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Metals and Engineering Industry

5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Contents
Training Record 3
Introduction 7
Topics 7
Prerequisites 7
Instructions 7
Competency assessment 7

Section 1 - Introduction to Manual Metal Arc Wdding 9


Aim 9
Acti vity 9
MMAWelding video response 10
Arc welding 10

Section 2 - Operating Principles for Manual Arc Welding 13


Aim 13
Activity 13
Electricity 14
Hazards 14
Protective clothing 17
Maintenance of welding equipment.. 2021
Welding machines 23
Power source 26
Rating of power sources 29
Current range 29
Electrodes 30
Basic symbols 33
Welding symbols 33
\Velding procedures 35
Joint preparation 37
Review questions - Operating principles for manual arc welding38
Review questions - Weld symbols 42
Review questions - Electrode identification - Current settings .. 44

Section 3 - Manual Metal Arc Welding - Basic Welds 45


Aim 45
Acti vity 45
Manual metal arc welding - basic welds .46
Material preparation 46
HOViT to strike an arc 47
Laying down a weld bead 48
Weld cleaning 49
Review questions - Material preparation and weld cleaning 50

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Practical exercise 1 - Beads on plate - flat 52


Procedure sheet 1 - Beads on plate - flat 54
Practical exercise 2 - Pad welds - flat.. 55
Procedure sheet 2 - Pad weld - flat 57

Section 4 - Fillet Weld Joint Terms and Faults 59


Aim 59
Activity 59
Fillet weld joint terminology and faults 60
Fillet weld terminology 60
Weld Defects 62
Workshop tests 67
Review questions - Fillet weld joint terminology and faults 69
Practical exercise 3 - Fillet weld, single run - horizontaL 78
Procedure sheet 3 - Fillet weld, single run - horizontal 80
Practical exercise 4 - Fillet weld, 3 run 2 layer - horizontal.. 81
Procedure sheet 4 - Fillet weld, 3 run 2 layer - horizontal. 83
Practical exercise 5 - Outside corner fillet - horizontal 84
Prooedure sheet 5 - Outside corner fillet - horizontaL 86
Practical exercise 6 - Fillet weld - horizontal 87
Prooedure sheet 6 - Fillet weld - horizontal 89

Seotion 5 - Butt Weld Terminology and Faults 90


Aim 90
Activity 90
Butt weld terminology and faults 91
Weld preparation 91
Preparation types 93
Weld defects 96
The principle of expansion and contraction in a metal 101
Angular distortion 101
Review questions - Butt weld terminology and faults 102
Practical exercise 7 - Butt weld, flat sheet steel 108
Procedure sheet 7 - Butt weld, flat sheet steel 110

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Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Introduction
This training guide is designed to support training for the Metal and
Engineering Training Package.

Topics
• Operating principles for manual arc welding

• Manual metal arc welding - basic welds

• Fillet weld joint terms and faults

• Butt weld terminology and faults

Prerequisites
Nil

Instructions

1. Study the information for each topic and complete review


questions

2. Complete the practical exercises.

note

The pr~ctical exercises are suggested only and may be replaced


by any other suitable training activity.

3. The Training Record must be signed by your trainer on


completion of each activity.

4. Complete the theory test. (The test results may be


recorded as part evidence of competency.)

Competency assessment
To achieve competency other approved activities must be entered in the
Assessment and Evidence Record section.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Weldiug

Section 1 - Introduction to Manual


Metal Arc Welding
Aim
To understand the operating principles, equipment, consumables and
safety requirements for general purpose welding using the manual metal
arc welding process.

Activity
1. View video No. 47 Arc Welding.

2. Complete the video response questions during or


immediately after watching the video.

3. Ask your supervisor or teacher if the information is not


clear to you.

4. Ask your trainer to check and sign your Training Record.

S. On completion of this section you must attempt the test


on this topic and reach the required level of competence
before proceeding to the next section.

Safety

• Wear safety glasses at all times while in welding workshops.

• Follow safe working practices to avoid electric shock.

