or keeps the parties in


contact.
Though the parties have the same degree of interest, they initially start with
different opinions and objectives which hinder the outcome in general.

In the beginning, parties consider that negotiation is a better way of trying


to solve their differences.

Each party is under an impression that there is a possibility of persuading


the other party to modify their original position, as initially parties feel
that they shall maintain their opening position and persuade the other to
change.

During the process, the ideal outcome proves unattainable but parties retain
their hope of an acceptable final agreement.

Each party has some influence or power real or assumed over the
others ability to act.

The process of negotiation is that of interaction between people usually


this is direct and verbal interchange.

Negotiation Techniques:
1. Prepare, prepare, prepare. Enter a negotiation without proper preparation
and you've already lost. Start with yourself. Make sure you are clear on
what you really want out of the arrangement. Research the other side to
better understand their needs as well as their strengths and weaknesses.
Enlist help from experts, such as an accountant, attorney or tech guru.

2. Pay attention to timing. Timing is important in any negotiation. Sure, you


must know what to ask for. But be sensitive to when you ask for it. There
are times to press ahead, and times to wait. When you are looking your
best is the time to press for what you want. But beware of pushing too
hard and poisoning any long-term relationship.

3. Leave behind your ego. The best negotiators either don't care or don't
show they care about who gets credit for a successful deal. Their talent is in
making the other side feel like the final agreement was all their idea.

4. Ramp up your listening skills. The best negotiators are often quiet
listeners who patiently let others have the floor while they make their
case. They never interrupt. Encourage the other side to talk first. That
helps set up one of negotiation's oldest maxims: Whoever mentions
numbers first, loses. While that's not always true, it's generally better to sit
tight and let the other side go first. Even if they don't mention numbers, it
gives you a chance to ask what they are thinking.

5. If you don't ask, you don't get. Another tenet of negotiating is "Go high,
or go home." As part of your preparation, define your highest justifiable
price. As long as you can argue convincingly, don't be afraid to aim high.
But no ultimatums, please. Take-it-or-leave-it offers are usually out of
place.

6. Anticipate compromise. You should expect to make concessions and plan


what they might be. Of course, the other side is thinking the same, so

never take their first offer. Even if it's better than you'd hoped for, practice
your best look of disappointment and politely decline. You never know
what else you can get.

7. Offer and expect commitment. The glue that keeps deals from unraveling
is an unshakable commitment to deliver. You should offer this comfort
level to others. Likewise, avoid deals where the other side does not
demonstrate commitment.

8. Don't absorb their problems. In most negotiations, you will hear all of the
other side's problems and reasons they can't give you what you want.
They want their problems to become yours, but don't let them. Instead,
deal with each as they come up and try to solve them. If their "budget" is
too low, for example, maybe there are other places that money could come
from.

9. Stick to your principles. As an individual and a business owner, you


likely have a set of guiding principles values that you just won't
compromise. If you find negotiations crossing those boundaries, it might
be a deal you can live without.

10. Close with confirmation. At the close of any meeting even if no final
deal is struck recaps the points covered and any areas of agreement.
Make sure everyone confirms. Follow-up with appropriate letters or
emails. Do not leave behind loose ends.
Types of negotiation in organizations

Depending upon the situation and time, the way the negotiations are to be
conducted differs. The skill of negotiations depends and differs widely from one
situation to the other. Basically the types can be divided into three broad
categories.
Types

Parties

Examples

Involved
1. Different levels of
Day-to-day/
Managerial
Negotiations

Management
2. In between colleagues
3. Trade unions
4. Legal advisers

1. Negotiation for pay,


terms and working
conditions.
2. Description of the
job and fixation of
responsibility.
3. Increasing
productivity.

Management
Commercial

Suppliers

Negotiations
Government

1. Striking a contract
with the customer.
2. Negotiations for the
price and quality of
goods to be

Customers
Trade unions
Legal advisors

purchased.
3. Negotiations with
financial institutions
as regarding the

Public

availability of
capital.

Legal Negotiations

1. Government

Adhereing to the laws

2. Management

of the local and

3. Customers

national
government.

1. Day-to-day / Managerial Negotiations


Such types of negotiations are done within the organization and are related to
the internal problems in the organization. It is in regards to the working
relationship between the groups of employees. Usually, the manager needs to
interact with the members at different levels in the organization structure. For
conducting the day-to-day business, internally, the superior needs to allot job
responsibilities, maintain a flow of information, direct the record keeping and
many more activities for smooth functioning. All this requires entering into
negotiations with the parties internal to the organization.
2. Commercial Negotiations
Such types of negotiations are conducted with external parties. The driving
forces behind such negotiations are usually financial gains. They are based on a
give-and-take relationship. Commercial negotiations successfully end up into
contracts. It relates to foregoing of one resource to get the other.
3. Legal Negotiations
These negotiations are usually formal and legally binding. Disputes over
precedents can become as significant as the main issue. They are also contractual
in nature and relate to gaining legal ground.
Necessity of negotiation:

Negotiation, at times can be a lengthy and cumbersome process. By asking


whether it is necessary, time may sometimes be saved and unnecessary
compromise avoided. On occasions, a request to negotiate may best be met by
pointing out that the party making the request has no standing in the matter. If a
manager has the undoubted authority to act, making a decision rather than
negotiating about it may be the best tactic.
Alternatively, there are cases in which the best response to a request or a claim is
to concede it without argument. Why waste time negotiating if the other party
has a good case and there are no adverse consequences in conceding ?
Unnecessary negotiation, followed, perhaps, by a grudging concession of the
other partys claim, will lose all the advantage that might be gained with a quick
unexpected yes.
An alternative to a simple yes or no when a difference of view occurs is to skip
negotiation and proceed immediately to some form of third party intervention.
An alternative to a simple yes or no when a difference of view occurs, is to skip
negotiation and proceed immediately to some form of third party intervention.
On the most formal basis, this might imply a decision to take a dispute to court:
informally, two managers who quickly realize that they cannot reach agreement
about a working problem may jointly agree to stop wasting time in argument
and refer the matter to a
Handling difficult negotiators
Every person that the manager negotiates with may not necessarily be easy to
deal with. Some negotiators turn aggressive to create an impression of their

being tough. Instead of getting intimidated, winning is more important. To


handle such outrageous behavior:
-> Speak more quietly than them.
-> Have more space in between your words than them.
-> If they interrupt, pause for a few seconds after they finish.
-> be critical of foul language.
-> Do not rise to bait if they attack or blame you.
-> Ignore all threats.
REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Define about Negotiation.


2. What are the Negotiation Techniques?
3. What are the various types of negotiation in organizations?
4. Explain about the Day-to-day / Managerial Negotiations.
5. Describe about Commercial Negotiations.
6. What is meant by Legal Negotiations?
7. What is the necessity of negotiation?
8. How to handle difficult negotiators?

3.12 PERSUASION:
Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,

The concept of persuasion.


Persuasive technology.
Persuasion Tactics.

The role of negotiation in persuasive technique.


The method of Influence.
Principles of persuasion.

Persuasion:
Persuasion is a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding people and
oneself toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and
symbolic (though not always logical) means. It is strategy of problem-solving
relying on "appeals" rather than coercion. According to Aristotle, "Rhetoric is the
art of discovering, in a particular case, the available means of persuasion."

Persuasive technology:
Persuasive technology is broadly defined as technology that is designed to
change attitudes or behaviors of the users through persuasion and social
influence, but not through coercion (Fogg 2002). Such technologies are regularly
used in sales, diplomacy, politics, religion, military training, public health, and
management, and may potentially be used in any area of human-human or
human-computer

interaction.

Most

self-identified

persuasive

technology

research focuses on interactive, computational technologies, including desktop


computers, Internet services, video games, and mobile devices (Oinas-Kukkonen
et al. 2008), but this incorporates and builds on the results and methods of
experimental psychology, rhetoric (Bogost 2007), human-computer interaction,
and design with intent.

Persuasion Tactics in a Person-to-person Setting

Persuasion is easier to apply during a conversation between two people, as


opposed to communicating in front of a group. This is because in a person-toperson setting, the opportunity to better understand the point of view of the
other party exists. You can nitpick and delve into every single detail, as opposed
to speaking to an audience, where the interaction is usually one sided.

In this kind of setting, it is possible for you and the other person to reach a
compromise that would bring the best probable value for both of you. You may
even want to change your stance while you're at it. In short, person-to-person
conversations are so open and flexible that it allows not just you to change
course, but also allow you to alter another person's mindset.

Communication as a persuasive theory

For most people, one of the most effective ways of getting what you want is
communication. Many people are using this method in the marketing and sales
world

along

with

their

own

personal

relationships.

Persuasion

with

communication has been around for many years. It is has also evolved over the
past centuries and has become more effective for careers and relationships as
well.

Using verbal communication is one of the best ways to get your point across no
matter what it is. You want to make sure that you are using the right methods to
get people aware of what you are after and how you can get it. Making it clear
why something is so important to you and why it would be a great addition to
your relationship. You will want to talk it over well so that you can get the

proposal

out

on

the

table

for

both

people

to

understand.

Negotiation as a persuasive technique

A negotiation is a process that can be made into three very important steps.
These steps are very crucial in many of the marketing and sales careers in the
world today. Not only is it important in the world of marketing it is important in
any relationship as well. It is important to use these negotiation skills we have
learned

in

many

of

the

relationships

that

we

have

today.

Not only are they important in the world of love relationships it is also a very
good method for friendships and family relations as well. You have to plan and
prepare for this method of persuasive technique. You need to make sure that you
are completely prepared so that you are giving the full method of negotiation.
You need to learn about the other person's negotiation style and you need to be
ready to take your position. You need to ensure that you have a smooth
negotiation. You need to be prepared with your proposals when you are
discussing any topic with a business partner or in a relationship.
After the negotiation - You will want to make sure that you are recapping the
conversation that you are using for the negotiation with your partner or special
person in your life. You want to make sure that you do this so that you may get a
better outcome from the persuasive technique. You will want to take the time to
review each of the elements and maybe the next time you can make some
improvements to your negotiation techniques.

Method of Influence - The method of influence is another way to get what you

are looking for out of a business or personal relationship. The definition of


influence is the act of getting compliance without using force. You do not have to
force your opinion on someone to get what you are looking for. In fact, the power
of influence is so effective that you may not have to use much of this technique at
all.

The persuasive techniques are used in more and more relationships today and in
some cases, they work easier than others. It is important to remember no matter
what you are trying to do, you need to be truthful to the person or people that
you are trying to persuade. There is no reason to lie or manipulate anyone to do
anything. With these powerful methods of science, you can get what you want
from any relationship honestly.

Principles
According to Robert Cialdini in his book on persuasion, he defined six
"weapons of influence".

Reciprocation - People tend to return a favor. Thus, the pervasiveness of


free samples in marketing. In his conferences, he often uses the example of
Ethiopia providing thousands of dollars in humanitarian aid to Mexico
just after the 1985 earthquake, despite Ethiopia suffering from a crippling
famine and civil war at the time. Ethiopia had been reciprocating for the
diplomatic support Mexico provided when Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1937.

Commitment and Consistency - Once people commit to what they think


is right, orally or in writing, they are more likely to honor that

commitment, even if the original incentive or motivation is subsequently


removed. For example, in car sales, suddenly raising the price at the last
moment works because the buyer has already decided to buy. See
cognitive dissonance.

Social Proof - People will do things that they see other people are doing.
For example, in one experiment, one or more confederates would look up
into the sky; bystanders would then look up into the sky to see what they
were seeing. At one point this experiment aborted, as so many people
were looking up that they stopped traffic. See conformity, and the Asch
conformity experiments.

Authority - People will tend to obey authority figures, even if they are
asked to perform objectionable acts. Cialdini cites incidents, such as the
Milgram experiments in the early 1960s and the My Lai massacre.

Liking - People are easily persuaded by other people whom they like.
Cialdini cites the marketing of Tupperware in what might now be called
viral marketing. People were more likely to buy if they liked the person
selling it to them. Some of the many biases favoring more attractive
people are discussed, but generally more aesthetically pleasing people
tend to use this influence excellently over others. See physical
attractiveness stereotype.

Scarcity - Perceived scarcity will generate demand. For example, saying


offers are available for a "limited time only" encourages sales.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the concept of persuasion.
2. Persuasion Tactics Short note.
3. Explain the role of negotiation in persuasive technique.
4. What is meant by the method of Influence?
5. Explain the principles of persuasion?

3.13 PRESENTATION SKILLS:

Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
The concept of Presentation.
Presentation program.
Ways to improve presentation.
Handling presentation Start and close.
Skills required for effective presentation.
The basic guidelines for a presentation

Communication is one of the most important, yet basic, tools a human being
should master. Your ability to communicate will determine your success.
Presentation is one of the communication skills any leaders must have.
Presentation is the process of showing and explaining the content of a topic to
an audience. A presentation program, such as OpenOffice.org Impress, Apple
Keynote or Microsoft PowerPoint, is often used to generate the presentation
content.
Presentation program:
A presentation program is a computer software package used to display
information, normally in the form of a slide show. It typically includes three
major functions: an editor that allows text to be inserted and formatted, a method

for inserting and manipulating graphic images and a slide-show system to


display the content.

Some tips for improving presentation skills:

1. Know your subject! This is most important.


2. Prepare for the speaking situation (outline, writing the entire presentation,
delivering it to friends or whatever works for you). Even professional
public speakers take time to prepare themselves.
3. Prepare outlines and overheads to help develop your confidence in your
presentation (part of knowing your topic well).
4. Have your outline (or overheads, slides or note cards) with you to refer to
as you make the presentation and to trigger your thoughts as you speak.
5. In the early stages of your preparation, ask someone you trust to listen to
your presentation and give you honest feedback in a one-on-one situation.
Ask them what works well and what needs improvement. The more
important the results of your presentation are to you, the more important
it is to get help in refining your presentation.
6. Take classes where you are able to develop presentations and have them
critiqued (e.g., classes in public speaking or verbal presentation skills,
Toastmasters).

7. Tape your presentation (videotape is best) and ask others to critique your
presentation. Watch yourself and learn to look for subtle body language
clues to your confidence or insecurity.
8. Talk to people you respect about how they learned to speak well. Ask
them to coach you (if that is appropriate) or try to find someone you
admire who will work with you.
9. When you are confident, relaxed and enthusiastic about your topic, that
comes through strongly to your audience. Remember how much comes
through non-verbal clues.

10. Ask for feedback from your audience about your presentation and pay
attention to what they say.
11. In workshops, ask the participants to introduce themselves, state why they
are there and what they hope to gain from the presentation. (This is most
appropriate if you are making a speech or giving a class to strangers).
Based on the participants' needs and expectations, you may adjust your
presentation as you go through it.
12. In a management presentation especially (e.g., to present your new budget
or present sales information), stop occasionally to ask if people
understand what you have said.
13. If you have an executive coach (or someone who can play that role), have
them sit in on your presentations and help you pick up clues from the
group. (We did this very effectively with one of our clients who had been

promoted to department manager. We used hand signals and other cues to


let her know when she was going too fast, too slow or missing the body
language of an executive group where she gave regular presentations.)
14. And, most of all Practice, practice, practice!

Handling the presentation:


Defining your objective

What will you present?

How will you present it?

Why should the audience listen?

Developing your presentation


o Define your limitations
o Build your outline
o Decide on a logical sequence to your presentation
o Identify the best tools for your presentation

Team activity: Outline of Your Dreams


During Your Presentation
First impression
o Show respect and build rapport
o Grab the audiences attention
Setting the right tone
o Tone
o Important things

o A lot of other trivial = Important things


Exceeding expectations
o Value add
o Know your audiences wants and needs
o Under promise, over deliver
Closing your presentation

Summarizing

Close it right

Continuous improvement

Peer coaching for improvement

Your Action Plan!

Leaders make presentations to a wide variety of audiences, for example, Board


members, employees, community leaders and groups of customers. Usually
there is a lot that can be quickly gained or quickly lost from a presentation. A
little bit of guidance goes a long way toward making a highly effective
presentation.

Note that meeting management skills are often helpful in designing an effective
presentation. Also note that the following guidelines are intended for general
presentations, not for training sessions where your presentation is to help
learners to gain specific knowledge, skills or attitudes in order to improve their
performance on a task or job.
Structuring the presentation
2 to 2.5 mins--- opening/beginning
20 to 21 mins--- middle section

2 to 3 mins --- closing/end


5 mins --- questions
Preparation Structure
Sequence
Interim
Value
Use

should be logical & understandable

summaries- Recaps

of visual aids-flip charts, handouts etc.

the 4 Ps

Position

Possibilities

Problem

Proposals

Verbal Communication- barriers


Speaking
Using
Tone

too fast

jargon

and content

Complicated
Not

or ambiguous language

questioning

Physical

State of the audience

Effective Delivery
Be

active - move

Be

purposeful - controlled gestures

Variations

vocal (pitch, volume, rate)

Be

natural

Be

direct dont just talk in front of the audience talk to them

Basic Guidelines for Designing Your Presentation:


1. List and prioritize the top three goals that you want to accomplish with your
audience. It's not enough just to talk at them. You may think you know what you
want to accomplish in your presentation, but if you're not clear with yourself and
others, it is very easy - too easy - for your audience to completely miss the point
of your presentation. For example, your goals may be for them to appreciate the
accomplishments of your organization, learn how to use your services, etc.

2. Be really clear about who your audience is and about why is it important for
them to be in the meeting. Members of your audience will want to know right
away why they were the ones chosen to be in your presentation. Be sure that
your presentation makes this clear to them right away. This will help you clarify
your invitation list and design your invitation to them.

3. List the major points of information that you want to convey to your audience.
When you're done making that list, then ask yourself, "If everyone in the
audience understands all of those points, then will I have achieved the goal that I
set for this meeting?"

4. Be clear about the tone that you want to set for your presentation, for example,
hopefulness, celebration, warning, teamwork, etc. Consciously identifying the
tone to yourself can help you cultivate that mood to your audience.

5. Design a brief opening (about 5-10% of your total time presentation time) that

a. Presents your goals for the presentation.


b. Clarifies the benefits of the presentation to the audience.
c. Explains the overall layout of your presentation.
6. Prepare the body of your presentation (about 70-80% of your presentation
time).
7. Design a brief closing (about 5-10% of your presentation time) that summarizes
the key points from your presentation.
8. Design time for questions and answers (about 10% of the time of your
presentation).
REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) Explain the concept of Presentation.
2) What is meant by a presentation program?
3) What are the ways to improve presentation?
4) How to handle presentation?
5) What are the various skills required for effective presentation?
6) What are the guidelines to be handled for a presentation?

3.14 ASSERTIVENESS:
Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,
The concept of Assertiveness.
The various Techniques of Assertiveness.
The Importance of Assertiveness.
Specific Techniques for Assertiveness.
The nature of Assertive behavior.

Assertiveness Introduction:
Assertiveness is a trait taught by many personal development experts and
psychotherapists and the subject of many popular self-help books. It is linked to
self-esteem and considered an important communication skill.

Definition:

An assertive style of behavior is to interact with people while standing up for


your rights. Being assertive is to one's benefit most of the time but it does not
mean that one always gets what he/she wants. The result of being assertive is that
1. you feel good about yourself
2. Other people know how to deal with you and there is nothing vague
about dealing with you.
Techniques
Broken record - A popular technique advocated by assertiveness experts is the
broken record technique. This consists of simply repeating your requests every
time you are met with illegitimate resistance. The term comes from vinyl records,
the surface of which when scratched would lead the needle of a record player to
loop over the same few seconds of the recording indefinitely. However, a
disadvantage with this technique is that when resistance continues, your requests
lose power every time you have to repeat them. If the requests are repeated too
often it can backfire on the authority of your words. In these cases it is necessary
to have some sanctions on hand.
Fogging - Another technique some suggest is called Fogging, which consists of
finding some limited truth to agree with in what an antagonist is saying. More
specifically, one can agree in part or agree in principle.
Negative inquiry - Negative inquiry [consists of requesting further, more specific
criticism. Negative assertion however, is agreement with criticism without letting
up demand.
Example:

Gandhi's struggle for India's independence, along with the communication


strategy and actions he used for this, are a good example of assertiveness. He
used a people movement which he called "Satyagraha" which used non violent
resistance as a means to achieve his objective. He kept communicating the
Indians' right to rule themselves to the British, irrespective of what the British
thought about Indians. Gandhi was sent to jail several times and in many cases
was asked to pay a fine for opposing British rule. He never agreed to pay the
fine, saying that he had the right to say what he thought was correct. After
several decades of this struggle, India became independent.

