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Biblical writings, to live according to the flesh is to travel into the cul-de-sac which ends in death; to live according to the Spirit is to enter life. A. C. Thiselton -- Body, -- Heart, ----+ Soul, -- Marriage, -+ Spirit

(a). W. Barclay, Flesh and Spirit, 1962; R. Batey, "The mia sarx Union of Christ and the Church," NTS 13, 1966-7,270-81; R. BuItmann, Theology of the New Testament, 1,1952,232-46; E. De Witt BurtoD-, Spirit, Soul and Flesh, 1918: W. D. Davies, "Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls: Flesh and Spirit," in K. Stendahl, ed., The Scrolls and the New Testamenr, 1957, 157-82; J. Jeremias, "Flesh and Blood Cannot Inherit the Kingdom of God," NTS 2, 1955-56, 151-59; R. Jewett, Paul's Anthropological Terms, 1971; W. G. Kummel, Man in the New Testament, 1963; W. Mork, The Biblical Meaning of Man, 1967, 19-32, 146-50; R. E. Murphy, "Bsr in the Qumran Literature and Sarx in the Epistle to the Romans," Sacra Pagina 2, 1959,60-76; J . A. T, Robinson, The Body, 1952, 11-33; J. P. Sampley, 'And the Two Shall Become One Flesh': A Study of the Traditions in Ephesians 5:21-33, 1971; E. Schweizer, sarx, sarkikos, sarkinos, TDNT VII 98-151; C. Ryder Smith, The Biblical Doctrine of Man, 1951, 153-65; W. D. Stacey, The Pauline View of Man, 1956, 92 f., 154-80; A. C. Thiselton, "The Meaning of Sarx in 1 Cor. 5 : 5: A Fresh Approach in the Light of Logical and Semantic Factors," SJT 26, 1973, 204-28. (b). E. Brandenburger, Fleisch und Geist. Paulus und die dualistische Weisheit, 1968; J. Fichtner and E. Schweizer, "Fleisch und Geist", RGG3 II 974 ff.; W. Gutbrod, Die paulillische Anthropo- fogie, 1934; H. W. Huppenbauer, "Fleisch in den Texten von Qumran," ThZ 13, 1957, 298 ff.; E. Kiisemann, Leib und Leib Christi, 1933, 100-118; N. Krautwik, "Der Leib im Kampf des 'pneuma' wider die 'sarx'," Theologie und Glaube 39, 1949; K. G. Kuhn, "peirasmos, hamarfia, sarx im NT und die damit zusammenhangenden Vorstellungen," ZTK 49, 1952, 200 ff.; O. Kuss, Der Romerbrief, 1959, 506 ff.; N. P. Bratsiotis, Anthr6pologia tes Palaias Diathikes, 1967; A.

Sand, Der Begriff "Fleisch" in den

Begriff "Fleisch" beim Apostel Paulus unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung seiner Erlosungslehre, NTAbh 11,1924; W. Schmidt, "Anthropologische Begriffe im Alten Testament," EvTh 24,1964, 374 ff.; E. Schweizer, "Die hellenistische Komponente im neutestamentlichen sarx-Begriff," ZNW

paulinischen Hauptbriefen, 1967; W. Schauf, Sarx : Der

48. 1957, 237ff.


pew pew (rheo), flow, stream; ptJ(J[(; (rhysis), a flowi ng river, stream; napappew (pararrheo), flow past, drift away,

let slip.

CL Although words for "flow" commonly derive from words for "run"', rheo is a notable exception: it reflects the Indo-Europe a n root sreu with the specific meaning "flow" (cf. Sanskrit sru). Frequently this root survives in its numerous non-verbal derivatives, the most important of which is rhysis. Occurring widely from the time of Homer, the word group commonly refers to the flow of a stream or river; but it can be applied to the run-off from melted snow (Herodotus), the "running" of milk and honey, equivalent to prosperity (Theo- critus), or, with respect to blood, a haemorrhage (Hippocrates, Dioscorides). Homer, Hesiod, and Aeschylu s apply it to a stream of glib words; Homer to dart s. A city or an area may stream with men (Herodotus, Euripides, Aristophanes) or gold (Herodotus) . Solid objects liquefy and "melt away" (Sophocles) - even stone (Aristotle) . Hence it is not surprising that the word group takes on the meaning of "fall", "drop off" - of hair (Homer, Besiod. Theocritus), or ripe truit (Polybius). An individual may be "given to" something , "inclined" to it (Isocrates, Plato): it is easy to imagine how such an idiom would develop.