• Weld in well ventilated areas.

• Wear protective clothing.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Section 2 - Operating Principles for


Manual Arc Welding
Aim
To practice manual metal arc welding exercises in order for you to develop
the manipulative skills for striking an arc and depositing weld metal on
low carbon steel plate.

Activity
1. Read and study the resource material following.

2. Complete the review questions.

3. Ask for assistance if the information or instructions are


not clear to you.

4. Ask a teacher or your supervisor to check and sign your


Training Record.

Safety

• Follow OHS workshop procedures.

• Protect your eyes from the welding arc and wear the proper
eye protection.

• Wear suitable protective clothing including dry leather gloves.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

The welding process uses electricity and generates heat and fumes. Safety
precautions including wearing protective clothing are important.
Maintenance of equipment and supplies and a thorough understanding of
safety aspects of welding will minimise the risk of accident and injury.

Electricity
Electricity is the flow of electrons through a conductor at a certain pressure
and speed. It's like water running through a hose. Some of the terms
associated with electricity are explained here.

Conductor In welding an electrical conductor is a metal through which


electricity will easily flow. Copper is the most used conductor.

Voltage This is the unit of electrical pressure. The voltage at the terminals
of an AC welding machine is never more than 80 volts for safety reasons.
This electrical pressure (or force) is responsible for the current flow in a
welding circuit.

Amperage This is the measurement of the electron flow,or current, through


an electrical conductor. Amperage is measured in amps. An amp is a unit
quantity of electricity passing through a given point per second. This is
similar to the rate water flows through a pipeline.

Electric arc welding process This is also called manual metal arc welding
or MMAW. In MMAW a high output amperage (low voltage) is passed
through a consumable flux coated electrode and the work piece. This sets
up an electrical resistance between the tip of the electrode and the work
which causes the electrode to melt off and form a weld bead.

Hazards

Working with electrical equipment can be hazardous. Youmust take proper


precautions and follow the set safety procedures. Hazards in the welding
workshop include electric shock, fumes, heat, glare and harmful rays.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Electric shocks - low voltage

Electric shocks are possible on the secondary (low voltage) side of the
welding circuit. They may be caused by:

• working on wet floors - a shock may be felt when putting an


electrode in the holder. Always stand on insulated mats or
wooden boards to reduce the risk and wear dry leather gloves

• working in a very humid climate or rainy weather - a shock


may be felt when changing electrodes. Keep electrodes and
gloves dry.

Electrical shocks • high voltage

High voltage shocks shouldn't happen if precautions are taken such as


ensuring welding machines are maintained by licensed electrical tradesmen
and that you never interfere with the inside parts of the welding machines.

Symptoms of electrical shock

Often electric shock stuns but doesn't kill. However when electricity passes
through the body it causes muscles to contract and can stop the heart
from beating or cause breathing to stop.

Electricity can also cause serious burns.

Fumes

Fumes can result from:

• the production of oxides and nitrous gases from incomplete


combustion or oxidation of nitrogen from the atmosphere

• the surface coatings on steel such as galvanising, cadmium


or chrome plating and paints and solvents such as red oxide
parts/degreasing solvents

• elements within the parent metal

• electrode flux coatings.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Safety

Welding should be carried out in well ventilated areas. When welding high
fuming materials such asga1vanised steel, use extraction systems to carry
away the fumes. If an extraction system is not available, an approved
respirator should be used to filter out the fumes.

Respirators should only be used as a secondary protection.

Dangerous fumes

Gases, dusts and vapours are given off during welding. They can cause:

• gassing or asphyxiation because the oxygen has been used


up in the work area (common in confined spaces)

• build up of poisonous metals in the body, such as lead,


cadmium, zinc, beryllium or mercury

• respiratory ailments from wheeziness to serious lung


disorders.

Heat

Heat is a form of energy. When a substance is heated the molecules vibrate


or move more rapidly. Heat may be generated by various means. In manual
metal arc welding it is generated by the passage of an electric current
across an arc;:gap.