The Importance of Assertiveness


Expressing your thoughts, feelings, and opinions and standing up for
your rights is important. You are your first and biggest supporter, so it's
important that you speak up for yourself.
Whether your behavior is unassertive (passive) or overassertive
(aggressive), it is possible to change. But it is also important to understand
the difference between expressing yourself in a self-confident manner
(being assertive) and forcing your ideas on others and intimidating them
(being aggressive).

Specific Techniques for Assertiveness:


1. Be as specific and clear as possible about what you want, think, and feel.
The following statements project this preciseness:
o

I want to

I dont want you to

Would you?

I liked it when you did that.

I have a different opinion, I think that

I have mixed reactions. I agree with these aspects for these


reasons, but I am disturbed about these aspects for these reasons.

It can be helpful to explain exactly what you mean and exactly what you dont
mean, such as I dont want to break up over this, but Id like to talk it through
and see if we can prevent it from happening again.
Be direct. Deliver your message to the person for whom it is intended. If you
want to tell Jane something, tell Jane; do not tell everyone except Jane; do not tell
a group, of which Jane happens to be a member.
2. Own your message. Acknowledge that your message comes from your
frame of reference, your conception of good vs. bad or right vs. wrong,
your perceptions. You can acknowledge ownership with personalized
(I) statements such as I dont agree with you (as compared to Youre
wrong) or Id like you to mow the lawn (as compared to You really
should mow the lawn, you know). Suggesting that someone is wrong or
bad and should change for his or her own benefit when, in fact, it would
please you will only foster resentment and resistance rather than
understanding and cooperation.
3. Ask for feedback. Am I being clear? How do you see this situation?
What do you want to do? Asking for feedback can encourage others to
correct any misperceptions you may have as well as help others realize
that you are expressing an opinion, feeling, or desire rather than a
demand. Encourage others to be clear, direct, and specific in their
feedback to you.

Assertive behavior includes:

Starting, changing, or ending conversations

Sharing feelings, opinions, and experiences with others

Making requests and asking for favors

Refusing others' requests if they are too demanding

Questioning rules or traditions that don't make sense or don't seem fair

Addressing problems or things that bother you

Being firm so that your rights are respected

Expressing positive emotions

Expressing negative emotions

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of Assertiveness.


2) What are the various Techniques of Assertiveness?
3) Explain the importance of Assertiveness.
4) Describe the specific techniques for Assertiveness.
5) Explain about the nature of Assertive behavior.

3.15 TIME MANAGEMENT:

Key areas

Introduction to Time management.


Definition of Time management.
Aspects of Time management.
Essential habits for good time management.
Time management approaches.
Simple Techniques for Time management.

Overview:

Time management refers to a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to


manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals. This set
encompass a wide scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating,
setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing,
scheduling, and prioritizing. Initially time management referred to just business
or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal
activities also. A time management system is a designed combination of
processes, tools and techniques.

Definition: Time management is a set of principles, practices, skills, tools, and


systems that work together to help you get more value out of your time with the
aim of improving the quality of your life.

Aspects of Time management:

Time management has five main aspects:

Planning & Goal Setting

Managing Yourself

Dealing with Other People

Your Time

Getting Results

The first 4 all interconnect and interact to generate the fifth - results

Essential habits for good time management are:

Know where the hours are going

Keep focused on the end result

Work to defined priorities

Schedule time for important issues

Delegate routine tasks and responsibility for them

Confront your own indecision and delay

Take the stress out of work

Keep applying the essential habits!

Time management approaches:


Some authors (such as Stephen R. Covey) offered a categorization scheme for the
hundreds of time management approaches that they reviewed

First generation: reminders based on clocks and watches, but with


computer implementation possible can be used to alert of the time when a
task is to be done.

Second generation: planning and preparation based on calendar and


appointment books includes setting goals.

Third generation: planning, prioritizing, controlling (using a personal


organizer, other paper-based objects, or computer or PDA-based systems
activities on a daily basis. This approach implies spending some time in
clarifying values and priorities.

Fourth generation: being efficient and proactive using any of the above
tools places goals and roles as the controlling element of the system and
favors importance over urgency.

Some of the recent general arguments related to "time" and "management" point
out that the term "time management" is misleading and that the concept should
actually imply that it is "the management of our own activities, to make sure that
they are accomplished within the available or allocated time, which is an
unmanageable continuous resource".

Simple Techniques to Manage Time


There never seems to be enough time in the roles of management and
supervision. Therefore, the goal of time management should not be to find more
time. The goal is set a reasonable amount of time to spend on these roles and
then use that time wisely.

1. Start with the simple techniques of stress management above.


2. Managing time takes practice. Practice asking yourself this question
throughout the day: "Is this what I want or need to be doing right now?" If yes,
then keep doing it.
3. Find some way to realistically and practically analyze your time. Logging your
time for a week in 15-minute intervals is not that hard and does not take up that
much time. Do it for a week and review your results.

4. Do a "to do" list for your day. Do it at the end of the previous day. Mark items
as "A" and "B" in priority. Set aside two hours right away each day to do the
important "A" items and then do the "B" items in the afternoon. Let your
answering

machine

take

your

calls

during

your

"A"

time.

5. At the end of your day, spend five minutes cleaning up your space. Use this

time, too, to organize your space, including your desktop. That'll give you a clean
start for the next day.

6. Learn the difference between "Where can I help?" and "Where am I really
needed?" Experienced leaders learn that the last question is much more
important than the former.

7. Learn the difference between "Do I need to do this now?" and "Do I need to do
this at all?" Experienced leaders learn how to quickly answer this question when
faced with a new task.

8. Delegate. Delegation shows up as a frequent suggestion in this guide because


it is one of the most important skills for a leader to have. Effective delegation will
free up a great deal of time for you.

9. If you are CEO in a corporation, then ask your Board for help. They are
responsible to supervise you, as a CEO. Although the Board should not be micromanaging you, that is, involved in the day-to-day activities of the corporation,
they still might have some ideas to help you with your time management.
Remember, too, that good time management comes from good planning, and the
Board is responsible to oversee development of major plans. Thus, the Board
may be able to help you by doing a better themselves in their responsibilities as
planners for the organization.

10. Use a "Do Not Disturb" sign! During the early part of the day, when you're
attending to your important items (your "A" list), hang this sign on the doorknob
outside your door.

11. Sort your mail into categories including "read now", "handle now" and "read
later". You'll quickly get a knack for sorting through your mail. You'll also notice
that much of what you think you need to read later wasn't really all that
important anyway.

12.

Read

your

mail

at

the

same

time

each

day.

That way, you'll likely get to your mail on a regular basis and won't become
distracted into any certain piece of mail that ends up taking too much of your
time.

13.

Have a

place for

everything

and

put everything in

its

place.

That way, you'll know where to find it when you need it. Another important
outcome is that your people will see that you are somewhat organized, rather
than out of control.

14. Best suggestion for saving time - schedule 10 minutes to do nothing.


That time can be used to just sit and clear your mind. You'll end up thinking
more clearly, resulting in more time in your day. The best outcome of this
practice is that it reminds you that you're not a slave to a clock - and that if you
take 10 minutes out of your day, you and your organization won't fall apart.

15. Learn good meeting management skills. Meetings can become a terrible
waste of time.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Write a short note on Time management.


2. Definition of Time management.
3. Explain the aspects of Time management.
4. What are the essential habits for good time management?
5. Describe - Time management approaches.
6. Explain the Simple Techniques for Time management.

3.16 PRIORITISING WORKLOADS:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

The concept of Prioritizing.


The Prioritizing workload commitments.
Prioritize your tasks.
The concept of Alternatives to Prioritizing.
The various Techniques for setting priorities
Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs".
The Eisenhower Method.

Prioritizing

When you are faced with many different demands on your time it is essential
that you are able to prioritize your workload. There are many different factors
affecting individual priorities, including:

Personal motivation / interest


Oncoming deadlines
Confidence with the task / skill
Difficulty of the task

Prioritizing workload commitments

Linking workload to objectives or targets


The difference between urgent and important tasks
Methods of prioritizing workload commitments

Sometimes we have to reprioritize things that are under our direct control, which
is relatively simple compared to re-prioritizing things that involve other decision
makers.
A trick is always to de-personalise the activity. Dont think in terms of I
want/they want, but in terms of what is best for the business. By doing this you
may even be able to see their point of view.

Priorities against your own goals

Consider elapsed time to completion, complexity, flexibility

Consider needs of your team/stakeholders

Where contribution is equal, do fastest things first

Priorities against corporate goals

Consider win/win and trade off

Rank relative importance to the different decision makers

Have compromises ready

Prioritizing your tasks


This is a useful structure for sorting things out. Write a list of all your
activities. Rank the activities against this chart, and tackle those in the upper left
quartile first. Leave those in the bottom right to last, if you bother with them at
all, and juggle the others.

Important
NonImportant

Urgent
Important/Urgent

Non-Urgent
Important/Non- Urgent

Non-Important/Urgent

Non-Important/Non-Urgent

Important = value/result
Urgent = time/deadlines

Alternatives to Prioritizing:

A completely different approach which argues against prioritizing altogether


was put forward by British author Mark Forster in his book "Do It Tomorrow and

Other Secrets of Time Management". This is based on the idea of operating


"closed" to-do lists, instead of the traditional "open" to-do list. He argues that the
traditional never-ending to-do lists virtually guarantees that some of your work
will be left undone. This approach advocates getting all your work done, every
day, and if you are unable to achieve it helps you diagnose where you are going
wrong and what needs to change. Recently, Forster developed the "Auto focus
Time Management System", which further systematizes working a to-do list as a
series of closed sub lists and emphasizes intuitive choices.

Techniques for setting priorities

ABC analysis

A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the
categorization of large data into groups. These groups are often marked A, B,
and Chence the name. Activities are ranked upon these general criteria:

A Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important.

B Tasks those are important but not urgent.

C Tasks that is neither urgent nor important.

Each group is then rank-ordered in priority. To further refine priority, some


individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC
analysis can incorporate more than three groups. ABC analysis is frequently
combined with Pareto analysis.

Pareto analysis

This is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the disposable time.
The remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. This principle is used to
sort tasks into two parts. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is
recommended that tasks that fall into the first category be assigned a higher
priority.
The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that
80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. If
productivity is the aim of time management, then these tasks should be
prioritized higher.

Fit

Essentially, fit is the congruence of the requirements of a task (location, financial


investment, time, etc.) with the available resources at the time. Often people are
constrained by externally controlled schedules, locations, etc., and "fit" allows us
to maximize our productivity given those constraints. For example, if one
encounters a gap of 15 minutes in their schedule, it is typically more efficient to
complete a task that would require 15 minutes, than to complete a task that can
be done in 5 minutes, or to start a task that would take 4 weeks. This concept also
applies to time of the day: free time at 7am is probably less usefully applied to
the goal of learning the drums, and more productively a time to read a book.
Lastly, fit can be applied to location: free time at home would be used differently
from free time at work, in town, etc.

POSEC method

POSEC is an acronym for Prioritize by Organizing, Streamlining, Economizing


and Contributing. The method dictates a template which emphasises an average
individual's immediate sense of emotional and monetary security. It suggests
that by attending to one's personal responsibilities first, an individual is better
positioned to shoulder collective responsibilities.

Inherent in the acronym is a hierarchy of self-realization which mirrors Abraham


Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs".

1. PRIORITIZE-Your time and define your life by goals.


2. ORGANIZING-Things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful.
(Family and Finances)
3. STREAMLINING-Things you may not like to do, but must do. (Work and
Chores)
4. ECONOMIZING-Things you should do or may even like to do, but
they're not pressingly urgent. (Pastimes and Socializing)
5. CONTRIBUTING-By paying attention to the few remaining things that
make a difference. (Social Obligations)

The Eisenhower Method


All tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not
urgent and put in according quadrants. Tasks in unimportant/not urgent are
dropped, tasks in important/urgent are done immediately and personally, tasks
in unimportant/urgent are delegated and tasks in important/not urgent get an
end date and are done personally. This method is said to have been used by US

President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and is outlined in a quote attributed to him:


What is important is seldom urgent and what is urgent is seldom important.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is meant by Prioritizing?


2. What are the Prioritizing workload commitments
3. How you will prioritizing your tasks
4. Describe the concept of Alternatives to Prioritizing:
5. What are the various Techniques for setting priorities?
6. Explain about Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs".
7. The Eisenhower Method Explain.

3.17 SETTING WORK OBJECTIVES:


Learning objective:

After reading this section you can able to know,


The concept of Goal/Objective.
Work Objective Overview
Setting Work Objectives.
SMART Specific Measurable - Achievable - Realistic - Timely
What are the Key Components of a Work Objective?
What are the Goal types in business management:
Explain the principles to be considered for work objectives.
Describe the checklist for Goals.

A goal or objective is a projected state of affairs that a person or a system plans


or intends to achievea personal or organizational desired end-point in some
sort of assumed development. Many people endeavor to reach goals within a
finite time by setting deadlines.

What is a Work Objective?


A work objective is a mutually understood agreement about a specific work
outcome that a staff member is expected to achieve during the MPS cycle.
It is not a list of all the activities (often action items)/ responsibilities of the staff
member's role.

It is a direct link between the work the employee performs and the
faculty/centre's operational plan and ECU's strategic priorities.

Why Set Work Objectives?

Setting SMART work objectives allows you to understand exactly where your
role fits within the University and what your responsibilities are. You gain a
better understanding of the value and contributions you bring to the University.
SMART work objectives focus on outcomes rather than activities and allow you
to measure your own success.
With clear work objectives in mind, you are in a better position to review and
revise these objectives as work demands change during the MPS cycle. SMART
work objectives also enable your supervisor to focus your MPS discussion on
measurable performance outcomes and facilitate the discussion of your

development and career plans as part of the meeting. You can also seek ways to
improve effectiveness, efficiencies and outcomes of the faculty/centre and to the
overall performance outcomes of the University.

What is SMART?

SMART work objectives are:

Specific

Measurable

Achievable

Realistic

Timely

Staff is strongly encouraged to be familiar with and utilise the SMART principles
when setting their work objectives, indicators and targets. As a guide, consider
the following statements:

Specific

Is it clear and well defined

Is it clear to anyone that has a basic knowledge of the work area

Measurable

Know if the goal is obtainable and how far away completion is

Know when it has been achieved

Achievable

Agreement with all the stakeholders what the goals should be

Is there a realistic path to achievement

Realistic

Within the availability of resources, knowledge and time

Timely

Enough time to achieve the goal, is there a time limit

Not too much time, which can affect work performance

Key Components of a Work Objective

Conditions - Sets the situation and/or environment in which the staff member is
required to work within, eg OS&H and other University related legislation.

Acceptable levels of Performance - Consider what level of performance is


deemed acceptable in terms of Quality (i.e. how effectively the work should be
performed), Quantity (i.e. how much is produced) and/or Timeliness (i.e. how
quickly or in what timeframe the outcome is to be achieved).

Measures - Include clear measures (quality, quantity, cost, timeliness and


frequency of completion) so both parties can track progress and readjust
priorities if necessary, to ensure performance outcomes can be achieved.
Goal types in business management:

Consumer goals: this refers to supplying a product or service that the


market/consumer wants.

Product goals: this refers to supplying a product outstanding compared


to other products perhaps due to the likes of quality, design, reliability and
novelty.

Operational goals: this refers to running the organization in such a way


as to make the best use of management skills, technology and resources.

Secondary goals: this refers to goals which an organization does not


regard as priorities.

The principles being:

1. To concentrate on being effective, not on being busy.


2. To minimize wasted time.
3. The priorities being your key goals and objectives.
4. Plan in bite sized chunks.
5. Break complicated or difficult tasks into achievable elements or steps. The
first step could be to investigate.
6. Identify the right time for each activity, for you and others?
7. Leave time free for the unexpected! You can always use it! This may be as
much as 50% of your time.
8. Establish routines and patterns of work to improve efficiency.
Checklist for Goals

Are they realistic and challenging?

Have they been agreed with the manager and linked to the
performance appraisal system?

Do you know what it will look like when you have achieved the
goal (visualization)?

Are the goals important to you?

Is there a time bound aspect to the goals?

Are the goals SMART?

What will the reward be once the goals have been achieved?

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) What is a Work Objective?
2) Why to Set Work Objectives?
3) What is SMART?
4) What are the Key Components of a Work Objective?
5) What are the Goal types in business management:
6) Explain the principles to be considered for work objectives.
7) Describe the checklist for Goals.

3.18 USING TIME EFFECTIVELY:

Learning objectives:

This section covers the following key areas such as,


Importance of time.
Time wasters components.
Steps to be considered for managing the time effectively.
'MISER' concept.
Time Management is essential to success at work. God gives to each of us a
limited, finite number of hours in a year in which to achieve our goals. He gives

us these hours in sequence, they are neither repeatable nor refundable, and He is
not partial to either the rich or to the poor, to the young or to the old.
All of us 24 hours a day and we should plan these 24 hours. Planning our time
allows us to spread our work, avoid a "Traffic jam" of work and cope with the
work stress.

Many deadlines for work occur at the same time and unless we plan ahead, we
will find it impossible to manage. To meet the demands of work we need to
spread our workload over the allotted time. Work out what needs to be done and
when. Work out how to use available time as efficiently as possible.
Time Wasters

Attempting too much

Not saying 'NO'

Incomplete information

Management by crisis, fire fighting

Interruption

Effective use of time

1. Concentrate on being effective, not on being busy.


2. Avoid red activities (time spent which is not helpful in meeting your
objectives). Analyze the root cause for each of these and avoid, eliminate
or minimize this waste of your time.
3. Don't do the work of others, unless you chose to do so (e.g. to understand
the problems or to show others etc.)

4. Delegate effectively
5. Effective Meetings
6. Be decisive.
Evaluate, assess the risks and decide the next course of action.
7. Do it now. Don't procrastinate; break up tasks so they are achievable.
8. Give realistic promises.
9. Learn to say 'No'. Direct people to owner of a problem or explain why you
are not dealing with it.
10. Avoid perfectionism. Seek a quality solution (fit for purpose) which is cost
effective.
11. Avoid clutter. Act - Bin - Refer - File. Only file if you need the information
and it is not readily available elsewhere.
12. Consolidate your time. Large size bites are excellent, hourly chunks are
ideal.
13. Control interruptions/ distractions. Find somewhere where you can think
and plan.
14. Orange time (marginal time) should be used wisely. Remember relaxation
and breaks are essential but this time could also be used for thinking and
planning. The choice is yours.
15. Don't spend endless time reordering 'to do lists'. When a task is complete
just cross it out.
16. Look at your aims/ responsibilities and identify your key goals (10 max.).
Set performance objectives for each key goal e.g.:
o

Quality - right - error free services & goods - fit for purpose.

Cost - value

People.

Machines, facilities & equipment.

Method.

Materials.

Delivery

When.

Speed - fast - time between customer asking and receiving.

Dependability - deliver on time.

Flexibility - ability to adapt - service, product, mix, volume and


delivery time.

