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FEM simulation of full scale and

laboratory models test of EPS

Tewodros Tefera, Roald Aabe, Hermann Bruun, Kristian Aunaas


6 June 2011, Lillestrm, Norway

Contents of presentation
Introduction
Stress-Strain behaviour of EPS
Model calibration
Model tests
Laboratory model test
Full scale model test

Conclusion

Introduction
EPS does not typically exhibit failure like other solid
materials used in construction.
Steel, concrete

EPS does not behave like soil where inter-particular


slippage occurs and a steady state or residual
strength develops at large strains.
Granular soil, cohesive soil

There is no robust material model commercially


available for EPS.

Stress-Strain behaviour of EPS


Several models have been proposed to describe the
stress strain time behaviour of EPS geofoam.
Time-independent stress-strain models
Time-dependent (creep) models

t = o + c
t - total strain, 0 immediate strain, c time dependent (creep) strain

Stress-Strain behaviour of EPS

Stress-strain behaviour of 21 kg/m3 EPS block under rapid, strain controlled, unconfined
axial compression (Horvath, 1995).

Model calibration
Hardening soil model in PLAXIS 2D V2010
A basic idea for the formulation of the Hardening Soil model is the
hyperbolic relationship between the vertical strain, 1, and the
deviatoric stress, q, in primary triaxial loading.

Model calibration
EPS material used for the model tests.
EPS type
EPS20
EPS30
EPS40

Density
(kg/m3)
20

Compressive stress at
5% strain (kPa)
100

40

240

30

180

Model calibration
Compressive Stress (kPa)

320
280
240
200
160
120
80

EPS20
EPS30
EPS40

40
0
0

10

Compressive Strain (%)

Calibrated stress strain curves using Hardening soil model


implemented in FEM program PLAXIS.

Model calibration
EPS properties used in the calibrated Hardening Soil model
Hardening -Soil model parameter
Density(kg/m3)
Cohesion, c (kN/m2)
Friction angle, ( 0)
Dilatancy angle, ( 0)
Secant stiffness E50ref , (kPa)
Power, m
Poissons ratio,
Reference stress, pref (kPa)

EPS Type
EPS 20
20

EPS 30
30

EPS40
40

30

42

40

6000

9000

15000

0,1

0,1

0,1

35
0

0,5

100

60
0

0,5

100

75
0

0,5

100

Model tests
Laboratory model test
Using EPS 20
2m height with a load of 52.5 kPa

Full scale model test


Using EPS 20, EPS 30 and EPS 40

Model tests

Model tests

52.5 kPa

load

PC1
PC2,3,4
PC5

17 kPa
3 - 5kPa
12 kPa

PC 1

2m

PC 2

PC 3,4

PC 5

Model tests

PC1
PC2,3,4

9kPa vs 17 kPa
3 - 5kPa vs 3 - 5kPa

Model tests
Full scale model test
Using EPS 20, EPS 30 and EPS 40
Single lane Acrow steel bridge with one span
36.8m

Model tests

Lkkeberg bridge

Model tests

Longitudinal section of Lkkeberg bridge

Model tests

Section through the fill showing the locations of pressure cells

Model tests

Stress distribution from an additional load in the EPS fill

Model tests

Conclusion
The stressstrain behaviour of EPS geofoam in
the relatively low strain range can be fairly
simulated using Hardening soil model.
However, unlike soil the model parameters can
be determined by curve fitting technique.
The stress distribution in the EPS geofoam fill
also depends on the interaction between EPS
geofoam blocks. This could have been the reason
for some variations seen between the FEM
simulation result and the experimental result.

Thank you for your attention!