The electric arc (about 6000°C) generates the heat to melt and fuse the
metal surfaces.

Heat is transferred in two ways, by conduction and by radiation.

Conduction Solid bodies must be in physical contact for heat to travel


through them. Some materials conduct heat more rapidly than others.
Metals are generally good conductors but, because of their different
properties, some have a greater conductivity rate than others, for example
copper and aluminium are very good conductors while cast iron and
stainless steel are poorer conductors.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Radiation This is the transfer of heat through space by wave motion. No


physical contact is needed. All bodies at a higher temperature than their
surroundings radiate heat, for example, the sun radiates heat energy in
the form of cosmic rays and an electric radiator transfers heat through
space across a room.

Protective clothing
Protective clothing will help to protect you from heat, hot metal and
harmful rays.

Helmet

Gauntlets

Leather apron

Gaiters,
'''-.
Spats ~--..~

Full protective clothing

Protection against hot metal

Molten droplets have a way of getting into boots. You can avoid this by
wearing proper protective clothing and footwear. When welding out of
position wear spats over your boots and under overall legs.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Protection from harmful rays

The harmful rays given off from an electrical welding process are ultra-
violet rays and infra-red rays.

These rays can damage the skin. Ray burn is like very severe sunburn;
your skin reddens and then peels. If the ray burn is very severe, there
may be blisters and sores. Rays will also harm the eyes causing a condition
called a flash or arc eye. The first symptom of a flash is an itchy feeling in
the eye. Afterwards a throbbing pain (much like sand in the eye) may
stop you sleeping. There are eye drops that relieve the pain. Continuos
flashes may cause blindness. The use of Safety Glasses will help protect
your eyes from these rays.

Filter lenses These are specially designed glass lenses to filter out harmful
rays and allow you to see what you're welding without causing any changes
in the pupil size or damage to your eyes. Filters come in different shade
numbers, according to the current range or type of welding.

Recommended minimum protective filters

Approximate Filter
Process
Welding (AMPS) Recommended

MMAW Up to 100 8
100 - 200 10
200 - 300 11
300 - 400 12
Over 400 13

Safety

• Wear safety glasses at all times.

• Wear appropriate clothing to protect your eyes and skin, from


welding rays.

• Prevention, is the best policy, avoid exposing eyes to harmful


rays.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Are Welding

Wear a welding shield or helmet, fitted with the correct filter to protect
you from arc rays, heat and the spatter from molten metal. The filter
reduces the intensity of the radiation, but allows sufficient light through
for you to see the weld pool and the end of the electrode.

Swivel filter

Clear glass

Head shield hand held shield

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Metals and Engineering lndustry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Maintenance of welding equipment


Before carrying out any maintenance on electrical equipment, it's
important that you first switch off the power and remove the plug. If there
isn't a plug, lock off the machine or danger tag the isolator switch.

Transformer

Never do maintenance work inside the case of the welding machine.

Operators can care for the machine by:

• keeping the case clean and dust free

• maintaining the secondary circuit in good condition

• sending the machine to a licensed electrician for any


maintenance on the internal parts, the primary lead and plug.

Machine terminals

Keep terminals clean and tight to ensure that the current will flow freely.
If you don't check nut tightness now and then, you may get arcing and/or
overheating of the terminal and lug connections. This will also be
detrimental to weld quality and machine performance. This can lead to
fire or cause burns.

Joints

Loose joints or bad contacts cause cable, clamps and other parts of the
welding plant to overheat and may give you unstable arcing. Use properly
designed cable connectors when you make any joints in cables. Make
sure that good electrical contact is made when you connect cables to the
power source, electrode holder and the return work clamp

Secondary leads (electrode/return lead)

Damaged leads may cause the operator discomfort from overheating, and
poor arcing characteristics. Maintain leads by:

• rolling them up after use

• unroll prior to using

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Pedorm Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

• making sure that the ends are fixed correctly into the
electrode holder, work-clamp or terminal lugs

• covering lug connections with insulation tape when necessary.