How We Use Time

When we spend time, there is no improvement in efficiency, productivity, or


effectiveness. The time is gone without a return. We save time when we perform
tasks in less time or with less effort than previously. We use shortcuts and
processes that streamline activities. We invest time when we take time now to
save time later.

We spend time when we go to a movie; however, if we are a screenwriter, the


time spent in the movie is an investment since it will help hone our writing skills.
If we invest time to learn screenwriting software, we will save time in the future
when we compose our scripts. However, this is still relative to the point that we
are able to turn better writing skills and faster script development into profit - if
we are able to sell it. In capitalism our investment, might very well be someone
else's profit.
Delegation is a valuable investment of our time. When we delegate, we teach
someone to perform tasks we usually perform. While the training process takes

time now, the investment pays off later since we free our time to perform higherpayoff activities. The goal is to look for ways a person can save and invest time.

Task list
A task list (also to-do list) is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or steps
toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative
or supplement to memory.
Task lists are used in self-management, grocery lists, business management,
project management, and software development. It may involve more than one
list.
When you accomplish one of the items on a task list, you check it off or cross it off.
The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil,
usually on a note pad or clip-board. Numerous digital equivalents are now
available, including PIM (Personal information management) applications and
most PDAs. There are also several web-based task list applications, many of
which are free.
'MISER' concept' - For effective use of time.
(As mentioned by Mr. Promod Batra in his book 'Be a Winner Every time')can be
used to manage the time effectively. It is a way to reduce the time taken to
complete any task.
M => Stands for 'Merge'. Can I merge it with some other activity? Meaning there
by doing more than one task at a time reduces the time taken to complete the
tasks separately.

I => Stands for 'Improving'. Can I improve it? And most of the time we can, if we
have a working attitude of 5 to 9 instead of 9 to 5.

S => Stands for 'Simplify'! Any action or activity can be simplified.

E => Stands for 'Eliminating'. Many things we do. We do not need to do them in
the first place.

R => Stands for 'Reducing' the activity. This is where your experience, exposure
and wisdom will help you.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the importance of time.
2. How can we use time?
3. What are the Time wasters components?
4. Explain about the Steps to be considered for managing the time
effectively.
5. 'MISER' concept Role in time utilization.

3.19 MAKING AND KEEPING APPOINTMENTS:


Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to understand about,
The concept of external appointments.
Planning to give appointment and tracking it.
The concept of four quadrants and its uses.
Suggestions for conducting a meeting and Appointments:
To manage the appointments - Selecting Participants in appointments. Developing Agendas - Opening Meetings
Establishing Ground Rules for Meetings
Evaluations of Meeting Process
Evaluating the Overall Meeting
Prioritizing your time.

External Appointments
The next stage of Personal Time Management is to start taking control of your
time. The first problem is appointments. Start with a simple appointments diary.
In this book you will have (or at least should have) a complete list of all your
known appointments for the foreseeable future. If you have omitted your regular
ones (since you remember them anyway) add them now.

Your appointments constitute your interaction with other people; they are the
agreed interface between your activities and those of others; they are determined
by external obligation. They often fill the diary. Now, be ruthless and eliminate
the unnecessary. There may be committees where you can not productively
contribute or where a subordinate might be (better) able to participate. There
may be long lunches which could be better run as short conference calls. There
may be interviews which last three times as long as necessary because they are
scheduled for a whole hour. Eliminate the wastage starting today.

The next stage is to add to your diary lists of other, personal activity which will
enhance your use of the available time. Consider: what is the most important
type of activity to add to your diary? No: - stop reading for a moment and really,
consider.

The single most important type of activity is those which will save you time:
allocate time to save time, a stitch in time saves days. And most importantly of
all, always allocate time to time management: at least five minutes each and
every day.

For each appointment left in the diary, consider what actions you might take to
ensure that no time is wasted: plan to avoid work by being prepared. Thus, if you
are going to a meeting where you will be asked to comment on some report,
allocate time to read it so avoiding delays in the meeting and increasing your
chances of making the right decision the first time. Consider what actions need to
be done before AND what actions must be done to follow-up.

Using a diary, planner or spreadsheet allocates time to:

1. Activities that you have committed to i.e. appointments, meetings and


holidays.
2. The urgent or desperate tasks but ensure you delegate these where
appropriate and look for the route cause. Rearrange committed activities if
required.
3. Achievable tasks.
4. Thinking and planning. Take time to dream!
Adjust the plan each day, in the light of reality, always remembering your key
goals.
Daily lists
If you dont have some idea of what needs to be done today, next week, in the
future, you cannot begin to priorities.
As most people feel stressed by time pressures on a day-to-day basis, the first
logical step is to make daily To Do lists (which can be augmented by weekly
and monthly To Do lists). Write tomorrows list before you leave work! Give
yourself 10/15 minutes at the end of the day for this task.

Four quadrants
Then assign priorities to each task on your To Do list using the Four Quadrant
approach:
1
2
3
4

Urgent and important : top priority Must be done today


Important but less Urgent
Should be done today
Urgent but not Important
Needs doing now
Not important, not urgent
Could be postponed

Quadrants 1, 3 and 4 are where a lot of people spend their worrying lives!
Quadrant 1 activities are needed to achieve immediate results
Quadrants 2 are where you plan and is a place from where you can reduce
pressure on Quadrants 1 and 3.
Quadrant 2 activities impede results.
Quadrant 4 activities are wasted time.
Meeting management tends to be a set of skills often overlooked by leaders and
managers. The following information is a rather "Cadillac" version of meeting
management suggestions. The reader might pick which suggestions best fits the
particular culture of their own organization. Keep in mind that meetings are very
expensive activities when one considers the cost of labor for the meeting and
how much can or cannot get done in them. So take meeting management very
seriously.

Suggestions for conducting a meeting and Appointments:


The process used in a meeting depends on the kind of meeting you plan to have,
e.g., staff meeting, planning meeting, problem solving meeting, etc. However,

there are certain basics that are common to various types of meetings. These
basics are described below.
Selecting Participants
The decision about who is to attend depends on what you want to accomplish
in the meeting. This may seem too obvious to state, but it's surprising how many
meetings occur without the right people there.
Don't depend on your own judgment about who should come. Ask several other
people for their opinion as well.
If possible, call each person to tell them about the meeting, it's overall purpose
and why their attendance is important.
Follow-up your call with a meeting notice, including the purpose of the meeting,
where it will be held and when, the list of participants and whom to contact if
they have questions.
Developing Agendas
Develop the agenda together with key participants in the meeting. Think of
what overall outcome you want from the meeting and what activities need to
occur to reach that outcome. The agenda should be organized so that these
activities are conducted during the meeting.
Design the agenda so that participants get involved early by having something
for them to do right away and so they come on time.

Next to each major topic, include the type of action needed, the type of output

expected (decision, vote, action assigned to someone), and time estimates for
addressing each topic
Ask participants if they'll commit to the agenda.
Keep the agenda posted at all times.

Opening Meetings
Always start on time; this respects those who showed up on time and reminds
late-comers that the scheduling is serious.
Welcome attendees and thank them for their time.
Review the agenda at the beginning of each meeting, giving participants a
chance to understand all proposed major topics, change them and accept them.
Note that a meeting recorder if used will take minutes and provide them back
to each participant shortly after the meeting.
Model the kind of energy and participant needed by meeting participants.
Clarify your role(s) in the meeting.
Establishing Ground Rules for Meetings

You don't need to develop new ground rules each time you have a meeting,
surely. However, it pays to have a few basic ground rules that can be used for
most of your meetings. These ground rules cultivate the basic ingredients needed
for a successful meeting.

Four powerful ground rules are: participate, get focus, maintain momentum and
reach closure. (You may want a ground rule about confidentiality.)
List your primary ground rules on the agenda.
If you have new attendees who are not used to your meetings, you might review
each ground rule.
Keep the ground rules posted at all times.

Evaluations of Meeting Process


It's amazing how often people will complain about a meeting being a complete
waste of time -- but they only say so after the meeting. Get their feedback during
the meeting when you can improve the meeting process right away. Evaluating a
meeting only at the end of the meeting is usually too late to do anything about
participants' feedback.
Every couple of hours, conduct 5-10 minutes "satisfaction checks".
In a round-table approach, quickly have each participant indicate how they
think the meeting is going.

Evaluating the Overall Meeting

Leave 5-10 minutes at the end of the meeting to evaluate the meeting; don't skip
this portion of the meeting.

Have each member rank the meeting from 1-5, with 5 as the highest, and have
each member explain their ranking
Have the chief executive rank the meeting last.

Prioritizing your time:


Prioritising your time involves juggling each of these, relating individual tasks to
each other and putting these in the wider context of all your commitments and
responsibilities. Ask such questions as:
What is urgent?
What is routine?
What can be prepared in advance?
In other words, you need to be aware that:
Some things demand immediate attention
Some things can be predicted and routinely planned for
Some things can be prepared in advance

It may help to gauge your activities and tasks on a table such as the
urgency/important grid in the next column. Where does each task fit? Is it urgent
and important? Or is it important but not urgent? Now apply this to your
planning sheets, tackling urgent and important things first and allocating time
ahead for important but non-urgent work.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

Explain about making appointments.


How you will conduct meeting and manage the appointment?
Explain the concept of four quadrants and its uses.
Describe

about

suggestions

for

conducting

Appointments:
Explain about the Meeting Process and prioritizing time.

meeting

and

3.20 WORKING STEADILY RATHER THAN ERRATICALLY:


Learning objective:
After reading this section you can able to know about,

The overview of erratically.


Tips For completing the work steadily.
Key strategies for working steadily.
Tips and techniques for working steady.
A time-log concept.
Managing interruptions.
Keys to Successful Time Management.

Try also to work steadily through coursework rather than erratically. It is


important to work consistently over a period of time rather than in short,
energetic bursts. These bursts can be panic-driven. A sudden burst usually means
that you are behind schedule and may rush key elements of your work. On a
degree-level course it is essential that you allocate sufficient time for learning and
for reflecting on learning processes. It does not have to be done at a desk, but it
has to be done.

Erratic - having no fixed course or purpose; irregular; random; wandering


Tips For completing the work steadily:
Organize your coursework and handouts as you go along. Dont let big

piles of paperwork accumulate.


Set aside regular study sessions every week so you can work steadily
Throughout the semester.
Develop good diary habits.
Write down deadlines as soon as you get them.
Look at your diary on a daily basis.
Use task analysis to help you break down large tasks into smaller,
manageable steps
Use action planning to help you complete work. Attach deadlines to each
Step, and tick each one off as you complete it.
Make sure you know how much an assessment is worth in terms of %, so
That you can put in the corresponding amount of effort.
set you goals that are realistic and achievable.
If youre finding it hard to get going, try hard to focus, set yourself one.
Manageable task, and DO IT. Dont get hung up on things being perfect.

Key strategies:
Well look next at some key strategies that might help:

time planning

managing information

managing large tasks

meeting deadlines

Time planning
Many people find it difficult to work steadily. Its all too easy to leave things to
the last minute, but its much better to work at a steady rate youre less stressed,

you learn more effectively, and youll get better marks. It helps to use your diary
or calendar to write up a weekly timetable. Include your unit and your personal
activities, and set aside regular study times each week. You could also keep a To
do list. Remember its not enough to set a regular schedule, you need to stick to
it!
Managing information

Its important to think about how best to organize your information. Gather
papers and handouts into folders, using dividers to separate topics or
assessments. Digital information should also be organized into folders and files
clearly named so theyre easy to retrieve. It should also be backed up! Try to file
information as soon as you get it. Dont wait until you have a big pile of books
and papers - its easy to forget what that scribbled note means, or where that
quote came from.

Managing large tasks

Assignments can seem overwhelming at first, because theres so much to do. It


helps to use task analysis to break down projects into smaller, manageable
chunks. First, work out what needs to be done to complete your project, then
write it down in a series of steps. Decide what order they need to be done in. Its
useful to set a deadline for each step, to tick off as you complete it. Once you see
the project as a series of manageable steps it doesnt seem so overwhelming. It's
easier to get started, and its easier to finish.

Meeting deadlines

Note all your deadlines in your diary and work out how much time you need to
complete each assignment. To help plan, work back from the deadline. Block out
time in your diary for each assignment. Make sure you allow time for
preparation such as research and editing. Then build in extra time so you dont
need to rush if something else comes up. In general, try to deal with the largest
tasks first, then move on to the smaller ones.

Tips and techniques:

Time Logs
Quality Time
Managing Documents
Managing
Interruptions
Managing Workspace
Managing your Phone

A time-log is

A time-log is an effective way to see where your time actually goes to


during the working day Record the information for about 2 weeks to get a
representative picture of time spent

By logging activities and the time taken to complete them, the time-log
provides useful information that can identify

Accuracy of estimating time for tasks

Time stealing activities

Level of interruption

Loading during the day

Crises points / tasks

Quality time is where you can plan to do the most important high priority
tasks

It allows for deep concentration through eliminating interruptions

It imposes a structure on work

It allows you to move away from reactive work to proactive work

Dealing with Documents

Document handling can steal a vast quantity of time from our working
day

Improve your document handling by:

Handling documents only once by :

Act on what is required by the document

File the document for reference later

Dump the document

Have a good system for handling your documents that allows you to:

Define what you need to keep and for how long

Allows you to file materials easily and logically

Facilitates access to materials

Purge the files on a regular basis

Managing interruptions

Try to reduce the number of interruptions by applying the following


techniques:

Create a visual barrier at your workspace to reduce the


incidence of drop-in visits

Dont have extra chairs in your workspace - people do not


hang around as long if they must stand

For important work - move to another space so the potential


interrupters cant find you!

Tell people that you are busy, explain why and arrange to
contact them at a more suitable time

How our workspace is organized has an impact on how efficient we are try the following to improve efficiency

De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each working day

File documents once they have been used

Purge files regularly

Organize a work flow system in your space

Managing workspace

How our workspace is organized has an impact on how efficient we are try the following to improve efficiency

De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each working day

File documents once they have been used

Purge files regularly

Organize a work flow system in your space

Managing Your Phone

The telephone can be responsible for eating vast quantities of time control the phone by using:

Batch your outward calls

Delegate calls that you dont have to make personally to one of


your team

Terminate calls once the business has been done

Set up your team for handling incoming calls

Keys to Successful Time Management

Self knowledge and goals: In order to manage your time successfully,


having an awareness of what your goals are will assist you in prioritizing
your activities.

Developing and maintaining a personal, flexible schedule: Time


management provides you with the opportunity to create a schedule that
works for you, not for others. This personal attention gives you the
flexibility to include the things that are most important to you.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. How to work steadily rather then erratically?


2. Explain the tips for completing the work steadily.
3. Explain the Key strategies for working steadily.
4. Describe the Tips and techniques for working steadily.
5. Explain the importance of time-log concept.
6. How you will manage interruptions?
7. What are the Keys for a Successful Time Management?

3.21 TIME FOR LEARNING:


Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
The concept of time for learning
The approaches to be handled for effective time management.
A daily planner sheet outlined a step-by-step approach for learning to
use a day planner to manage time effectively and "boost" inherently
inefficient executive function.
Follow the daily planner sheet steps for at least one week, reward
yourself at the end of the week for practicing the day planner skills, and
identify a friend as a planner coach to provide support and
encouragement for your efforts.
The concept of discovery learning.
Personal time management skills are essential skills for effective people. People
who use these techniques routinely are the highest achievers in all walks of life,
from business to sport to public service.

Daily planner:

selecting the right day planner

effective strategies for using a day planner

using a day planner for short- and long-term planning

This sheet will highlight strategies for using a day planner effectively, planning
effectively, and following through on commitments.*

The planner coach should be a person who will focus on the positive, praising
successes and cheering you on to the next step, and not a person who will
criticize failures or imperfect achievement of any of the steps.
1. Select a compatible day planner as your only planning calendar.
At a minimum, a day planner is a device that includes a calendar, space to write
"to-do" lists, and space to write telephone numbers, addresses, and other basic
identifying/reference information. It can be a paper-and-pencil model, as with
Franklin Planner, Day Timer, or Planner Pad brands. It can be a fancy electronic
organizer such as a Palm Pilot, or it can be time management software on a
laptop or desktop computer. Electronic organizers have a number of advantages.
They are compact; they provide audible reminders that can serve as memory
management aides; they can sort, organize, and store more information more
efficiently than paper and pencil planners; and they can easily exchange
information with office and home computers.
Your day planner should be the only planning calendar for everything you do
(i.e., work, home, personal). Using separate calendars at home and at the office
may become confusing and overwhelming; you will inevitably forget to transfer
entries from one calendar to the other and miss appointments or important
commitments.
2. Find a single, accessible place to keep the day planner.
After selecting a planner, the next step is to start keeping it in a single, accessible
location at home and at work, so you will always know where to find it. The
location should be clearly visible from a distance, even in a cluttered room or on

a messy desk. Convenient locations might be next to the telephone, on a table


near the front door, or on the desk at the office. If the day planner has a strap, it
might be hung on a hook next to the front door, above the telephone, or together
with the car keys. Carry it to and from work, and practice keeping it in the
designated locations for a week.
3. Enter the basics in the day planner.
Gather the most common names, addresses, and phone numbers you use. Enter
them into the planner in the alphabetical name/address section. Consider what
vital information might be helpful to have in the planner, such as insurance
policy numbers, computer passwords, equipment serial numbers, and birthdays
and anniversaries, and enter this information in the designated spaces.
4. Carry the day planner at all times.
Now that there is some information in your planner, you should carry it with you
at all times. Many people claim that they have carried their planner with them at
all times, but then they "forget" the great idea they thought of while shopping.
"At all times" means whenever you leave the car to go into a store or whenever
you leave your desk to attend a meeting.
5. Refer to the day planner regularly.
Many adults with AD/HD write things in their planners but rarely look at what
they wrote, relying instead on memory, with disastrous consequences. Before
you can use the planner for a calendar or "to do" lists, you need to develop the
habit of checking it regularly. Start by checking the planner a minimum of three
times per day -- once in the morning to plan/review the day's upcoming events,

once in the middle of the day to make any mid-course corrections and refresh
your memory about the remaining day's events, and once in the evening, to
plan/review the next day's events.
There are several ways to remember to check your planner. First, alarm wrist
watches or alarms for an electronic planner can be set to go off at regular
intervals when you wish to check your planner. Second, you could associate
checking your planner with habitual activities that are done at approximately the
same time each day, e.g,. eating meals, getting dressed in the morning or ready
for bed at night, or entering or exiting the office. Third, leaving reminder notes in
strategic locations (on the desk in the office, on the mirror in the bathroom, on
the dashboard or door handle of the car) can be helpful in reminding you to look
at the planner.
6. Use the day planner as your calendar for everything.
You are now ready to use your planner as a calendar. On scrap paper, make a list
of all appointments scheduled at any time in the future. Then, write these
appointments in the appropriate time slots on the pages of the planner for the
particular days and months. Review the scheduled appointments for that day
each time you check the planner. During the day, write in any additional
appointments as soon as you schedule them.
Using different color pens for writing different types of things on your calendar
(e.g., red for appointments, blue for work activities, and green for family events)
permits you to recognize different types of events as your eye scans the page. For
a very busy family, use different colors for each family member's activities.
7. Use your planner as a "brain dump" to capture your ideas.