OT The LXX reflects an equally wide variety of usage'. The word group most often stands for Heb. zub (flow , gush), especially as applied to the promised land



which flows with milk and honey (Exod. 3: 8; 13: 5; Lev. 20: 24; Num. 14: 8; Deut. 6: 3; 26: 9; Jos. 5 :6; Jer. 11: 5; Bar. 1 :20; etc.) or to some discharge or haemorrhage (notably in Lev. 15). Further, water flowed from the smitten rock (Ps. 77: 20; 104: 41; cf. Isa. 48 :21, LXX with future tense). The Heb. word group next most likely to be represented by rhea is nazal (and synonym ra'aft; trickle, drip), usually in connection with the descent of precipitation at the divine command (Job 36: 28; 38: 30; Ps. 147:18; Provo 3:20; cf. Job 38'25), but also with the falling of tears (Jer. 9:18) and wafting by the wind of perfume (Cant. 4:16). Joel twice uses rhea to translate the diversely-used Heb. verb hala!s with reference to the flow of water and milk from Judea's hills when the Spirit of the Lord is poured out and blessings abound (3:18 his). A more ominous use of the verb is made by Zechariah, who pictures flesh decaying and eyes "melting out" of their sockets, fitting retribution for those who war against Jerusalem (14:12; Heb. maqaq, fester, rot). Simile is invoked to liken the disappearance of the hope of ungrateful people to the "running away" of water and the melting of hoar frost. (Wis. 16: 29). Men are warned not to trust in

wealth even if it should "flow in"

Both Philo and Josephus utilize the word group with simila~ diversity, the latter applying it on one occasion to the stream of memory which "runs down" through the ages, recalling the noble sacrifice of Jeconiah (War 6, 105).

NT The verb rhea occurs but once in the NT: "from his innermost being shall flow rivers of living water" (J n. 7: 38). Some commentators run 7: 37b and 7: 38a into one sentence: "If any man is thirsty, let him come to me, and let the one who believes drink." In that case "his" innermost being refers to Christ, who alone provides "living" water (cf. In. 4: 10). It is more likely correct to see a sentence division at the end of 7: 37, making the believer the one from whose being the water (= Spirit) flows. The believer is thus viewed as a channel for the outflowing of the Spirit to others (cp. 15: 26 f.). The 3 NT occurrences of rhysis are all in connection with "flow of blood" = haemorrhage (Mk. 5: 25 = Lk. 8: 43 f.), endured by one woman for twelve years. ([F. F. Bruce] The compound pararrhea, lit. "flow past", is used figuratively in Heb. 2: 1 with reference to "what we have heard" (i.e. the gospel), "lest we drift

away from it" (RSV; cf. RV, NEB). AV, "lest

another sense of the vb., e.g. of letting a ring slip off one's finger [Plut., Amatorius


(Ps. 62: 10; Heb. nil!}, bear fruit).

we should let them slip", follows

D. A. Carson

Arndt, 627, 742; W. K. Hobart, The Medical Language of St. Luke, 1882, 15 f.; Liddell-Scott, 1322 f., 1568; Moulton-Milligan, 489, 563.

Foreign, Alien, Dispersion, Stranger Under this heading are grouped together various terms and ideas which have deep roots in the ancient world and particular significance in the OT and NT. The key terms discussed below are: allotrios (strange, alien, hostile), diaspora (dispersion), xenos (strange, an alien), parepidemos (stranger, exile, sojourner), and paroikos (stranger, alien).