The size of the cable must suit the output of the welding power source at
the maximum duty cycle (refer to Australian Standard AS 1995 on welding
cables for the cable size).

Electrode holders

Electrode holders should suit the minimum output current being used.
The holder should be relatively light, comfortable to hold, fully insulated
and sturdy enough to withstand the wear and tear from constant use. The
holder should be rated to withstand the maximum current required for
the activity.

Retumclamp

This is fastened to the work or to the workbench to complete the welding


circuit. Spring pressure and screw type clamps are normally used. Magnetic
type clamps are also available.

Twist handle to
grip electrode

Insert
electrode

Heavy duty type

Spring-loaded jaws
to grip electrode

Electrode holders

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Screw Clamp

Work cable attachments

. -: /0'1
~/-...,
a
/- /.

Cable attachments

Safety

Protect yourself by wearing the following safety clothing:

• overalls or work clothes

• leather apron and/or coat

• welding gloves.

Machine location

Welding machines should always be in a dry protected area as close to the


power outlet as possible.

Protection of others

Welding should be done in special welding bays. When this is not possible,
use portable screens to shield others working in the area from the rays
generated from the arc. You should also put up signs to warn people that
you are welding.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Welding machines
Weldingmachines operate with either alternating current or direct current.

Alternating current (AC) welding machines

Alternating current welding machines are transformers which step down


line voltage (240 or 415 volts) to provide a safe welding voltage. The welding
current supplied by the secondary circuit of the transformer is set by the
operator to suit the type and size of electrode and its use.

Transformer welding machines are less complex and slightly less expensive
than other types.

Direct current (DC) welding machines

The direct current output may be supplied by a transformer/rectifier or


generator power source.

Transformer/rectifiers

An efficient and reliable transformer/rectifier is a machine designed to


transform AC input current to DC output current suitable for welding.
Transformer/rectifiers have no moving parts and like the transformer are
quiet to operate, convenient and cost less than motor generated units. If
an AC current is needed from this type of machine, all the operator has to
do is to select the AC output switch.

Transformer/rectifiers are often designed to provide either DC or AC


outputs. DC is normally preferred because of its greater arc stability but
AC may be required at higher currents to avoid arc blow.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Arc welding power source - AC transforrner

Arc welding power source - mobile engine driven DC generator

24
Metals and Engineering lndustl)'
5.12AB Perlorm Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

AC
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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Power source

A welding source provides enough current (heat energy) to melt the


electrode and the parent metal. Manual metal arc welding machines have
a variable (adjustable) current output that can be set to suit the job and
type of electrode.

Power source terminals and polarity

Electrical connections for a welding machine are illustrated below.

Output terminals on AC machines are marked electrode and work.

On a DC machine the terminals are marked positive (+) and negative (-)
except in the case where the polarity can be changed by means of a polarity
reversing switch. In such cases the terminals are marked electrode and
work with electrode terminal polarity indicated at the polarity switch.

Most electrodes designed for DC operate on DC electrode terminal positive


(+) while some types of electrodes should be operated on DC electrode
negative (-). Refer to the manufacturer's instructions for polarity selection.

Main voltage
415 or 240 volts

45-80V

Weld
M/C

Open circuit 'Voltage (no currentjlowing)

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Mctals and Enginccring Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Mctal Arc Welding

Main voltage
415 or 240 volts

Arc voltage (currentjlowing)

Welding cables

A multiple-strand, insulated flexible copper or aluminium lead conducts


the welding current from the power source to the work. A return cable is
needed to complete the welding circuit between the work and the power
source.

Power source

Electrode holder

Cable connections (secondary circuit side)

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Open circuit voltage - arc voltage

Power sources may supply direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC)
to the electrode. AC transformers and DC generators supply only one
type of current, but many transformer/rectifiers can be switched between
AC and DC output.

AC power supply is used more often because the cost is lower and the
welding machines are simpler in design. However, DC current has some
advantages. The DC arc is much more stable with certain types of electrode.
DC is better for working with sheet metal because a stable arc is produced.
Engine driven DC models provide welding power where there are no
electrical supply lines available, for example on site work.