Adults with AD/HD experience a constant stream of ideas flooding their minds.
They often become frustrated because they cannot remember these ideas when
they need them. Using the day planner as a "brain dump" avoids this dilemma.
With your planner with you at all times, practice writing down any ideas you
want to capture as they occur to you. Write these down either on blank, lined
planner pages or in the section of the planner for that day's "to do" list. If you
find that many of your important ideas come at times when it is impossible to
write them down (e.g., in the shower, while driving), consider carrying a small,
digital recorder. Dictate your ideas into the recorder and transcribe them to your
planner later that day. Some hand-held computers and pocket PCs may have
built-in digital recorders.
8. Construct a daily "to do" list and refer to it often.
Only after you experience success using your planner as a calendar should you
start making a daily "to do" list. Most planners have a place adjoining the
calendar for each day for "to do" lists. During the first review of your planner in
the morning, make a list of everything that needs to get done that day. Use your
"brain dump" notes to help you make the list. Keep the list relatively short, e.g.,
5-8 items, so that you can experience success completing all of the items. Be
realistic about what can be accomplished in one day, and remember to schedule
some "me time," by listing a personal activity or time as one item. List specific
actions, rather than vague concepts. For example, "buy my wife flowers" would
be a more specific item than "be nice to my wife."
Examine the list and assign the items to particular dates and times in the day
planner. Try to complete them as scheduled, referring to the list often. Check off
any completed items and review remaining uncompleted items.

At the end of the day, examine the list. Congratulate yourself if you completed all
of the items on the list. Do not berate yourself if you did not complete all of the
items. If there were only a few unfinished items, move them forward to the next
day's list. However, if you have many unfinished items, consider whether you
have unrealistic expectations for how much can be done. Analyze the
uncompleted items and what got in the way of completing everything on your
list (phone calls, other interruptions, not enough time, not having everything you
need to accomplish the task, unexpected crises). Thinking in these terms will
help you become more realistic about what can be accomplished in a day. Either
scale back expectations or find other approaches to completing tasks, such as
delegating, streamlining, or eliminating tasks.
9. Prioritize your "to-do" list and act in accordance with your priorities.
There are many ways to prioritize a "to do" list. One way is to number all of the
items on the list in order of decreasing priority. Another way is to classify items
into one of three categories: "Essential," "Important," and "Do only if I have extra
time." Pick the method that best fits your style, and begin prioritizing your daily
"to do" list.
As you go through the day, perform the items on the "to do" list in order of
decreasing priority. Adults with AD/HD are often tempted to ignore the
priorities and may need strategies to keep themselves on track. Set the alarms on
your wristwatch, electronic planner, computer task management software, or
beeper to go off at regular intervals as a signal to check whether you are on task
following your priorities. Use self-talks to help avoid distractions. Train yourself
to repeat reminders such as "I have to keep from getting distracted," "I have to
stick with my priorities," and "Don't switch now, I am almost done." Also, make

sure that you are taking an effective dose of medication that lasts throughout the
day. See the What We Know sheet on medication for more information about
determining an effective dose.
10. Conduct a daily planning session.
By the time you have completed the first eight steps, you will be conducting "ad
hoc" daily planning sessions where you construct and prioritize your daily "to
do" list. It is time to formalize this process as "the daily planning session."
Consider the time for constructing and prioritizing lists as a daily planning
session. The goal of this session is to plan the upcoming day's activities and
develop a plan of attack to carry them out. In addition to listing priorities and
reviewing schedules, the planning session is the time to consider exactly how
each task will be accomplished. What materials will be needed?

What

individuals will have to be consulted? What obstacles are likely to be


encountered? How can these obstacles be overcome? Asking and answering
these questions will facilitate the process of prioritizing the items on your "to do"
list. The planning session will provide a mental map that guides you in carrying
out the tasks on your list.
When you have reached this point in the program, congratulate yourself! You
have mastered the basic steps of using a day planner to manage time! Continue
to follow these steps. As they become habitual, consider trying the last step,
which bridges the gap between short-term and long-term planning, but
understand that it is more challenging and may require the assistance of an
AD/HD coach or a therapist.

11. Generate a list of long-term goals and break the long-term goals into small,
manageable chunks, allocating these chunks to monthly and weekly planning
sessions.
First, generate a list of all long-term goals. These are broad goals to be
accomplished over many months and years. Then, take one goal at a time and
break it down into small chunks or sub-goals that might be accomplished on a
monthly basis. Assign one sub-goal to each month of the year. At the beginning
of the month, conduct a monthly planning session where you decide how to
accomplish the sub-goal over the course of the month. Assign various tasks to
each week of the month. At the beginning of each week, conduct a weekly
planning session where you decide how to assign aspects of that week's sub-goal
to the daily task lists for the entire week. During each daily planning session,
plan the details of the assigned task that will be performed that day.
Discovery learning:

Discovery Learning is an inquiry-based learning method. The concept of


discovery learning has appeared numerous times throughout history as a part of
the educational philosophy of many great philosophers particularly Rousseau,
Pestalozzi and Dewey. "There is an intimate and necessary relation between the
processes of actual experience and education" wrote Dewey. It also enjoys the
support of learning theorists and psychologists Piaget, Bruner, and Papert. It has
enjoyed a few positive swings of the educational-trend pendulum in American
education, but it has never received overwhelming acceptance.

Discovery learning takes place most notably in problem solving situations where
the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge to discover the
truths that are to be learned. It is a personal, internal, constructivist learning
environment. Bruner wrote "Emphasis on discovery in learning has precisely
the effect on the learner of leading him to be a constructionist, to organize
what he is encountering in a manner not only designed to discover regularity
and relatedness, but also to avoid the kind of information drift that fails to
keep account of the uses to which information might have to be put."

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the concept of time for learning.
2. Describe the approaches to be handled for effective time management.
3. Explain the importance of daily planner sheet in learning for managing
the time effectively.
4. Explain the need of To-do list in time for learning.
5. Why planner coach is need to provide support and encouragement for
your efforts for time management?
6. What is discovery learning?

3.22 ESTIMATING TASK TIME: (PARTITIONABLE TASKS AND NONPARTITIONABLE TASKS)

Learning objectives:

After reading this you can able to know about,

The concept of time estimation.


Importance of estimation.
The concept of Partitionable tasks and non-partitionable tasks.
Tools used for time estimation Gann chart, Critical path method and
PERT.
The steps to be considered to complete the task in time.

The importance is to estimate the time that will be taken for certain tasks in order
to plan projects and the overall use of your time. Some activities can be broken
down into sub-components: we call these partitionable tasks. With partionable
tasks it is possible to break up the total time allocated to the projects in to
segments.

Fred Brooks, in his book The Mythical Man-month, talks about the concept of
Partitionable tasks. A fully partitionable task is one that reduces in duration as
more resources are put on it as long as the work does not require any
communications among the workers. For example, think of painting a room. A
single painter can paint all four walls and the ceiling in 20 hours if he averages
four hours per surface. However, if we put five painters in the room, each
painting the surface, then we can finish the job in four hours.

The opposite type of task is a task that is non-partitionable. This task will take
the same amount of time no matter how many people are working on it. For
example, think of testing a software string. The test does not go any faster if we
put more testers on it.

Estimating

The process of forecasting or approximating the time and cost of


completing project deliverables.

The task of balancing the expectations of stakeholders and the need


for control while the project is implemented

Types of Estimates

Top-down (macro) estimates: analogy, group consensus, or


mathematical relationships

Bottom-up (micro) estimates: estimates of elements of the work


breakdown structure

Importance of Estimation:

Estimates are needed to support good decisions.

Estimates are needed to schedule work.

Estimates are needed to determine how long the project should take and
its cost.

Estimates are needed to determine whether the project is worth doing.

Estimates are needed to develop cash flow needs.

Estimates are needed to determine how well the project is progressing.

Estimates are needed to develop time-phased budgets and establish the


project baseline.

Sub-dividing Goals into Manageable Pieces

Once you have a set of goals, it is useful to decompose the goals into manageable
steps or sub-goals. Decomposing your goals makes it possible to tackle them one
small step at a time and to reduce procrastination. Consider for instance the goal
of obtaining your degree. This goal can be broken down into four sub-goals. Each
sub-goal is the successful completion of one year of your program. These subgoals can be further broken down into individual courses within each year. The
courses can be broken down into tests, exams, term papers and such within the
course, or into the 13 weeks of classes in each term. Each week can be further
subdivided into days, and each day can be thought of in terms of the hours and
minutes you'll spend in your classes and doing homework for today.
While it may seem challenging to take in the whole scope of that convergent
goal, thinking of your goals in this way helps to reinforce the idea that there is a
connected path linking what actions you take today and the successful
completion of your goals. Seeing these connections can help you monitor your
own progress and detect whether you are on track or not. Take some time now to
think through the goals you've set and to break them down into their smaller
constituent parts.
Estimating Time Accurately - IT Scenario
Time estimates are important as inputs into other techniques used to organize
and structure all projects. Using good time estimation techniques may reduce
large projects to a series of smaller projects. Accurate time estimation is a skill
essential for good project management.

Accurate time estimation is a skill essential to good project management. It is


important to get time estimates right for two main reasons:
1. Time estimates drive the setting of deadlines for delivery of projects, and
hence peoples' assessments of your reliability
2. They often determine the pricing of contracts and hence their
profitability.

Usually people vastly underestimate the amount of time needed to implement


projects. This is true particularly when they are not familiar with the task to be
carried out. They forget to take into account unexpected events or unscheduled
high priority work. People also often simply fail to allow for the full complexity
involved with a job.

This section discusses how to estimate time on small projects. Time estimates are
important inputs into the other techniques used to organize and structure
medium and large sized projects (Gantt charts and Critical Path Analysis). Both
of these techniques reduce large projects down into a set of small projects.

Gantt Charts
Planning and Scheduling Complex Projects
Gantt Charts (Gant Charts) are useful tools for analyzing and planning more
complex projects. They:

Help you to plan out the tasks that need to be completed

Give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carried out

Allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the


project, and

Help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must
complete it by a particular date.

When a project is under way, Gantt Charts help you to monitor whether the
project is on schedule. If it is not, it allows you to pinpoint the remedial action
necessary to put it back on schedule.
Gantt charts are useful tools for planning and scheduling projects. They allow
you to assess how long a project should take, determine the resources needed,
and lay out the order in which tasks need to be carried out. They are useful in
managing the dependencies between tasks.

When a project is under way, Gantt charts are useful for monitoring its progress.
You can immediately see what should have been achieved at a point in time, and
can therefore take remedial action to bring the project back on course. This can be
essential for the successful and profitable implementation of the project.
Critical Path Analysis
Critical Path Analysis is an effective and powerful method of assessing:

What tasks must be carried out.

Where parallel activity can be performed.

The shortest time in which you can complete a project.

Resources needed to execute a project.

The sequence of activities, scheduling and timings involved.

Task priorities.

The most efficient way of shortening time on urgent projects.

An effective Critical Path Analysis can make the difference between success and
failure on complex projects. It can be very useful for assessing the importance of
problems faced during the implementation of the plan.

CPM Diagram:

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)


PERT is a variation on Critical Path Analysis that takes a slightly more skeptical
view of time estimates made for each project stage. To use it, estimate the
shortest possible time each activity will take, the most likely length of time, and
the longest time that might be taken if the activity takes longer than expected.
Use the formula below to calculate the time to use for each project stage:

Use the formula below to calculate the time to use for each project stage:

Shortest time + 4 x likely time + longest time / 6

PERT is a variant of Critical Path Analysis that takes a more skeptical view of the
time needed to complete each project stage. This helps to bias time estimates
away from the unrealistically short time-scales normally assumed.

Steps for using the tool:


The first stage in estimating time accurately is to fully understand what you need
to achieve. This involves reviewing the task in detail so that there are no
unknowns. Inevitably it is the difficult-to-understand, tricky problems that take
the greatest amount of time to solve.
The best way to review the job is to list all tasks in full detail. Simple techniques
such as Drill-Down are useful for this. Once you have a detailed list of all the
tasks that you must achieve, make your best guess at how long each task will
take to complete.
Ensure that within your estimate you also allow time for project management,
detailed project planning, liaison with outside bodies, meetings, quality
assurance and any supporting documentation necessary.
Also make sure that you have allowed time for:

Other high urgency tasks to be carried out which will have priority over
this one

Accidents and emergencies

Internal meetings

Holidays and sickness in essential staff

Contact with other customers, perhaps to arrange the next job

Breakdowns in equipment

Missed deliveries by suppliers

Interruptions

Quality control rejections

These factors may double (or more than double) the length of time needed to
complete a project. If the accuracy of time estimates is critical, you may find it
effective to develop a systematic approach to including these factors. If possible,
base this on past experience.
Key points:
You can lose a great deal of credibility by underestimating the length of time
needed to implement a project. If you underestimate time, not only do you miss
deadlines, you also put other project workers under unnecessary stress. Projects
will become seriously unprofitable, and other tasks cannot be started.
The first step towards making good time estimates is to fully understand the
problem to be solved. You can then prepare a detailed list of tasks that must be
achieved. This list should include all the administrative tasks and meetings you
need to carry out as well as the work itself. Finally, allow time for all the expected
and unexpected disruptions and delays to work that will inevitably happen.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) What is the time estimation?


2) What is meant by Partitionable tasks and non-partitionable tasks?
3) Why to divide your goals to achieve it?
4) How to Use the Tool for time estimation?
5) Write a note on Gann chart, Critical path method and PERT.
6) What are the steps to be considered to complete the task in time?

UNIT 4

4.1 SELF-MANAGED LEARNING:


Learning objective:
After reading this section you can able to know,
The concept of self-managed learning.
Targets, aims and requirements in learning.
Issues in Independent learning.
Preferences in learning.
Performance goal orientation.
Learning goal orientation.
Identification of learning needs.
Dates for achieving the goal.
Reviewing the goal plans.
Pathways for achievement of on dates.
Self-managed learning in a professional context:
It is important for students to become self-managed learners because when they
are able to learn for themselves they can achieve far more, are able to produce
original work, enjoy their work, have pride in achieving results through their
own efforts, and are likely to be highly motivated.
An important goal of personal development therefore is to help individuals to
move forward to the point at which they come self-managed learners, this is a
valuable skill in the job market. An important recommendations that employers
look for on a reference for a potential employee is that they can manage their

own time effectively are effective self-managed learners can manage projects
independently and so on.
An important outcome of professional development therefore is that individuals
demonstrate self-managed learning either in relation to workplace learning or
university/college based learning. A good opportunity for students to
demonstrate they can self-manage their learning is in their research projects.

TARGETS:
In establishing targets it is important that students are able to establish for
themselves the aims and requirements of the learning that they are undertaking.
Grade level learning targets are what students should know, understand or be
able to do at the end of the grade level. They are the basic foundation for the
next grade level and contribute to the achievement of the district learning goals.
AIMS, REQUIREMENTS AND PREFERENCES:
Students should be able t o establish the ends that they are trying at achieve and
the requirements that the Piece of work will need to fulfill in order to achieve the
stated aims. For example, if you have decided that you want to use a workrelated spreadsheet application, then you will need to be able to establish an aim,
that is, what level of competence in the use of the package will be appropriate if
successful learning is to take place? You will then need to set out what is
required to learner how to use the package, that is, how you will access the
training opportunities, resources, and how you will priorities the use of time in
order to be successful. What will you use the package forbearing in mind that
you are seeking to develop a cross-transferable skill? An important aspect of

creating targets relates to personal preferences and personal orientation to the


achievement of set goals.
Independent learning: Learning depends on four key issues:
Wanting
Doing
Feedback
Digesting
To learn independently it is important to start from wanting, that is, the desire to
learn. In choosing tasks related to professional development it is therefore
sensible to choose tasks which are meaningful to the individual learner so as to
maintain interest and motivation. The next step is to develop a fairly clear picture
of what has to be learned: in other words, what does it mean to be more
knowledgeable or more skillful in the chosen area of self-managed learning?
Dates can be established for the achievement of the learning so as to put the
project into a time frame.
PERSONAL ORIENTATION ACHIEVEMENT GOALS:
Persons set of beliefs that reflect the reasons why they approach and engage in
academic and learning tasks. Performance goal orientation is exemplified by a
concern for personal ability, a normative social comparison with others,
preoccupation with the perception of others, a desire for public recognition for
performance, and a need to avoid looking incompetent. A learning goal
orientation reflects a focus on task completion and understanding, learning,
mastery, solving problems, and developing new skills.

Academic goal orientation is based on contemporary goal-as-motives theory


where it is posited that all actions are given meaning, direction, and purpose by
the goals that individuals seek out, and that the quality and intensity of behavior
will change as these goals change (Covington, 2000, p. 174). Achievement goal
theory is particularly important in education as it is believed that by
differentially reinforcing some goals (and not others), teachers can influence
(change) the reasons why students learnthat is, change their motivation
(Covington, 2000).
Different groups of researchers have converged on strikingly similar findings
regarding the importance of academic goal orientation for academic success
(Snow et al., 1996). The resultant achievement goal theory has received considerable
attention during the past decade (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Linnenbrink &
Pintrich, 2002b). Goal theory focuses on the role that purpose plays in
motivation attitudes and behavior (Anderman & Maehr, 1994; Eccles &Wigfield,
2002; Maehr, 1999; Snow et al., 1996; Urdan & Maehr, 1995). Goal orientation
focuses on the students reasons for taking a course or wanting a specific grade
(Anderman et al., 2002). In this document, academic goal orientation is defined
as an individuals set of beliefs that reflect the reasons why they approach and
engage in academic tasks (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Linnenbrink & Pintrich,
2002a; Pintrich, 2000b; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2002; Wentzel, 1999).
Although the specific terminology may differ amongst researchers, goal theory
typically proposes two general goal orientations (Covington, 2000; Linnenbrink
& Pintrich, 2002a).

Nicholls and colleagues (e.g., Nicholls, Cobb, Yackel, &

Wood, 1990) classify goals as either ego- or task- involved (Eccles & Wigfield,
2002). Dweck and colleagues (see Dweck, 1999) distinguish between performance
(such as ego-involved goals) and learning goals (such as task-involved goals).

Ames (1992) refers to performance and mastery goals. A performance goal orientation
is characterized by self-questions such as Will I look smart? and/or Can I outperform others? which reflect a concern for personal ability, a normative social
comparison with others, preoccupation with the perception of others, a desire for
public recognition for performance, a need to avoid looking incompetent, and
outperforming others as a means to aggrandize ones ability status at the
expense of peers(Covington, 2000, p. 174). In contrast, a student with a learning
goal orientation would more likely ask the questions How can I do this task?
and What will I learn? The learning goal orientation reflects a focus on task
completion and understanding, learning, mastery, solving problems, developing
new skills, and an appreciation for what one learns (Covington, 2000; Eccles &
Wigfield, 2002; Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002b; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2002).
Personal Achievement: Working Toward Your Goals
Increasing our personal achievement is something that most of us strive for in
our lives. The wish to improve our lives in some way is something that we all
share. We have the desire but we are not always sure what steps to take to lead
us to increase our personal achievement.

Benefits of Using Goals for Personal Achievement


Everyone in society is driven by achievement to some degree, without
achievement there would be no feeling of ever having accomplished anything.
Often in life personal achievements can feel virtually impossible to attain and
this can be due to a lack of goal setting for each individual. Goals can provide a
person with a target to aim for when trying to achieve anything and they can
help a person to realise that they are one step closer to a personal achievement.
Using goals for personal achievement can have many different benefits such as:

A person has a clear and defined direction that they would like to go in and can
then follow that direction.
Behavior can be modified in order to achieve a goal - something which can be
difficult to do if a person is not 100% aware of why they are doing something.
Having a goal to aim for can help people who find it hard to stay on task to see
the bigger picture.
Goals can be set for any aspect of life, if you want to think more positive about
something - make it one of your goals.
When you have achieved a goal you can feel a sense of achievement and might
want to reward yourself accordingly - and believe that you actually deserve your
reward when you get it.
These are just a few of the many different benefits that a person will find when
they begin setting goals for their own personal achievement. Isn't it time you
start reaching your goals and have success in life?
IDENTIFICATION OF WHAT HAS TO BE LEARNT:
Learning needs:
Section 1: Why is it important to identify learning needs?
Section 2: How can we identify what our learners already know?
Section 3: Who can we work with to discover learning needs?
Section 4: How do we know what our learners want to learn?
Section 5: How can we identify and prioritize community problems and needs?
Section 6: How can we benefit from finding out about learning needs?