The current should remain nearly constant during welding where the
operator's movements tend to vary the arc length. These movements may
be accidental, or deliberate, to control the weld pool. An increase in arc
length win increase the voltage across the arc, however the machine is
designed to control the current close to the amperage set by the operator.
Melting of the electro<i~ is then uniform in spite of the normal variations
when welding.

The open circuit voltage (OGV) is located and measured at the power
source terminals with the machine switched on but no welding current
flowing. This voltage must be high enough to establish an arc, but not so
high that there is risk of dangerous electric shock.

The welder makes the arc by striking the tip of the electrode on the work
to cause a momentary short circuit. This is at the point on the graph
where V = O. With current flowing, the electrode is drawn away by the
welder to establish the arc. The amperage and voltage for a typical arc
length are shown at point x. For a longer arc length, there is significant
increase in arc voltage and a sman decrease in welding current (point y).
The welding machine is designed to avoid noticeable changes in current
output when the welder varies the arc length.
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

:>0 60 200
150
100
250
Amps SO
20
:l!! 60
40
0

Output curvefor constant current power source, adjustedfor minimum current


'Variation

Rating of power sources


Australian Standard AS1966 rates the output (duty cycle) of electric arc
welding power sources. The machines are classified according to the type
of service for which they are designed, for example: continuous duty, heavy
duty, light industrial or limited output cycles.

The standard defines each of the classes according to the output (load
current, load voltage) needed for a nominated duty cycle. The duty cycle
allows for the Jact that in any five minute period, current for welding may
be drawn for only part of that time. For example, if welding is for a
maximum of three minutes in any five minute period, the machine only
operates up to 60% duty cycle (3/5 of 5 minutes). A much lower current
must be selected for continuous (100%) operation.

All power sources must display a name plate stating the equipment class
and the rated output and duty cycle for its class (eg 300 amps, 32 volts,
60%duty cycle). The 100% duty cycle output current must also be noted.

Current range
The manufacturer's recommendations on the range of current for different
types and sizes of electrodes will only give you their lower and upper
current range.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Aro Welding

Typical current ranges for the electrode classifications

4.0 130-160 130-190 140-200 130-170 140-200 185-235

3.25 75-125 90-140 95-150 100-130 105-150 130-170

You should use the recommended amperage and electrode type and size
as stated in the procedure sheets for the practical exercises. This will
help you gain the experience to select the electrode type and size for
future welding exercises.

4113
~

The choice of current will depend on such factors as weld position,


thickness of the joint parts, root gap and access to the structure.

Packet of electrodes

Electrodes
Electrodes are available in different types.

EXX12 Electrodes These have rutile coatings with other constituents


added to form a gaseous shield and slag modification. These electrodes
are easy to use in any positions (including vertical do\'\rn).They operate
with a quiet, medium penetrating arc able to bridge gaps or misaligned
sections. These electrodes are general purpose electrodes used for
structural and sheet steel fabrication.

EXX13 Electrodes These also have a rutile coating, similar to the EXX12
type, but they produce a more fluid and easily removed slag (not suitable
for vertical down) with a very neat and flat profile. They are generally

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5. 12AB Pertonn Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

more suited to overhead and vertical welding in an upwards direction


than EXX12. They have good X-ray and impact qualities. (these qualities
vary dependant on the impact grading number)

The effect of moisture on electrodes

Any electrode that absorbs excessive moisture into the coating may cause
one or more of the following problems:

• porosity

• excessive spatter

• arc instability

• poor weld contour

• undercut

• difficulty in slag removal

• cracking through hydrogen embrittlement.

Storage

All types of electrode should be stored in their original packaging in a


weather proof area on racks clear of the floor. They should be stored away
from moistvre and high humidity and possible damage.