Learning will be most effective when people have an opportunity to learn things
that relate to their lives and their needs. People want to improve their lives and
the lives of their families. So their interests will be dominated by their own and
their family needs.
Sometimes people do not always see the linkage between learning and their
needs. Our role is to help learners make this connection. This will be easier if we
relate learning to prior experience and current relevance. Examination of
learning needs helps us to facilitate purposeful and useful learning. It also helps
us to identify the level of our learners literacy and numeracy skills, thus
allowing us to adapt curriculum, select relevant learning materials and to plan
appropriate learning activities.
Identification of learning needs also helps us in our future planning. Knowing
about an individual learners needs, we can plan specific reading, writing,
numeracy and life skill activities for that learner.

Activity:
Identify learning targets for a piece of self-managed learning which is relevant to
your course or to work. For example, you may want to learn some standard
problem-solving techniques, how to search the World Wide Web or how to build
a website.
Set out the following:
1. The aims and requirements of the learning project.
2. Your personal preferences: What it is you want to learn and why.
3. The goals that you will need to achieve to succeed in your learning project.

4. An outline of what needs to be learned.


5. A time schedule for achievement.
Correlations exist between learning styles and learning preferences, as
predicted by style theory. Honey and Mumford have advocated selection of
learning preferences to match an individuals style and also positively seeking
and using unpreferred learning situations to develop unpreferred styles.
The best learning from experience needs strong preferences for all four styles
(Learning styles: activist, pragmatist, theorist, reflector) and uses style flexing
to meet the diverse environment of general practice.
DATES FOR ACHIEVEMENT:
When you have achieved a goal, take the time to enjoy the satisfaction of having
done so. Absorb the implications of the goal achievement, and observe the
progress you have made towards other goals. If the goal was a significant one,
reward yourself appropriately. All of this helps you build the self-confidence you
deserve!
With the experience of having achieved this goal, review the rest of your goal
plans:

If you achieved the goal too easily, make your next goals harder.

If the goal took a dispiriting length of time to achieve, make the next goals
a little easier.

If you learned something that would lead you to change other goals, do
so.

If you noticed a deficit in your skills despite achieving the goal, decide
whether to set goals to fix this.

Failure to meet goals does not matter much, as long as you learn from it. Feed
lessons learned back into your goal setting program. Remember too that your
goals will change as time goes on. Adjust them regularly to reflect growth in
your knowledge and experience, and if goals do not hold any attraction any
longer, then let them go.
Pathways for achievement on dates:
The achievement of excellence is an aspiration for all educational communities.
We know that all children and students, given the appropriate time and support,
can achieve academic and social success. It is up to us to ensure that, regardless
of individual circumstance, they all receive the support they require to achieve
the highest standards possible.

Improve overall student achievement

Provide engaging, stimulating and flexible learning programs and


pathways

Support student to be equipped to respond to changing employment


markets

Increase the export of international education services

Literacy, Numeracy and Social Proficiency


Individuals with difficulties in reading and writing are likely to experience
disadvantage later in their lives. Therefore, every young person needs to finish
compulsory schooling with an adequate level of literacy, numeracy and social
proficiency.
Individual Learning Plans and Pathways

For some students the traditional pathways do not meet their specific needs and
they can become at risk of not completing their schooling. Therefore all students
should have an individually designed learning plan, including curriculum
redesign, and pathways that link to their strengths and needs, aligning this to
community and industry requirements as appropriate.
Education Strategy
The department will also implement the strategy in order to provide a cocoordinated approach to address the existing educational gap between
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students in literacy, numeracy, and school
completion rates.
Internationalization of education
Through strengthening international co-operation and diplomatic relations,
forming networks for trade and investment, and developing employment skills
for an emerging global workforce, we are broadening and enriching the
experiences, opportunities and outlook of individuals across all sites.
REVIEW QUESTIONS:
What is self-managed learning?
Explain about Targets, aims and requirements in learning.
What are the issues in Independent learning?
Explain about the learning needs.
What is learning and Performance goal orientation?
Dates for achieving the goal.
How to review the goal plans?

What are the ways for goal achievement on dates?

4.2 LEARNING STYLES:


Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
Overview of learning and learning styles.
Applications of learning styles.

Types of learning styles.


Learning and learning styles An overview:
Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or
understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The
ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress
over time tends to follow learning curves.
Learning styles are simply put, various approaches or ways of learning. They
involve educating methods, particular to an individual that are presumed to
allow that individual to learn best. It is commonly believed that most people
favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing
stimuli or information. Based on this concept, the idea of individualized
"learning styles" originated in the 1970s, and has gained popularity in recent
years. It has been proposed that teachers should assess the learning styles of their
students and adapt their classroom methods to best fit each student's learning
style. The alleged basis for these proposals has been extensively criticized.

Applications: Learning Styles in the Classroom


Various researchers have attempted to provide ways in which learning style
theory can take effect in the classroom. Two such scholars are Dr. Rita Dunn and
Dr. Kenneth Dunn. In their book, teaching Students through Their Individual
Learning Styles: A Practical Approach, they give a background of how learners

are affected by elements of the classroom and follow it with recommendations of


how to accommodate students learning strengths.
Dunn and Dunn write that learners are affected by their: (1) immediate
environment (sound, light, temperature, and design); (2) own emotionality
(motivation, persistence, responsibility, and need for structure or flexibility); (3)
sociological needs (self, pair, peers, team, adult, or varied); and (4) physical
needs (perceptual strengths, intake, time, and mobility).
They analyze other research and make the claim that not only can students
identify their preferred learning styles, but that students also score higher on
tests, have better attitudes, and are more efficient if they are taught in ways to
which they can more easily relate. Therefore, it is to the educators advantage to
teach and test students in their preferred styles.
Although learning styles will inevitably differ among students in the classroom,
Dunn and Dunn say that teachers should try to make changes in their classroom
that will be beneficial to every learning style. Some of these changes include
room redesign, the development of small-group

techniques, and the

development of Contract Activity Packages. Redesigning the classroom involves


locating dividers that can be used to arrange the room creatively (such as having
different learning stations and instructional areas), clearing the floor area, and
incorporating student thoughts and ideas into the design of the classroom.
Small-group techniques often include a circle of knowledge in which students
sit in a circle and discuss a subject collaboratively as well as other techniques
such as team learning and brainstorming. Contract Activity Packages are
educational plans that facilitate learning by using the following elements: 1) clear

statement of what the students needs to learn; 2) multisensory resources


(auditory, visual, tactile, kinesthetic) that teach the required information; 3)
activities through which the newly-mastered information can be used creatively;
4) the sharing of creative projects within small groups of classmates; 5) at least 3
small-group techniques; 6) a pre-test, a self-test, and a post-test.
Another scholar who believes that learning styles should have an effect on the
classroom is Marilee Sprenger, as evidenced by her book, Differentiation
through Learning Styles and Memory.
Sprenger bases her recommendations for classroom learning on three premises:
1) Teachers can be learners, and learners can be teachers. We are all both. 2)
Everyone can learn under the right circumstances. 3) Learning is fun! Make it
appealing. She details various ways in which teachers can teach so that students
will remember. She categorizes these teaching methods according to which
learning style they fitvisual, auditory, or tactile/kinesthetic.

Methods for visual learners include ensuring that students can see words written
down, using pictures when describing things, drawing time lines for events in
history,

writing

assignments

on

the

board,

using

overhead

transparencies/handouts, and writing down instructions


Methods for auditory learners include repeating difficult words and concepts
aloud, incorporating small-group discussion, organizing debates, listening to
books on tape, writing oral reports, and encouraging oral interpretation.
Methods for tactile/kinesthetic learners include providing hands-on activities
(experiments, etc.), assigning projects, having frequent breaks to allow
movement, using visual aids and objects in the lesson, using role play, and

having field trips. By using a variety of teaching methods from each of these
categories, teachers are able to accommodate different learning styles.
Eight Styles of Learning:
Linguistic Learner

likes to: read, write and tell stories.

is good at: memorizing names, places, dates and trivia.

learns best by: saying, hearing and seeing words.

Logical/Mathematical Learner

likes to: do experiments, figure things out, work with numbers, ask
questions and explore patterns and relationships.

is good at: math, reasoning, logic and problem solving.

learns best by: categorizing, classifying and working with abstract


patterns/relationships.

Spatial Learner

likes to: draw, build, design and create things, daydream, look at
pictures/slides, watch movies and play with machines.

is good at: imagining things, sensing changes, mazes/puzzles and reading


maps, charts.

learns best by: visualizing, dreaming, using the mind's eye and working
with colors/pictures.

Musical Learner

likes to: sing, hum tunes, listen to music, play an instrument and respond
to music.

is good at: picking up sounds, remembering melodies, noticing


pitches/rhythms and keeping time.

learns best by: rhythm, melody and music.

Bodily/Kinesthetic Learner

likes to: move around, touch and talk and use body language.

is good at: physical activities (sports/dance/acting) and crafts.

learns best by: touching, moving, interacting with space and processing
knowledge through bodily sensations.

Naturalistic Learner

likes to: be outside, with animals, geography, and weather; interacting


with the surroundings .

is good at: categorizing, organizing a living area, planning a trip,


preservation, and conservation.

learns best by: studying natural phenomenon, in a natural setting,


learning about how things work.

Interpersonal Learner

likes to: have lots of friends, talk to people and join groups.

is

good

at:

understanding

people,

leading

others,

organizing,

communicating, manipulating and mediating conflicts.

learns best by: sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating and interviewing.

Intrapersonal Learner

likes to: work alone and pursue own interests.

is good at: understanding self, focusing inward on feelings/dreams,


following instincts, pursuing interests/goals and being original.

Learns best by: working alone, individualized projects, self-paced


instruction and having own space.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) What is learning?
2) Define learning style.
3) What are the uses of learning styles?
4) What are the different kinds of learning styles?

4.3 ACTIVIST:

Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
The concept of Activists.

Overview of Activism.
Types of activism
Transformational activism

Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about


social change, political change, economic justice, or environmental wellbeing.
This action is in support of, or opposition to, one side of an often controversial
argument.

Activists are people engaged in activism

The word "activism" is often used synonymously with protest or dissent, but
activism can stem from any number of political orientations and take a wide
range of forms, from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political
campaigning, economic activism (such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing
preferred businesses), rallies, blogging and street marches, strikes, both work
stoppages and hunger strikes, or even guerrilla tactics.
In some cases, activism has nothing to do with protest or confrontation: for
instance, some religious, feminist or vegetarian/vegan activists try to persuade
people to change their behavior directly, rather than persuade governments to
change laws. The cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which
conform to cooperative principles, and generally does not lobby or protest
politically.

Types of activism

Civil disobedience

Community building

Activism industry

Conflict transformation

Cooperative movement

Craftivism

Voluntary simplicity

Economic activism
o

Boycott

Divestment (a.k.a. Disinvestment)

Franchise activism, Lobbying

Media activism

Culture jamming

Hacktivism

Internet activism

Non-violent confrontation , Peace activist and Peace movement, Political


campaigning

Propaganda
o

Guerrilla communication

Protest
o

Demonstration

Direct action

Theater for Social Change

Protest songs

Strike action

Youth activism
o

Student activism

Youth-led media

Transformational activism
Transformational activism is the idea that people need to transform on the inside
as well on the outside in order to create any meaningful change in the world.
One example of transformational activism is peacekeeping which, as defined by
the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict creating
conditions for sustainable peace." Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace
processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the
peace agreements they may have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms,
including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral
support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development.
Accordingly UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Helmets because of their
light blue helmets) can include soldiers, civilian police officers, and other civilian
personnel.

Another example is encouraging choices to live in racially diverse communities.


Such communities may literally "transform" communities by opening the minds
of residents to new ideas, new cultures, new historical perspectives, and a
broader view of life that ultimately can benefit social relations. Another example
of transformational activism is transformational economics. This is the idea that
you can change the way resources flow in a society by doing inner work. People
examine their emotional reactions to what their needs are. This may allow them
to see that things they felt they needed are not really needed. This then alters the
flow of goods in a society because of the underlying change in needs.
Transformational politics is the field of guiding people to look inwardly what

they feel is true power. They may discover that real power is seeing the deep
connection of everyone with each other and of being able to tap that place. In this
case power is not power over someone, but rather power to unleash collective
creativity in creating a new society.
Transformational activism is about looking for the common values underneath,
and then working from there so that both parties are able to get what they want.
In the process one or both parties may find their inner landscape and paradigms
changing. Transformational open-sourced activism is the idea that you can tap
into the power of mass collaboration and collective creativity in a way that
transforms the people involved into more loving, peaceful, compassionate states.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) The concept of Activists.
2) Overview of Activism.
3) Types of activism
4) Transformational activism

4.4 PRAGMATIST:
Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
The concept of Pragmatist.
The concept of Pragmatism.

Aspects of pragmatism include anti-Cartesian, radical empiricism,


instrumentalism, anti-realism, verificationism, conceptual relativity,
and fallibilism
Pragmatist - an adherent of philosophical pragmatism - realist - a philosopher
who believes that universals are real and exist independently of anyone thinking
of them.
Pragmatist - a person who takes a practical approach to problems and is
concerned primarily with the success or failure of her actions - realist - a person
who accepts the world as it literally is and deals with it accordingly.
Pragmatism is the philosophy of considering practical consequences or real
effects to be vital components of meaning and truth. Pragmatism is generally
considered to have originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles
Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. It came to fruition in the
early twentieth-century philosophies of William James and John Dewey and, in a
more unorthodox manner, in the works of George Santayana. Other important
aspects

of

pragmatism

include

anti-Cartesian,

radical

empiricism,

instrumentalism, anti-realism, verificationism, conceptual relativity, a denial of


the fact-value distinction, a high regard for science, and fallibilism.

Aspects of Pragmatism:
Radical empiricism is a pragmatist doctrine put forth by William James. It
asserts that experience includes both particulars and relations between those
particulars, and that therefore both deserve a place in our explanations. In
concrete terms: any philosophical worldview is flawed if it stops at the physical

level and fails to explain how meaning, values and intentionality can arise from
that.
Radical empiricism is a postulate, a statement of fact and a conclusion, says
James in The Meaning of Truth. The postulate is that "the only things that shall be
debatable among philosophers shall be things definable in terms drawn from
experience". The fact is that our experience contains disconnected entities as well
as various types of connections; it is full of meaning and values. The conclusion
is that our worldview does not need "extraneous trans-empirical connective
support, but possesses in its own right a concatenated or continuous structure."

Instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are useful instruments
whose worth is measured not by whether the concepts and theories are true or
false (or correctly depict reality), but by how effective they are in explaining and
predicting phenomena. Instrumentalism relates closely to pragmatism, especially
in the work of John Dewey and his student Addison Webster Moore. This
methodological viewpoint often contrasts with scientific realism, which defines
theories as specially being more or less true. However, instrumentalism is more
of a pragmatic approach to science, information and theories than an ontological
statement. Often instrumentalists (like pragmatists) have been accused of being
relativists, even though many instrumentalists are also believers in sturdy
objective realism.

Anti-realism is used to describe any position involving either the denial of an


objective reality of entities of a certain type or the denial that verificationtranscendent statements about a type of entity are either true or false. This latter
construal is sometimes expressed by saying "there is no fact of the matter as to

whether or not P." Thus, we may speak of anti-realism with respect to other
minds, the past, the future, universals, mathematical entities (such as natural
numbers), moral categories, the material world, or even thought. The two
construal are clearly distinct and often confused. For example, an "anti-realist"
who denies that other minds exist (i. e., a solipsist) is quite different from an
"anti-realist" who claims that there is no fact of the matter as to whether or not
there are unobservable other minds (i. e., a logical behaviorist.

A verificationist is someone who adheres to the verification principle proposed


by A.J. Ayer in Language, Truth and Logic (1936), a principle and criterion for
meaningfulness that requires a non-analytic, meaningful sentence to be
empirically verifiable. The term can also, more rarely, refer to a person believing
in an altered form, such as the falsification principle. It was hotly disputed
amongst verificationists whether the empirical verification itself must be possible
in practice or merely in principle, for example, a claim that the world came into
existence a short time ago exactly as it is today (with misleading apparent traces
of a longer past), would be judged meaningless by a verificationist because it is
neither an analytic claim nor a verifiable claim. Ayer distinguished between
strong and weak verification.
Strong verification refers to statements which are directly verifiable, that is, a
statement can be shown to be correct by way of empirical observation. For
example, 'There are human beings on Earth.'
Weak verification refers to statements which are not directly verifiable, for
example 'Yesterday was a Monday'. The statement could be said to be weakly
verified if empirical observation can render it highly probable.

Conceptualism is a doctrine in philosophy intermediate between nominalism


and realism that says universals exist only within the mind and have no external
or substantial reality.
Modern conceptualism was either explicitly or implicitly embraced by most of
the early modern thinkers like Ren Descartes, John Locke or Gottfried Leibniz -often in a quite simplified form if compared with the elaborate Scholastic
theories. Sometimes the term is applied even to the radically different philosophy
of Kant, who holds that universals have no connection with external things
because they are exclusively produced by our a priori mental structures and
functions. However, this application of the term "conceptualism" is not very
usual, since the problem of universals can, strictly speaking, be meaningfully
raised only within the framework of the traditional, pre-Kantian epistemology.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Define the concept of Pragmatist and Pragmatism.


2) Explain the Aspects of pragmatism in detail.
3) Write a short note on Radical empiricism and Instrumentalism.
4) Explain the concept of Anti-realism, verificationist, and Conceptualism.
4.5 THEORIST:
Theorist is a framework for assumption-based logical reasoning. It can be used
for many automated reasoning tasks in artificial intelligence, including default
(non-monotonic) reasoning and abduction. It has been applied to diagnosis
problems, user modeling, recognition, multimedia presentations.

Theories.
I. Behavioralist
II. Constructivist
III. Post-modern
IV. Adult Learning

I. Behaviorism as a learning theory


The school of adult learning theory that adopted these principles has become
known as the school of behaviorism, which saw learning as a straightforward
process of response to stimuli. The provision of a reward or reinforcement is
believed to strengthen the response and therefore result in changes in behavior
the test, according to this school of thought, is as to whether learning had
occurred. Spillane (2002) states, the behaviorist perspective, associated with B.
F. Skinner, holds that the mind at work cannot be observed, tested, or
understood; thus, behaviorists are concerned with actions (behavior) as the sites
of knowing, teaching, and learning (p. 380). One of the keys to effective teaching
is discovering the best consequence to shape the behavior. Consequences can be
positive or negative punishing or rewarding. Extinction occurs when there is
no consequence at all for example if you knock at the door and no one answers,
pretty soon you simply stop knocking (Zemke, 2002). This theory has latterly
been criticized as overly simplistic. Nevertheless, its influence can be seen in
educators insistence that feedback is critical to learning. The stimulus-response
method is used frequently in adult learning situations in which the students
must learn a time sensitive response to a stimulus. Aircraft emergency
procedures, for example, are divided into two parts. The first, the time sensitive
portion, must be immediately performed by rote memory upon recognition of a

stimulus a warning light, horn, buzzer, bell, or the like. These procedures are
taught and reinforced with rote drills and successfully passing the tests is the
reinforcement. The second portion of the procedure, which may be viewed as
diagnostic action is performed with mandatory reference to checklists and other
reference material and depends on what may be viewed as higher level learning
and understanding of aircraft systems and performance characteristics.
Behavioral theory and training is a key component of animal training and skill
training in humans. Teaching animals to sit for a kibble is very similar to
clapping and hugging your child for their first steps or bike ride. Slot machines
are based on intermittent reinforcement, which in turn leads gamblers to put
more quarters in the machine to be reinforced by the ching ching of winning.

Kearsley (1994) identified three fundamental principles common in behaviorist


learning:
1. Positive reinforcement of the desired behavior will most likely prompt the
same behavior.
2. Learning should be presented in small manageable blocks.
3. Stimulus generalization of learning can produce secondary conditioning.
The goal of this learning method is to transform the learners behavior to a
desired behavior. The learner is rewarded often for exhibiting the desired
behavior when they accomplish a learning block. This method is heavily used in
the federal government to quickly train employees on the latest policies and
procedures (i.e. government credit card use, anti-terrorism, and sexual
harassment).

II. Constructivism:
Constructivism is a new learning theory that attempts to explain how adult
learners learn by constructing knowledge for themselves. This section will
explore the constructivist learning theory by defining constructivism, providing
varying views of constructivism, and illustrating how constructivism relates to
independent learning and higher education.

Constructivism is a synthesis of multiple theories diffused into one form. It is the


assimilation of both behaviorialist and cognitive ideals. The constructivist
stance maintains that learning is a process of constructing meaning; it is how
people make sense of their experience (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999, p. 260).
This is a combination effect of using a persons cognitive abilities and insight to
understand their environment. This coincides especially well with current adult
learning theory. This concept is easily translated into a self-directed learning
style, where the individual has the ability to take in all the information and the
environment of a problem and learn.

View Point
Two viewpoints of constructivist theories exist. They include the individual
constructivist view and the social constructivist view. The individualist
constructivist view understands learning to be an intrinsically personal process
whereby meaning is made by the individual and is dependent upon the
individuals previous and current knowledge structure (p. 261) and as a result
can be considered an internal cognitive activity (p. 262). The social

constructivist view, however, premises that learning is constructed through social


interaction and discourse and is considered, according to Drivers and others
(1994), to be a process in which meaning is made dialogically (Merriam &
Caffaerall, 1999).

Constructivist theory and independent learning


When applying this theory to independent learning, it is essential to understand
that we need to consider the cultural environment in which this learning takes
place. Isolated learning is an oxymoron. Merriam and Caffarella (1999) suggest
that adult learning, while self-directed, must have input from outside influences.
That may take the form of investigation, social interaction, or more formal
learning environments.

The constructivistic learning approach involves educators building school


curriculum around the experience of their students. Constructivists believe
learner-centric instructional classroom methods will strengthen the commitment
and involvement of self-motivated learners because of their high level of
interaction. Today, there is a trend for incorporating technology into the
classrooms to support instructional learning methods. Yet, recent studies have
revealed technology is not effectively integrated with the concepts of
constructivism.

III.Post Modern:
Postmodernism, by the nature of the movement itself, is not easy to define. To
understand postmodernism in the context of adult learning, it may be beneficial

to first understand that the postmodern movement is much larger than adult
learning. It is inclusive of a wide variety of disciplines and areas of study
including art, architecture, music, film, literature, sociology, communications,
fashion, technology, and education (Klages, 2003). Because postmodernism is as
much a philosophical movement as it is a learning theory, it is impossible to
discuss the movement without also discussing the underlying philosophy and
ubiquity of the postmodern movement.
Post-modernism differs from most approaches to learning in two fundamental
ways. The first is that rationality and logic are not important to attaining
knowledge. The second is that knowledge can be contradictory. Because of the
contextual nature of knowledge, individuals can hold two completely
incongruent views of one subject at the same time (Kilgore, 2001).The
postmodern approach to learning is founded upon the assertion that there is not
one kind of learner, not one particular goal for learning, not one way in which
learning takes place, nor one particular environment where learning occurs
(Kilgore, 2001).

Kilgore (2001) makes several assertions about the postmodern view of


knowledge:

1. Knowledge is tentative, fragmented, multifaceted and not necessarily


rational.
2. Knowledge is socially constructed and takes form in the eyes of the
knower.
3. Knowledge is contextual rather than out there waiting to be
discovered.

Hence, knowledge can shift as quickly as the context shifts, the perspective of the
knower shifts, or as events overtake us.

IV. Adult learning:

Typical adult learning theories encompass the basic concepts of behavioral


change and experience. Adult learning theories in and of themselves have very
little consensus amongst them. There is great debate on an actual determined
amount of theories that are even possible, as well as labeling those theories into
groups like Hilgard and Bowers (1966) stimulus-response and cognitive theories
as large categories of their eleven theories. Another groups dynamic labels
theories as mechanistic and or organismic (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999).
Overall it seems that the theory of adult learning is broken down into two
elements; 1)a process that creates change within the individual, and 2)a process
to infuse change into the organization.

Andragogy
Andragogy, (andr - 'man'), contrasted with pedagogy, means "the art and science
of helping adults learn" (Knowles, 1980, p. 43). Knowles labeled andragogy as
an emerging technology which facilitates the development and implementation
of learning activities for adults. This emerging technology is based on five
andragogical assumptions of the adult learner:

1. Self-Concept: As a person matures, his or she moves from dependency to selfdirectness.


2. Experience: Adults draw upon their experiences to aid their learning.

3. Readiness: The learning readiness of adults is closely related to the


assumption of new social roles.
4. Orientation: As a person learns new knowledge, he or she wants to apply it
immediately in problem solving.
5. Motivation (Later added): As a person matures, he or she receives their
motivation to learn from internal factors.
These five assumptions dovetail with the thoughts and theories of others.
Merriam and Caffarella (1999) point to three keys to transformational learning:
experience, critical reflection and development. The aspect of experience (the
second assumption to andragogy) seems like an important consideration in
creating an effective learning opportunity for adults.

I.6 REFLECTOR:

Learning objective:
After reading this section you can know about,

The concept of reflector.


Reflector behavior during learning.

Strategies considered in reflector learning - Advance Organization,


Self-management, Self-evaluation, Grouping, Asking questions for
clarification,

Transfer,

Translation,

Inferencing,

Note-taking,

Deduction and Re-combination

Reflectors are those who like learning by obseving others and think before
taking actions.
Reflectors like to stand back and look at a situation from different
perspectives. They like to collect data and think about it carefully before
coming to any conclusions. They enjoy observing others and will listen to
their views before offering their own.
Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them from
many different perspectives. They collect data, both first hand and from
others, and prefer to think about it thoroughly before coming to a conclusion.
The thorough collection and analysis of data about experiences and events is
what counts so they tend to postpone reaching definitive conclusions for as
long as possible. Their philosophy is to be cautious. They are thoughtful
people who like to consider all possible angles and implications before
making a move. They prefer to take a back seat in meetings and discussions.
They enjoy observing other people in action. They listen to others and get the
drift of the discussion before making their own points. They tend to adopt a
low profile and have a slightly distant, tolerant unruffled air about them.
When they act it is part of a wide picture which includes the past as well as
the present and others observations as well as their own.

Reflector (A person who likes to observe, analyze and research).


Reflectors like thinking things through, careful research and unemotional
observation. If you think that this is your style, the strategies that you might
like include:
Strategies:
Advance Organization, Self-management, Self-evaluation, Grouping,
Asking questions for clarification, Transfer, Translation, Inferencing, Notetaking, Deduction and Re-combination
Advance Organization Doing a preview of what you are going to learn. For
example, if you want to improve your pronunciation, you can read the
introduction to different pronunciation books, and find out that you need to
study the sounds of consonants, vowels, intonation, stress and linking.

Self-management This is understanding the conditions that help you learn,


and organizing them. For example, if you like music, learning in a place with
music. You will also need materials like books and maybe a computer. CILL
has good learning conditions (but no coffee!).

Self-evaluation (Self-assessment or testing) Deciding if you have finished


learning a topic because your English is good enough to do the things you
need.
Transfer: This means using ideas that you already have to make learning
easier. For example, if you know that a paragraph (like a hamburger) usually
has an introduction, a middle containing supporting detail, and a conclusion,

you can use this knowledge to skim (read very quickly, by missing out nonimportant information, to understand the general topic) a text because you
know that you only have to read the introduction and conclusion of both the
whole text and the paragraphs.
Inferencing: You can also use the strategy of reading a newspaper story in
your own language first for prediction. You can predict the contents of the
same story in an English newspaper. Reading to confirm your predictions is
easier than reading with no background information. Click here for more
information on reading newspapers.

Reflectors learn best from activities where they:


are allowed or encouraged to watch / think / ponder on activities
have time to think before acting, to assimilate before commenting
can carry out careful, detailed research
have time to review their learning
need to produce carefully considered analyses and reports
are helped to exchange views with other people without danger, by prior
agreement, within a structured learning experience
can reach a decision without pressure and tight deadlines.

observing individuals or groups at work

they have the opportunity to review what has happened and think about
what they have learned

producing analyses and reports doing tasks without tight deadlines

Reflectors learn least from, and may react against, activities where:

acting as leader or role-playing in front of others

doing things with no time to prepare

being thrown in at the deep end

being rushed or worried by deadlines

they feel forced into the limelight

they must act without time for planning

they are asked for an instant reaction, or off the cuff thoughts

they are given insufficient data on which to base a conclusion

in the interests of expediency, they have to make short cuts or do a


superficial job.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) Define reflector.
2) What is reflector behavior during learning and against learning?
3) Explain the Strategies considered in reflector learning.
4) Write a short note on the following reflector strategies - Advance
Organization, Self-management, Self-evaluation, Grouping, Asking
questions for clarification, Transfer, Translation, Inferencing, Notetaking, Deduction and Re-combination.
I.7 KOLBS LEARNING CYCLE:

Learning objective:

After reading this section you can able to understand,


The concept of Kolb learning cycle.
The process of Kolb learning cycle.

The Development stages in learning cycle.


The learning cycle theory Diverging, Assimilating, Converging,
Accommodating.
The Kolb learning cycle
Kolb believed that learning was composed of four discrete experiential methods:
immersing oneself in a 'concrete' experience in a completely non-judgmental
way, being able to consider that experience and reflect on it from a number of
different angles, then work out rational theories based on the observations and
finally put the ideas into practice to make decisions and take actions.
Process:
Kolb saw the learning process as consisting of people moving between the modes
of concrete experience (CE) and abstract conceptualization (AC), (as one
dimension

of

activity)

and

reflective

observation

(RO)

and

active

experimentation (AE), (as the second dimension of activity). Thus the


effectiveness of learning relied on the ability to balance these modes, which Kolb
saw as opposite activities in the best way possible.
Thus learners tended to fall into one of four groups depending on which ends of
the spectra the individual fell. Someone who tended to use the AE and AC
modes was said to be using a convergent style, which emphasizes the practical
application of ideas and solving problems. If you tended more towards the
opposite (CE and RO) you were described as having a divergent style of learning,
which meant you were more innovative and imaginative in your approach to
doing things. Assimilation style involved an approach that was AC and RO
dominant, which used the inductive style of reasoning where people pulled a

number of different observations and thoughts into an integrated whole. Finally


people who were 'doers' and used trial and error rather than thought and
reflection were using the CE and AE modes. This was referred to as an
accommodative style. Thus Kolb saw learning as the way people tended to view
how to learn based on their background and experiences rather than as
personality traits.

Development stages:
Kolb explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different
learning style. Various factors influence a person's preferred style: notably in his
experiential learning theory model (ELT) Kolb defined three stages of a person's
development, and suggests that our propensity to reconcile and successfully
integrate the four different learning styles improves as we mature through our
development stages. The development stages that Kolb identified are:

1. Acquisition - birth to adolescence - development of basic abilities and


'cognitive structures'
2. Specialization - schooling, early work and personal experiences of
adulthood - the development of a particular 'specialized learning style'
shaped by 'social, educational, and organizational socialization'
3. Integration - mid-career through to later life - expression of non-dominant
learning style in work and personal life.
Whatever influences the choice of style, the learning style preference itself is
actually the product of two pairs of variables, or two separate 'choices' that we

make, which Kolb presented as lines of axis, each with 'conflicting' modes at
either end:

Concrete Experience - CE (feeling) -----V-----Abstract Conceptualization - AC


(thinking)
Active Experimentation - AE (doing)-----V----- Reflective Observation - RO
(watching)

Kolb learning cycle theory:


Kolb theorized that the four combinations of perceiving and processing
determine one of four learning styles of how people prefer to learn. Kolb believes
that learning styles are not fixed personality traits, but relatively stable patterns
of behavior that is based on their background and experiences. Thus, they can be
thought of more as learning preferences, rather than styles.

Diverging (concrete, reflective) - Emphasizes the innovative and


imaginative approach to doing things. Views concrete situations from
many perspectives and adapts by observation rather than by action.
Interested in people and tends to be feeling-oriented. Likes such activities
as cooperative groups and brainstorming.

Assimilating (abstract, reflective) - Pulls a number of different


observations and thoughts into an integrated whole. Likes to reason
inductively and create models and theories. Likes to design projects and
experiments.

Converging (abstract, active) - Emphasizes the practical application of


ideas and solving problems. Likes decision-making, problem-solving, and
the practicable application of ideas. Prefers technical problems over
interpersonal issues.

Accommodating (concrete, active) - Uses trial and error rather than


thought and reflection. Good at adapting to changing circumstances;

solves problems in an intuitive, trial-and-error manner, such as discovery


learning. Also tends to be at ease with people.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of Kolb learning cycle.


2) Describe the process of Kolb learning cycle.
3) What are the development stages in learning cycle?
4) Explain the Kolbs learning cycle theory with a diagram.

4.8 EFFECTIVE LEARNING:


Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
The concept of effective learning.
Overview and Definition:

The ways to learn effectively.

Effective learning needs to meet the needs of individuals. This is widely


accepted. Really effective learning is driven by the individual. When individuals
have an element of control over the learning experience, the learning outcomes
become more potent. Peer-to-peer learning is also very powerful. This is also
widely accepted. Combining a focus on individual needs with support from colearners can lead to mutually beneficial, lasting benefits. Action learning helps
individuals to identify their own challenges draws on the ideas and experience of
others to create solutions to these challenges. It is a valuable method of learning
which benefits individuals, teams and entire organizations.
If you aren't doing well in school, or are struggling, then don't dismiss yourself
as dumb, or the teachers as useless - it may be a variety of subtle things that are
drawing potential away from your learning. Students who don't ace tests are
often labeled as lazy or inattentive. Make things more interesting for you and you
will start learning more effectively. Simple things, like learning to listen, taking
notes and being more organized can maximize your learning potential more than
you'd ever imagine.
We are constantly learning and sometimes its easy, like discovering that theres a
button on the microwave just for popcorn. When it comes to scholastics, we
sometimes need a nudge, some encouragement to be proactive in our learning.
Here are some tips to succeed as a learner.

Tips for effective learning:

Step 1 set clear and attainable goals. Set goals that inspire you. Continuously
measure the success of your goals to keep yourself motivated.
Step 2 Understand why the course or training program is important to you.
Discover the advantages of learning as a means to better yourself by applying
what you have learned to your job, home life, or activities at which you
participate.
Step 3 Tell other people about your study goals. Telling others will increase
the odds that you will succeed to look good in front of your peers, while at the
same time receive encouragement from them.
Step 4 Understand and prepare for the difficulties of studying. Your job or
family may make you fell like you don't have time to participate in training. Talk
to your family members to explain to them your goal and desire to learn. There is
great benefit in family support.
Step 5 Use all the learning tools available to you. Check to see if your
employer has a mentoring program or education assistance program. Take
advantage of your local library. And of course, theres the Internet.
Step 6 Create a schedule. Plan in advance when and where you will study and
stick to the schedule. This is particularly useful for web based training or when
using material borrowed from the library.
Step 7 Make learning a priority. After setting your goals and creating your
schedule, stick with it!
Step 8 Learn from others. Network with students or friends who share your
goals. Become a mentor or protg is an excellent way to learn from others.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) Explain the concept of effective learning
2) What are the ways for learning effectively?

4.9 SKILLS OF PERSONAL ASSESSMENT:

Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
The concept of effective learning.
Assessment questions and its importance.
Types of Personality Assessment Tests.

Overview and Definition:

What is he like? As social beings, we are continuously interested in the


behavior and personality of those we meet. We are curious if someone is quiet,
honest, proud, anxious, funny, indifferent, perceptive, or introspective. Those
characteristics influence our experience of others and affect the quality of our
relationships with them. When these characteristics tend to persist to varying
degrees over time and across circumstances, we tend to think of them as
personality.

Certainly, we informally evaluate others personality all the time, but the clinical
assessment of personality using psychometrically robust tools is an important
component of the professional practice of psychology.

When one speaks of

personality assessment in psychology, activities include the diagnosis of mental


illnesses, prediction of behavior, measurement of unconscious processes, and
quantification of interpersonal styles and tendencies.

"Be not afraid of greatness. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and
some have greatness thrust upon them." William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night.

A quote from Shakespeare might seem like a grandiose start to a guide


concerning the mundane matter of whether you should start or buy your own
business. But while the bard was talking about a rather more idealistic concept of
success, his three routes to greatness apply equally well to the potential
entrepreneur.

Many people never really aspire to being their own boss, and are really quite
happy in employment until a certain event makes them consider the possibility
of running their own company or being self-employed. In other words, they
could be about to have greatness forced upon them. Preparation for them is even
more important.
It could be redundancy, a colleagues own successes running his own ship, or a
change of manager. On the other hand, it could simply be boredom and the
desire for new challenges or serious wealth.
However, when you first applied for your current job, you were screened and
interviewed by a manager. Now, on your own, you are the one who has to decide
your own suitability for the task ahead. You need to be completely honest about
your own abilities and your weaknesses.
This is not an easy process for most people, so heres a list of questions you
should ask yourself:

1. Are you persistent and determined? Can you set your objectives and
follow your chosen business plan until they are achieved, come hell or
high water?
2. Can you remain positive in periods of adversity? Can you remain sociable
and business-like with clients and suppliers when the business is not
going as well as it should?
3. Can you cope with the hours required? On average new business owners
work 60 hours a week. Some, of course, work even more than this thats
why its an average.

4. The reverse of this is can you cope with not having any free time? And
having to deal with the priorities of the business at any time, however
inconvenient it might be?
5. Will your loved ones understand that your business, at least sometimes,
has to come first? Will your relationship or marriage survive?
6. Can you work on your own for long periods, away from the sociable
atmosphere of an office or other workplace?
7. Away from hierarchy and rigid work arrangements, can you be selfdisciplined? Are you self-reliant, and can you inspire and enthuse
yourself?
8. You probably feel confident in your abilities in your existing role. But can
you go back, mentally, to square one and be prepared to learn as much as
possible?
9. You may be thinking that running your own business will lead to
freedom. But you will be in the grip of your creditors the bank, usually
until you have repaid any loan. Can you deal with this?
10. You may be used to receiving a weekly or monthly pay cheque of a fixed
or minimum value. Will you be driven mad if you cannot completely
predict your financial fortunes from one day to another?
11. All of the above, together, mean only one thing: stress. Well, hopefully two
things stress and money. The money, though, will come later. The stress
will have to be dealt with now. Do you thrive or suffer under pressure?

You are either inhuman or lying if you have answered yes to all of the above
without any qualms whatsoever. Everyone will have their doubts if they read
through the above list.

The point is to recognise that you will have these pressures and weakness and to
identify whether you have the strength within you to live with or mitigate them.
Eventually if the business is successful these pressures will subside. And, of
course, they will vary from job to job. A first-time freelance journalist or
accountant will, by the nature of their work, be far less prone to some of these
issues than someone starting up a restaurant.
Nevertheless, if you read through the list and see it as a challenge, youre
undoubtedly a born entrepreneur youll be motivated by the idea of achieving
something in the face of all those pressures.
On the other hand, some people have aimed at that sort of achievement from an
early age. For one in five British schoolchildren, running their own business is
already a dream. Many will go into a career, or pursue a university degree, with
the sole aim of one day being in charge of their own affairs. They will probably,
from day one, be acquiring the skills and knowledge, whether theyre in the field
of motor mechanics or accountancy, so that the dream can one day become
reality.