Storage in an unheated room is satisfactory for a period of less than six


months. If storing for more than six months, or if in tropical or very wet
climates, all electrodes except cellulose types (EXXIO,EXXll) should be
stored in a room or insulated building heated to 15°C to 20°C room (or
ambient) temperature, but at no time more than 40°C. Electrodes stored
in hermetically sealed (airtight) boxes need not be kept in such an
environment.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Never tear electrode information data from the boxes. This can lead to
confusion and/or improper use of electrodes.

Storing electrodes

Welders are responsible for the care and handling of electrodes on the
shop floor or work site.

Electrodes should be kept clean and dry.

Defective electrodes should not be used. Discard electrodes or which are


wet or seek manufacturer's advice. Don't use electrodes showing signs of
rust or of damaged coating.

Only remove from the packet the number of electrodes you need for the
next few hours or the immediate job in hand. This reduces the risk of
contamination and waste.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Unseal packets of electrodes just before you use them and not before.

Basic symbols
Basic symbols which are used to denote the type of weld are illustrated in

Field
Backing strip site
round
Weld
Convex
Flush
Surface
~ C\.
or all shape
weld

the table below. Also shown are a number of instructional symbols used
to impose certain requirements on the actual welding operation.

Welding symbols

Number of stud, plug,slot,


spot or projection welds
Arrow connecting
reference line
to joint
Basic weld symbol area

Spacing between intermittent welds

I L1J WUJ
0 :I:o
II _ ~_ It
r

S
r r--t~'-l
I U'} Ot/) I

S
I b Ow I
II m
f

:r: ~
0:::0
0:::_ III
L __ ~lflJ
4eld /::!allFi'eld or site of weld
round F Tail of reference line (omitted
when reference P is not used)
(N)

The standard welding symbol used to represent welds on drawings is shown


below. The symbol can be used in many ways.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

note

Information relating to a particular weld, such as S, (N), F, W,


(M) must be placed on the same side of the reference line as
the symbol for that weld.

Symbol below
reference
line

Symbol above
reference
line

Application of the standard welding symbol

When applying the standard welding symbol, thought must be given as to


whether the actual weld is situated on the same side of the joint as the
arrow or on the other side.

Arrow 1

W is called the arrow side of joint 1


X is called the other side of joint 1
Arrow 2

Z is called the arrow side of joint 2

Y is called the other side of joint 2

Arrow 1 bears no relation to arrow 2 as they refer to different


joints.

For weld A, the basic fillet symbol is placed underneath the reference line
indicating that the weld is on the arrow side of joint 1.

For weld B, however, the basic fillet symbol is placed above the reference
line indicating that the weld is on the other side of joint 2.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Wherever possible, the arrow should be positioned adjacent to the weld,


as with joint 1, with the symbol underneath the reference line.

Welding procedures
It is sometimes necessary to specify certain procedures or requirements
about a weld. The standard symbol used in such cases should be provided
with a tail as shown on the previous page and the information inserted
where shown, for example, at P.

In order to control a welding process more fully, a procedure sheet may


be added to the drawing. The sheet should contain the following general
information.

• type of material being welded;

• form of weld (to include plate preparation such as angle of


bevel, root penetration, root radius, etc.);

• set-up details such as welding position, alignment, gap


required;

• number and order of runs;

• electrode size, type and make (consultAS1552, Classification


of Covered Electrodes);

• electrical supply data such as polarity, current and voltage


values;

• preheating requirements;

• pre- and post-weld cleaning procedures;

• treatment of joint after welding;

• preparation and/or procedures to apply in between runs.

The arrow is cranked as shown below and points towards the plate
which has to be prepared. The crank is omitted when the edge to
be prepared is abvious, for example, a tee but joint.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Symbol below the horizontal reference line.

IOrll~ ""\.::'::::?
~
This indicates that the weld is to be placed
on the same side as the arrow.

Symbol above the horizontal reference line.


This indicates that the weld is to be placed
on the opposite side to the arrow.