Types of Personality Assessment Tests:

Given the myriad reasons that a client might be seen for personality assessment,
it should not be surprising that there are a number of diff erent forms of tests
available. Traditionally, tests have fallen into one of two categories:
Projective and objective tests. However, there is a movement in the assessment
field to replace these terms with the more accurate labels, performance- based and
self-report,

respectively.

Furthermore,

with

increasing

innovation

and

development in testing, this simple dichotomy is probably no longer sufficient


because it cannot capture the important category of behavioral assessment.

Performance-based (projective) tests generally have an unstructured response


format, meaning that respondents are allowed to respond as much or as little as
they like (within certain parameters) to a particular test stimulus. Traditionally,
these tests were defined by the projective hypothesis articulated by Frank (1939):

We may... induce the individual to reveal his way of organizing experience by


giving him a field . . . . with relatively little structure and cultural patterning so
that the personality can project upon that plastic field his way of seeing life, his
meanings, significances, patterns, and especially his feelings. Thus we elicit a
projection of the individuals private world. (p. 402403)

Although many authors of modern performance-based measures might not fully


agree on the projective nature of their tests, all seem to agree that the less
structured nature of these measures is thought to allow for important individual
characteristics to emerge in a manner that can be coded and interpreted by a
clinician. This is why the term performance-based measurement may be more
accurate; although test authors diff er on the extent to which projection occurs
during testing, all seem to agree that this form of test requires the client to
respond (i.e., perform) to a stimulus.

Personal skills:
Employers are looking for workers who have that special something: the skills,
tendencies

and

attributes

that

help

to

keep

productivityand

profitsup. What are they? Businesses are looking for employees with strong
"personal" skills, according to ACT research. Keep these in mind, because
employers certainly are.

Carefulness: Do you have a tendency to think and plan carefully before acting?
This helps with reducing the chance for costly errors, as well as keeping a steady
workflow going.

Cooperation: Willingness to engage in interpersonal work situations is very


important in the workplace.

Creativity: You've heard of "thinking outside the box"? Employers want


innovative people who bring a fresh perspective.

Discipline: This includes the ability to keep on task and complete projects
without becoming distracted or bored.

Drive: Businesses want employees who have high aspiration levels and work
hard to achieve goals.

Good attitude: This has been shown to predict counterproductive work


behaviors, job performance and theft.

Goodwill: This is a tendency to believe others are well-intentioned.

Influence: Groups need strong leaders to guide the way. Influence includes a

tendency to positively impact social situations by speaking your mind and


becoming a group leader.

Optimism: A positive attitude goes a long way toward productivity.

Order: "Where did I put that?" A tendency to be well organized helps employees
to work without major distractions or "roadblocks."

Safe work behaviors: Employers want people who avoid work-related accidents
and unnecessary risk-taking in a work environment.

Savvy: This isn't just about job knowledge, but knowledge of coworkers and the
working environment. It includes a tendency to read other people's motives from
observed behavior and use this information to guide one's thinking and action.

Sociability: How much you enjoy interacting with coworkers affects how well
you work with them.

Stability: This means a tendency to maintain composure and rationality in


stressful work situations.

Vigor: This is a tendency to keep a rapid tempo and keep busy.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Define the concept of effective learning.


2) What are the ways to learn effectively?

3) What the Assessment questions individual has to set for learning?


4) Explain about the personal skills required for a job?
5) What are the types of Personality Assessment Tests?

4.10 PLANNING (Effective learning):

Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
Planning for effective learning.
Phases in Learning.
Personal Learning plan.

Planning:

Planning in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process


of creating and maintaining a plan; and the psychological process of thinking

about the activities required to create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it
is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. This thought process is
essential to the creation and refinement of a plan, or integration of it with
other plans, that is, it combines forecasting of developments with the
preparation of scenarios of how to react to them.

Effective learning often requires more than just making multiple connections
of new ideas to old ones; it sometimes requires that people restructure their
thinking radically. That is, to incorporate some new idea, learners must
change the connections among the things they already know, or even discard
some long-held beliefs about the world. The alternatives to the necessary
restructuring are to distort the new information to fit their old ideas or to
reject the new information entirely.

Students come to school with their own ideas, some correct and some not,
about almost every topic they are likely to encounter. If their intuition and
misconceptions are ignored or dismissed out of hand, their original beliefs are
likely to win out in the long run, even though they may give the test answers
their teachers want. Mere contradiction is not sufficient; students must be
encouraged to develop new views by seeing how such views help them make
better sense of the world.

Learning is:
An activity of construction, not one of reception
Handled with others, or (even when alone) in the context of others
driven by learner's agency (intentions and choices).

Effective learning is all of these at their best, plus the monitoring and review
of whether approaches and strategies are proving effective for the particular
goals and context. How can you help learners become more effective at
checking whether their strategies are effective?

Phases in Learning:

When planning teaching for learning, our task as teachers, is to focus on the
experience for learners, rather than on what we are going to say and do.
Learners go through four phases:

Do Review Learn Apply


In a circular, ever-developing manner. The following matrix plots these four
phases on each of the aspects which evidence has shown to promote effective
learning.

Do

Active

Collaborative

Learner

Learning

learning

learning

responsibili

Tasks are

Tasks in small

ty
Learners

learning
Learners

designed for

groups connect

exercise

are

learner

to create a

choice and

encouraged

about

Review

activity, using

larger whole

plan their

to notice

or creating

(by roles or by

approaches

aspects of

materials,

parts)

their

texts,

learning as

performances

they engage

Learners stop

Learners bring

Learners

in tasks
Learners

to notice what

ideas together

monitor

describe

happened,

and review

their

what they

what was

how the group

progress and

notice and

important,

has operated

review their

review their

plans

learning

how it felt, etc.

(goals,
strategies,
feelings,
outcome,
Learn

Apply

New insights

Explanations of

Factors

context)
Richer

and

topic and of

affecting

conceptions

understanding

how the group

progress are

of learning

s are made

functioned are

identified

are voiced

explicit

voiced across

and new

and further

the group

strategies

reflective

devised

inquiry is

Future action

Future

Plans are

encouraged
Learners

is planned in

possibilities for

revised to

plan to

light of new

group and

accommodat

notice more

understanding

community

e recent

and to

. Transferring

learning are

learning

experiment

that

considered

with their

understanding

approaches

to other

to learning

situations is
examined

Personal learning plan:

Name.....................................................................................................................................
Subject...................................................................................................................................
Aims
This plan is to help me learn the following:
Deadline
I will complete this work by:
Organisation of work
I will be working (tick):
On my own
With a partner
In a group
In a combination of these ways
Resources
I will be using:
Work
I have to produce:

Assessment
I will be assessed by:
Other things to remember
REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) How do you plan for effective learning?


2) What are the Phases considered while planning for Learning?
3) How to develop a sample learning plan?

4.11 ORGANISATON AND EVALUATION:

Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
The concept of learning organization.
The importance of learning organization.
Characteristics.

Aspects of continuous learning.


The concept of learning Evaluation.
Kinds of Evaluations.
Uses of Evaluations.
Criteria of Evaluation Independence.

A Learning Organization is the term given to a company that facilitates the


learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. Learning
Organizations develop as a result of the pressures facing modern organizations
and enables them to remain competitive in the business environment. A Learning
Organization is has five main features; systems thinking, personal mastery,
mental models, shared vision and team learning.

Benefits of being a Learning Organization


There are many benefits to improving learning capacity and knowledge sharing
within an organization. The main benefits are;

Maintaining levels of innovation and remaining competitive

Being better placed to respond to external pressures

Having the knowledge to better link resources to customer needs

Improving quality of outputs at all levels

Improving corporate image by becoming more people orientated

Increasing the pace of change within the organization.

Importance of effective learning organization:

The organizations that will truly excel in the future will be the organizations
that discover how to tap peoples commitment and capacity to learn at all
levels in an organization. Peter Senge

The rate at which organizations learn may become the only sustainable
source of competitive advantage. - Peter Drucker
The need for learning organizations is due to the world becoming more
complex, dynamic and globally competitive. Gary Ahlquist

Learning organization:

Many pundits among the most respected business thinkers:


Peter Drucker The Information Age

Competitive

advantage

is

created

through

information-based

organizations
Four Critical Areas:

Develop rewards, recognition and career opportunities that


stimulate information sharing

Create a unified vision of how the organization will share


information

Create the management structure that enables cross-boundary


information sharing

Ensure the continuous supply and training of staff and volunteers


that can use the information

Peter Senge The Fifth Discipline

Learning organizations are where people continually expand their


capacity to learn
Five disciplines are key to achieving an effective learning organization

Personal Mastery enhancing ability to be objective

Mental Models continually scrutinizing our assumptions and


picture of the world

Shared Vision creating a new picture for the future

Team Learning creating the capacity to think together

Systems Thinking knowledge and tools that allow people to see


inter-relationships

Aspects of continuous learning:

Important aspects of continuous learning are :


1. Having some basic values in your life or priorities in your work
2. Doing something in the world, applying new information and skills
3. Taking the time to inquire and reflect about your life and experiences
4. Getting up-to-date feedback, that is, understood and useful information
about yourself and your experiences
5. Removing personal obstacles to your accepting and understand the
feedback
6. Having the courage and humility to change
Characteristics a Learning Organization
A Learning Organization exhibits five main characteristic; systems thinking,
personal mastery, mental models, a shared vision and team learning.

Systems thinking The idea of the Learning Organization originally


developed from a body of work called systems thinking. This is a conceptual
framework that allows people to study businesses as bounded objects.
Learning Organizations employ this method of thinking when assessing their
company and will have developed information systems that measure the
performance of the organization as a whole and of its various components.

Personal mastery is the commitment by an individual to the process of


learning. There is a competitive advantage for an organization whose
workforce can learn quicker than the workforce of other organizations
Individual learning is acquired through staff training and development
however learning cannot be forced upon an individual if he or she is not
receptive to learning..

Mental models are the terms given to ingrained assumptions held by


individuals and organizations. In order to have become a Learning
Organization, these mental models will have been challenged. Individuals
tend to have espoused theories, which they intend to follow, and theories-inuse which is what they actually do.

Shared vision the development of a shared vision is important in


incentivising the workforce to learn as it creates a common identity which can
provide focus and energy for learning. The most successful visions build on
the individual visions of the employees at all levels of the organization and
the creation of a shared vision is likely to be hindered by traditional
structures where a company vision is imposed.

Team learning is the accumulation of individual learning. The benefit of


sharing individual learning is that employees grow more quickly and the
problem solving capacity of the organization is improved through better
access to knowledge and expertise. Learning Organizations have structures
that facilitate team learning with features such as boundary crossing and
openness.

EVALUATION:
Evaluation - The process of determining the worth or significance of an
activity, policy, or program.
An assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of a planned,
ongoing, or completed intervention.

Kinds of Evaluations
Formative focus on improved performance before and during
Implementation (project, program or policy)
Summative - focus on outcomes (consequences)
Prospective answer questions
Is this program/project/policy worth evaluating?
Will the gains be worth the effort/resources expended?
Purpose of evaluation:
Ethical
Managerial
Decisional
Educative and Motivational

Uses of Evaluations:
Give feedback on the performance of policies, programs, and projects

Make policies, programs, and projects accountable for how they use
public funds

Help stakeholders learn more about policies, programs, and projects


Carried out around the needs of the primary intended user
Clarify theory of change (logic model) for projects, programs, and policy
Evaluation Provides Information on:
Strategy Are the right things being done?
Operations Are things being done right?
Learning Are there better ways?

Monitoring and Evaluation:

Monitoring routine, ongoing, and internal activity of tracking key


indicators.

Internal activity - used to collect information on a programs


activities, outputs, and outcomes to measure performance of the
program

Evaluation

periodic and time bound

can be internal, external, or participatory

periodic feedback to key stakeholders

Development Evaluation:
A sub-discipline of classical evaluation
Uses a variety of methodologies and practices
Mixed methodologies work best

Independent evaluation:
an evaluation carried out by entities and persons free of the control of
those responsible for the design and implementation of the evaluation
the credibility of an evaluation depends in part on how independently it
has been carried out

Criteria of Evaluation Independence:


Organizational independence
Behavioral independence
Avoidance of conflicts of interest
Protection from external influence

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of learning organization.


2) Define the importance of learning organization.
3) What are the characteristics of learning organization?
4) Describe the aspects of continuous learning.
5) Explain the concept of learning Evaluation.

6) What are the kinds of Evaluations available?


7) Explain the uses of Evaluations.
8) Criteria of Evaluation Independence explain.

4.12 ONLINE RESEARCH METHODS:


Learning objectives:
After reading this section you can able to know,
The concept of online research methods.
Types of online research methods.
Uses of online research.
Common uses of internet.
The bulletin board concept.

Importance of bulletin board in classroom.


Uses of bulletin board in online.
Introduction to newsgroup.
Types of newsgroup.
Working of newsgroups.
Online research methods (ORMs) are ways in which researchers can collect data
via the internet. They are also referred to as Internet research. Many of these
online research methods are related to existing research methodologies but reinvent and re-imagine them in the light of new technologies associated with the
internet.
Some specific types of method include:

Online ethnography

Online focus groups

Online interviews

Online questionnaires

Web-based experiments

Online clinical trials - or see below

Technology used for online research methods

Internet research is the practice of using the Internet, especially the World Wide
Web, for research. To the extent that the Internet is widely and readily accessible
to hundreds of millions of people in many parts of the world, it can provide
practically instant information on most topics, and is having a profound impact
on the way in which ideas are formed and knowledge is created.

Research is a broad term. Here, it is used to mean "looking something up (on the
Web)". It includes any activity where a topic is identified, and an effort is made to
actively gather information for the purpose of furthering understanding.
Common applications of Internet research include personal research on a
particular subject (something mentioned on the news, a health problem, etc),
students doing research for academic projects and papers, and journalists and
other writers researching stories. It should be distinguished from scientific
research - research following a defined and rigorous process - carried out on the
Internet; from straightforward finding of specific info, like locating a name or
phone number; and from research about the Internet.

Compared to the Internet, print physically limits access to information. A book


has to be identified, then actually obtained. On the Net, the Web can be searched,
and typically hundreds or thousands of pages can be found with some relation to
the topic, within seconds. In addition, email (including mailing lists), online
discussion forums and other personal communication facilities (instant
messaging, IRC, newsgroups, etc) can provide direct access to experts and other
individuals with relevant interests and knowledge.

Further difficulties in internet research center around search tool bias and
whether the searcher has sufficient skill to draw meaningful results from the
abundance of material typically available. The first resources retrieved may not
be the most suitable resources to answer a particular question. For example,
prominence is often a factor used in structuring internet search results but
prominent information often gives a biased view of controversial issues.
It should be noted that thousands of books and other print publications have
been made available online that would be extremely difficult to locate otherwise,

including out-of-print books, and classic literature and textbooks that would be
much less accessible in their printed form.

Online ethnography refers to a number of related online research methods that


adapt ethnography to the study of the communities and cultures created through
computer-mediated social interaction. Prominent among these ethnographic
approaches

are

"online

ethnography"

(see,

e.g.,

Correll

1995),"virtual

ethnography" (see, e.g., Hine 2000), and "netnography" (Kozinets 1997). As


modifications of the term ethnography, online ethnography and virtual
ethnography (as well as many other methodological neologisms) designate
online fieldwork that follows from the conception of ethnography as an
adaptable method. These methods tend to leave most of the specifics of the
adaptation to the individual researcher. Netnography suggests the use of specific
procedures and standards, and argues for consideration of particular
consensually-agreed upon techniques, justifying the use of a new name rather
than a modification of the term ethnography (Kozinets 2002).

An online focus group is one type of focus group, and is a sub-set of online
research methods. A moderator invites prescreened, qualified respondents who
represent the target of interest to log on to conferencing software at a prearranged time and to take part in an online focus group. Some researchers will
offer incentives for participating (see onlinecashfind.com ) but this raises a
number of ethical questions. Discussions generally last one hour to 90 minutes.
The moderator guides the discussion using a combination of predetermined
questions and unscripted probes. In the best discussions, as with face to face
groups, respondents interact with each other as well as the moderator in real
time to generate deeper insights about the topic. Online focus groups are

appropriate for consumer research, business to business research and political


research. Interacting over the web avoids a significant amount of travel expense.
It allows respondents from all over the world to gather, electronically for a more
representative sample. Often respondents open up more online than they would
in person, which is valuable for sensitive subjects. Like in-person focus groups,
online groups are usually limited to 8-10 participants. 'Whiteboard' exercises and
the ability to mark up concepts or other visual stimuli simulate many of the
characteristics of in-person groups. In addition to the savings on travel, online
focus groups often can be accomplished faster than traditional groups because
respondents are recruited from online panel members who are often qualified to
match research criteria.

An online interview is a form of online research method. It takes many of the


methodological issues raised in traditional face to face or F2F interviews and
transfers these online with some key differences. It principally focuses on the
conduct of one-to-one exchanges as one-to-many exchanges are usually called
online focus groups. There are different forms of online interviews: synchronous
online interviews (for example via chat technology) and asynchronous online
interviews (for example via email). In addition, online interviews can be
distinguished according to the number of interviewees that participate, as online
interviews can be conducted in a group setting or one a one-to-one basis.

Online questionnaires with the increasing use of the Internet, online


questionnaires have become a popular way of collecting information. The design
of an online questionnaire often has an affect how the quality of data gathered.
There are many factors in designing an online questionnaire guidelines, available
question formats, administration, quality and ethic issues should be reviewed.

Online questionnaires should be seen as a sub-set of a wider-range of online


research methods.

A Web-based experiment is an experiment that is conducted over the Internet.


Psychology and Linguistics are probably the disciplines that have used these
experiments most widely, although a range of other disciplines use web-based
experiments. This form of experimental setup has become increasingly popular
because researchers can cheaply collect large amounts of data from a wide range
of locations and people. A web-based experiment is a type of online research
method.

Clinical trials are conducted to allow safety and efficacy data to be collected for
new drugs or devices. These trials can only take place once satisfactory
information has been gathered on the quality of the product and its non-clinical
safety, and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval is granted in the
country where the trial is taking place. Depending on the type of product and the
stage of its development, investigators enroll healthy volunteers and/or patients
into small pilot studies initially, followed by larger scale studies in patients that
often compare the new product with the currently prescribed treatment. As
positive safety and efficacy data are gathered, the number of patients is typically
increased. Clinical trials can vary in size from a single center in one country to
multicenter trials in multiple countries.

USE OF THE INTERNET:

E-mail

The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way


analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Even
today it can be important to distinguish between Internet and internal e-mail
systems. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other
networks and machines out of both the sender's and the recipient's control.
During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered
with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough. Purely internal or
intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or
organization's network, are much more secure, although in any organization
there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and
occasionally accessing, the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them. The
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents, images and other
resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. These hyperlinks and URLs allow the
web servers and other machines that store originals, and cached copies of, these
resources to deliver them as required using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).
HTTP is only one of the communication protocols used on the Internet.
Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order
to share and exchange business logic and data.
Software products that can access the resources of the Web are correctly termed
user agents. In normal use, web browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox and
Apple Safari, access web pages and allow users to navigate from one to another
via hyperlinks. Web documents may contain almost any combination of
computer data including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and
interactive

content

including

games,

office

applications

and

scientific

demonstrations. Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines


like Yahoo! and Google, millions of people worldwide have easy, instant access to

a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to encyclopedias


and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme
decentralization of information and data.
Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale
of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow.
Remote access
The Internet allows computer users to connect to other computers and
information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world. They may do
this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption
technologies, depending on the requirements.
This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and
information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit
the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third
country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts
could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote
locations, based on information e-mailed to them from offices all over the world.
Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but
the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in
practice.
Collaboration
The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills
has made collaborative work dramatically easier. Not only can a group cheaply
communicate and share ideas, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such
groups to easily form in the first place. An example of this is the free software
movement, which has produced Linux, Mozilla Firefox, OpenOffice.org etc.
File sharing
For more details on this topic, see File sharing.

A computer file can be e-mailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an


attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by
others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by
colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of
"mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks.
These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the
production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer
file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software
products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts.
This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that
previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.

Streaming media
Many existing radio and television broadcasters provide Internet "feeds" of their
live audio and video streams (for example, the BBC). They may also allow timeshift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again
features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet
"broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internetconnected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to
access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with
a television or radio receiver.

Internet Telephony (VoIP)


VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol, referring to the protocol that
underlies all Internet communication. The idea began in the early 1990s with
walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. In recent years
many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal

telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be
free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long
distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as
cable or ADSL.
VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service.
Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call
or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Simple, inexpensive
VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal
computer.

Internet by region
Common methods of home access include dial-up, landline broadband (over
coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires), Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G technology cell
phones. Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes,
where computers with Internet connections are available. There are also Internet
access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops, in
some cases just for brief use while standing. Various terms are used, such as
"public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", and "Web payphone". Many
hotels now also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based. These
terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking, bank deposit,
online payment etc. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and
therefore can do so to the Internet itself. Hotspots providing such access include
Wi-Fi cafes, where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled
devices such as a laptop or PDA. These services may be free to all, free to
customers only, or fee-based. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined
location.

Political organization and censorship


In democratic societies, the Internet has achieved new relevance as a political
tool. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States
became famous for its ability to generate donations via the Internet. Many
political groups use the Internet to achieve a whole new method of organizing, in
order to carry out Internet activism.
Some governments, such as those of Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, the People's
Republic of China, and Saudi Arabia, restrict what people in their countries can
access on the Internet, especially political and religious content. This is
accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may
not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention.

Leisure activities
The Internet has been a major source of leisure since before the World Wide Web,
with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted
on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much of the
main traffic. Today, many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and
funny videos; short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular. Over 6
million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and
for the sharing of ideas. The pornography and gambling industries have both
taken full advantage of the World Wide Web, and often provide a significant
source of advertising revenue for other websites. Although many governments
have attempted to put restrictions on both industries' use of the Internet, this has
generally failed to stop their widespread popularity.
People use chat, messaging and e-mail to make and stay in touch with friends
worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. Social

networking websites like My space, Face book and many others like them also
put and keep people in contact for their enjoyment.

USE OF BULLETIN BOARDS:

The most common display system found in an instructional setting is probably a


bulletin board display. Basically, the bulletin board is a vertical surface to which
an assortment of visuals can be attached and displayed.

Improve effectiveness and enjoyment of lessons with these bulletin board ideas
and examples. They'll make your classroom visually appealing and stimulating
to your students. Below, you'll find bulletin boards for a wide range of topics,
from cookies and ecology to measurement and diversity! Whether you teach
science, reading, art, or social studies, you're sure to find the perfect bulletin
board to fit your current theme or topic of discussion.

Techniques:

Several important techniques for production and use of displays, handouts, and
worksheets

(Step 1)

are

related

to

the

order

in

the

table

below:

Look over "idea" books and methods texts in the


library.

Idea

Watch for ideas in classes you attend, and education


magazines.

Clip cartoons, drawings, and other visuals. ideas


from newspapers, magazines, electronic clippers,

(Step 2)

graphic files, CD, and the Internet.

Production

Brochures, pamphlets, and other free materials.

Opaque projector for enlarging graphics.

Rubber cement for mounting.

Dry mount press for mounting and lamination.

Bulletin board for items that can be pinned up for


individual study.

(Step 3)

Display
Use

and

Tri-folded display board.

Flannel board for thin, colorful objects.

Hook 'N Loop board for 3-D objects.

Duplicated handouts for worksheets, maps, study


guides, line drawings, and other teacher prepared
material that might be enhanced by the use of color.

Designing Displays for Teaching


Designing displays for teaching or for your students to interact with involves: a)
Thinking and Planning, b) Preparing materials, and c) Putting it up.

Thinking and Planning:

Narrow the subject

Think of the objectives.... choose a theme. Decide the types of questions


that could be answer by studying the display. Include some of the
questions in the layout of the board when you put it up.

Avoid visual clichs and formal balance. (Balance)

Keep it simple and uncluttered. (Simplicity)

Consider using directional device such as lines, arrows, call outs, and/or
numbers to emphasize the important points. (Emphasis)

Use shape, texture, and form, to create unity and emphasis in the display.
(Unity)

Include as many 3 dimensional objects as you can.

Mount materials at eye level; consider the types of students who will use
the display.

Use big and neatly look captions (including heads and sub-heads)
prepared using freehand letterings, or computer.

To establish correct size and layout, design the board on paper in the same
proportions as the actual board as an aid in putting it up.

Preparing Materials:

Use bright colors

Use colored paper as a background for an interesting texture, and uniform


surface.

Use simple letters, nothing fancy (You are required to design your own
letters).

Laminate and mount the items used in displays for longer life and
durability.

Often the bulletin board that is designed and used to assist the presenter and
then remains up as a reference for the students as they work through a unit of
study.

The followings are for teachers who need to plan and use the bulletin board for
various teaching strategies to adhere to:

The bulletin board that is designed to assist in a presentation to a large


group needs to have large, bold visual and captions.

The bulletin board that is designed to generate an interaction often has a


headline that asks a question, and the other elements continue with the
question rather than providing answers.

The bulletin board that is intended for independent study must have
the basic characteristics of any self instructional media. It must present
information, require a response and provide feedback without the
physical presence of the instructor.

The bulletin board that is designed for drill and practice can be a large
electric board. This type of display will allow your students to master
information they have already learned.

After all, the main function of the bulletin board is the transmission of
information in a presentation mode.

What Is A Computer Bulletin Board?


Computer bulletin boards are more commonly referred to as a bulletin board
system, or "BBS" (for short). A BBS is a computer that uses a special program
which allows other computers to call it up by using regular phone lines. A BBS is
like a storage facility that permits people to send and receive messages through
their computers, as well as send and receive files.

General Uses of BBSes

There are many uses for BBSes. You can use them like a regular (cork) bulletin
board. You can use them to post jokes, notices, news flashes, and so on... You can
also use them much the same way that you would use a CB. People can hold a
"conversation" over the computer by sending messages back and forth just by
typing the sentences into the computer, and posting them on a BBS. BBSes can
also be used to send and receive private messages. You can use a BBS to gather
information about a certain topic, as well as ask other people to help you with
something. A lot of people exchange files and programs, and play games with
people through the computer. You can also use BBSes to buy and sell things.

The Business Use of BBSes


Many businesses use BBSes to send electronic mail to distributors, and
distributing networks. They use them also to talk to business prospects.
Businesses use BBSes for a variety of reasons. Auto Repair Shops, Mail-Order
Companies,

Government

Offices,

Travel

Agencies,

Banks,

and

Sales

Organizations are among the different types of businesses that frequently use
BBSes to do business.

NEWSGROUPS:

Although most of the hype and attention that the Internet gets today is about ecommerce and business, there are two main reasons that most of us use it:
communication and information. We rely on the Internet to send e-mail and
instant messages, and search through the World Wide Web to find information
for work or play. One source of both information and communication is
newsgroups. A newsgroup is a continuous public discussion about a particular

topic. You can join a newsgroup at any time to become part of a huge
conversation between hundreds or even thousands of people

A usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for


messages posted from many users in different locations. The term may be
confusing to some, because it is usually a discussion group. Newsgroups are
technically distinct from, but functionally similar to, discussion forums on the
World Wide Web. Newsreader software is used to read newsgroups.

Types of newsgroups

Typically, a newsgroup is focused on a particular topic of interest. Some


newsgroups allow the posting of messages on a wide variety of themes,
regarding anything a member chooses to discuss as on-topic, while others keep
more strictly to their particular subject, frowning on off-topic postings. The news
admin (the administrator of a news server) decides how long articles are kept on
his server before being expired (deleted). Different servers will have different
retention times for the same newsgroup; some may keep articles for as little as
one or two weeks, others may hold them for many months. Some admins keep
articles in local or technical newsgroups around longer than articles in other
newsgroups.
Newsgroups generally come in either of two types, binary or text. There is no
technical difference between the two, but the naming differentiation allows users
and servers with limited facilities the ability to minimize network bandwidth
usage. Generally, Usenet conventions and rules are enacted with the primary

intention of minimizing the overall amount of network traffic and resource


usage.
Newsgroups are much like the public message boards on old bulletin board
systems. For those readers not familiar with this concept, envision an electronic
version of the corkboard in the entrance of your local grocery store.
Newsgroups frequently become cliquish and are subject to sporadic flame wars
and trolling, but they can also be a valuable source of information, support and
friendship, bringing people who are interested in specific subjects together from
around the world.

How newsgroups work


Newsgroup servers are hosted by various organizations and institutions. Most
Internet service providers host their own news servers, or rent access to one, for
their subscribers. There are also a number of companies who sell access to
premium news servers.
Every host of a news server maintains agreements with other news servers to
regularly synchronize. In this way news servers form a network. When a user
posts to one news server, the message is stored locally. That server then shares
the message with the servers that are connected to it if both carry the newsgroup,
and from those servers to servers that they are connected to, and so on. For
newsgroups that are not widely carried, sometimes a carrier group is used for
cross posting to aid distribution. This is typically only useful for groups that
have been removed or newer alt.* groups. Cross posts between hierarchies,
outside of the Big 8 and alt.* hierarchies, are failure prone.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) Explain about online research methods.
2) What are the types of online research methods?
3) Describe the uses of online research.
4) Explain about the common uses of internet.
5) Describe the bulletin board concept and its importance.
6) Explain the uses of bulletin board in online.
7) What is meant by newsgroup?
8) Explain the types of newsgroup.
9) How the newsgroups works?

4.13 ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING:


Learning objectives:
The assessment of learning.
Assessment to Improve Learning
Evidence-based practice skills
Excellence in Learning: Provision, Achievement and Pathways

Disappointment.
Dealing with disappointment

Assessment: A working definition of Assessment for learning from a widely


cited article contends:
"The term assessment refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers,
and by their students in assessing themselves, which provide information to
be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which
they are engaged.
Assessment of learning

assessment that is accompanied by a number or letter grade


(summative)

compares one students achievement with standards

results can be communicated to the student and parents

occurs at the end of the learning unit

IMPROVED ABILITY RANGE WITH PERSONAL LEARNING:


Changing Assessment to Improve Learning
The breadth and diversity of experience among delegates is reflected in the wide
range of constructive suggestions they came up with regarding (1) changing
exams, (2) changing continuous assessment formats and (3) their own individual
action plans resulting from their thinking and experience during the conference.
The intended outcomes of the session were presented as follows:

to explore how assessment provides a driving force for learning.

to work out ways of making better links between assessment and learning.

to collect and collate action points planned by Conference delegates.

Planning:

Set learning and performance goals for set periods such as terms,
semesters and the year.

Use knowledge of their learning preferences to increase effectiveness and


efficiency.

Use a weekly and yearly planner to show when assignments are due.

Develop realistic study habits.

Establish a routine of planning and completing set work including


homework, and ongoing study.

Locate a study zone where they live.

Decide what to study and when.

Organise information in a way that helps them to understand it.

Place limits on study time.

First, the analogue of 'assessment being the engine that drives learning' was
explored with the audience, some of the symptoms of engine-failure being
pictured as follows.

The engine is laboring....

greater load (for example, larger class sizes)

steeper hills (shorter time-spans due to semesterisation, modularization,


or both)

scary speeds (the need to cover syllabus content more rapidly)

more traffic-lights (short-term planning, policy changes, funding


uncertainties)

tired drivers (increased workload, decreased morale

more oil needed (funding!)

better maps needed (continuity and direction need improving)

The drivers are struggling....

less training (less time and energy - and funding - for educational
development)

sudden bends (short-term crisis management in universities)

rapid changeovers (new practices being introduced without adequate


preparation)

greater competition (between institutions, between staff, and between


students)

fewer prizes (less rewards for best practice in teaching or assessment)

more unsigned crossroads (greater uncertainty of purpose or rationale)

fewer breaks (changed contracts, increased administrative pressure)

Factors leading to successful learning


Delegates were reminded of four factors crucial to ensure effective learning by
students:

wanting to learn (motivation, commitment)

learning-by-doing (practice, learning from mistakes, trial and error

learning through feedback (other people's comments)

making sense of ('digesting' what is being learned.

The 'ripples on the pond' model of learning, developed by the presenter, was
discussed with the aid of the diagram below.

The purpose of an Assessment for Learning (AFL) task is to provide feedback to


both the teacher and learner regarding the learners progress towards achieving
the learning objective(s).
EVIDENCE OF IMPROVED LEVELS OF SKILL:
Evidence-based practice skills and knowledge improved markedly with a
targeted education intervention and outreach support. Continuing professional

education, particularly workshops can improve knowledge but the impact on


behavior is less impressive.

Thompson O'Brien and colleagues recommended that researchers investigate


components of workshops that contribute to effectiveness, such as practicing
skills during and after a workshop, providing follow-up outreach support, and
providing feedback on behavior change. These collective strategies are often
referred to as a 'multifaceted' intervention, where 'champions' of evidence-based
practice market concepts to the profession, links are maintained with learners
after training, and reminders and feedback are used to encourage behavior
change. The effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention, aimed at improving
evidence-based practice behaviors has received limited attention by researchers.

It is

hypothesized that post-intervention, participants would demonstrate

improved skills and knowledge, report fewer barriers to adopting evidence


-based practice, particularly lack of skills and knowledge, use their skills more
frequently at work, and that these changes would be maintained over time.

The adapted Fresno test


An adapted version of the Fresno test of competence in evidence-based medicine
was used to objectively measures skills and knowledge. Example: The original
Fresno test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a university curriculum
on evidence-based medicine, and includes 12 short-answer questions, focused
around clinical scenarios relevant to family practice residents.

Activity diary
Behavior change was measured using a concurrent activity diary, and provided
in paper or electronic format. Participants were asked to record only those
activities that related to evidence-based practice, such as searching, reading
research-related articles, critical appraisal and teaching others about evidencebased practice.
The following information was recorded in columns in participants' diaries, then
subsequently analyzed: date and nature of activity; what prompted the activity;
start and finish times; whether the activity was conducted alone or not; if and
how practice changed as a result of engaging in the activity

Written assignment
Engagement in the first three steps of the process of evidence-based practice
(writing a focused question, searching for evidence, and critically appraising the
evidence). This outcome was recorded as completed/not completed.

Self-reported skills, knowledge and confidence


Based on the self-report questionnaire, there was an immediate increase in the
proportion of the skills, knowledge and confidence had improved postworkshop. These changes and proportions were maintained at follow-up.

Communication skills for the workplace:


A valuable opportunity for your students to practise their skills in preparation
for the workplace. Enables them to build on existing knowledge, record evidence
of their achievements and develop confidence within a supportive environment.

Physical Activity

Engaging in activities involving unique physical movements, timing, and


coordination encourages dendrite growth in the brain. The more dendrites, the
more connections your brain can make. The more connections, the more flexible
and efficient your thinking and learning will be. So while hard work and
disciplined study is a virtue, balancing it with activities such as the following can
amplify your mental effectiveness:

Playing a musical instrument (encourages development of precise timing)

Athletics (the more timing and coordination involved the better).

Drawing and sculpturing (eye hand coordination)

Traveling and experiencing different cultures

LEARNING ACHIEVMENTS AND DISAPPOINTMENTS:

"Life Achievement" to mean learning which adults have acquired from


experiences outside of traditional college courses. Substantial learning often
results from positions individuals have held or activities in which they have
engaged. For example, life achievement learning could have resulted from work
experience, volunteer work or some life event that resulted in college level
learning.

The learning you acquired from experiences related to your caring role may
enable you to receive credit for life achievement. Credit for life achievement has
been granted for learning associated with experiences in community service,
establishment of a business, hobbies, involvement in the arts, job training
programs, non-credit adult education courses, paraprofessional work, politics,
professional work, self-initiated learning projects, travel, and volunteer service.
Excellence in Learning: Provision, Achievement and Pathways

The achievement of excellence is an aspiration for all educational communities.


We know that all children and students, given the appropriate time and support,
can achieve academic and social success. It is up to us to ensure that, regardless
of individual circumstance, they all receive the support they require to achieve
the highest standards possible.

Improve overall student achievement

Provide engaging, stimulating and flexible learning programs and


pathways

Support student to be equipped to respond to changing employment


markets

Increase the export of international education services

The Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy is a model


that describes levels of increasing complexity in student's understanding of
subjects. It was proposed by John B. Biggs and K. Collis and has since gained
popularity.
The model
The model consists of 5 levels of understanding.

Pre-structural - The task is not attacked appropriately; the student hasnt


really understood the point and uses too simple a way of going about it.

Uni-structural - The students response only focus on one relevant aspect

Multi-structural - The students response focus on several relevant aspects


but they are treated independently and additively. Assessment of this
level is primarily quantitative.

Relational - The different aspects have become integrated into a coherent


whole. This level is what is normally meant by an adequate
understanding of some topic.

Extended abstract - The previous integrated whole may be conceptualized


at a higher level of abstraction and generalized to a new topic or area.

Disappointment:

Dealing with It
Here are some steps we all can take to deal with disappointment more
productively and successfully.
Get over yourself. The biggest obstacle you may need to get past is yourself. In
my case the tractor didnt care about my big day. Things happen. The sooner we
get the focus off of ourselves ending our mental pity party and onto the
situation at hand, the better off we will be.

Get a revised plan. The disappointment of poor profitability or poor initial


quality or any sort of undesirable result likely means you need a new plan to
move forward or to prevent your disappointment from occurring again. Use the
energy of your disappointment to create a new and improved plan.

Get all you can. Chances are your disappointment isnt the complete picture.
Dont throw away the good in the situation by focusing only on the bad. In my
case I still was able to share my tractor, talk about American Agriculture, enjoy a
great day and participate in the parade. If I let my disappointment over-run me, I
wouldnt have recognized all of the value that was there. The same will be true
for you.

Get past it. At some point (probably sooner than later) you need to let it go. Stop
thinking and worrying about it. Let it go and move on. Making light of the
situation may help too. I told people on the parade route and afterwards that we
were conserving gas by towing my tractor!

Get focused on learning. Disappointments will come; and once they have
arrived, it is too late to prevent them. The previous suggestions are all about
dealing with the disappointment in the moment. This suggestion focuses on
getting proactive for the next time. Ask yourself questions like: What could I
have done differently? What would have prevented this situation? Why was I so
disappointed? What would I do differently next time? These are valuable
learning questions.

My tractor still sits proudly at the Fairgrounds the next day. Ill replace the
battery and check some other things, and hopefully it will be ready to go in one
more parade before we take it for further electrical repair. Each time I drive this
tractor in a crowd, Ill remember driving it in silence through downtown
Indianapolis and across the Fairground. But Ill remember the lessons more than
the disappointment because I used the suggestions Ive shared with you.
These five suggestions will help you deal with your next disappointment
whether it is in your professional or personal life more effectively and
productively.
Dealing with disappointment

When things don't turn out the way you hoped, it may seem like the end of the
world. Here are some things you can do to keep disappointment from getting
you down.
Stop. Calm Down. Give yourself some time. Things might not seem nearly so
bad tomorrow.
Get your feelings out in a way that doesn't hurt you or anybody else.
Talk about it with your parents or a good friend.
Ask yourself if this is really worth getting angry or upset about.
Think about what you can learn from the experience and how you can do
better next time.
Don't judge yourself. Failing at something does not mean that you are a
failure.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) What is meant by assessment of learning?


2) How to Improve learning skills?
3) What is meant by Evidence-based practice skills?
4) What are the Provisions, Achievements and Pathways in learning?
5) Describe about the learning organization and disappointment.
6) How to deal with disappointments?