~;v; Symbol below and above the horizontal


reference line. This indicates that the weld is to
be placed on both sides of the arrow.

ed a
Cs
I'...'f~
VI
Weld
1"-
~\}m
SymbolCross
Drawing
Drawing
the
the
c) Single
Filet
c)
arrow
other
of the
IIbflush
bcthe

V butt
weld
Single
jointarrow
Ibead Section
weld
IsideExplanation
jointside
on weld
both
bevel
with a
ground
on
buttsides
on of
side
the on
arrow
Application
a
IctheIside
a) Filet weld at the arrow side
I a side
other b
b) Filet weld on the other side
b) Single V butt weld on
b) Bead weld at the arrow side
the other side

11
LE
~
a) Seal bead weld at the
a) Single V butt weld on

Jkt1
I~~
,bk;~~

36
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Joint preparation
The arrow may also be used to indicate when one plate only of a joint is to
be prepared in welding single bevel and single J butt joints.

The arrow is cranked as shown below and points towards the plate which
has to be prepared. The crank is omitted when the edge to be prepared is
obvious, for example, a tee but joint.

Cranked
arrow

Plate to be
bevelled

Actual weld End view Front view

~~:~~ooeclfue~o
~m~~~~u~d

37
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc WeWing

Section 3 • Manual Metal Arc Welding •


Basic Welds
Aim
Topractice manual metal arc welding exercises in order for you to develop
the manipulative skills for striking an arc and depositing weld metal on
low carbon steel plate.

Activity
1. Read and study the resource material following.

2. Complete the practical exercises.

3. Ask for assistance if the information or instructions are


not clear to you.

4. Ask a teacher or your supervisor to check and sign your


Training Record.

5. These are skill practice exercises which are assessed. You


must reach the required standards to enable progression
to the section .

Safety

• Follow OHS workshop procedures.

• Protect your eyes from the welding arc and wear the proper
eye protection.

• Wear suitable protective clothing including dry leather gloves.

45
Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Manual metal arc welding - basic welds


The following instructions will provide you with basic information about
material preparation, striking an arc and laying down a weld bead. The
cleaning requirements for a finished weld will also be identified along with
the equipment used for this task. Read them carefully before attempting
the four practical exercises in this section.

Material preparation
Cleaning

A welded joint on low carbon steel (mild steel) requires the material to be
cleaned in such a way as to remove all matter that may contaminate the
weld runs (beadlbeads). This can be in the form of Mechanical or Chemical
cleaning. If chemical cleaning is to be carried out it is critical that all
safety factors are adhered to as chemicals may produce dangerous
substances when heated by the arc. Consult the Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS) or the manufacturer/distributor if you are not sure about
using any cleaning agents.

Mechanical cleaning

The weld area may be machined. This preparation will generally require
minimal cleaning. If the material is flame cut or hot rolled it will have an
oxide skin that will need to be removed. This will usually require grinding
as wire brushing may not be aggressive enough to bring the material back
to bare metal.

Aggregate blasting such as sand or other particles may be also used to


clean the weld area.

Tools used for cleaning

The hand held power tools that are used for material removal may include:

Angle grinder Grinding or sanding

Straight portable grinder Grinding or wire brushing

Die grinder

Belt sander

46
Aleta!s and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Meta! Arc Welding

These tools can be either pneumatic (air driven) or electric. A floor


mounted pedestal grinder may also be used for material removal.

The practical exercise in this module will require you to use an electric
angle grinder.

How to strike an arc


Preparation

1. Select a piece of steel and after material preparation place


it on the work bench.

2. Select a 4.0 mm E4112 or E4113 Manual Metal Arc


electrode.

3. Set amperage on power source to approximately 165


amps.

4. It is important that you get yourself into a comfortable


and relaxed position when welding to counter the effects
of body sway, movement restrictions and heat generated
by the arc. To get comfortable you can be seated, lean
against the bcnch or lean against a wall in the welding
bay.

Striking the arc

1. Turn on the power source.

2. Lightly touch the end of the electrode on to the work and


you will complete the circuit and current will flow.

3. The electrode end rapidly heats, melting sufficiently to


momentarily weld the electrode on to the work.

4. Due to the low voltage current we are using the arc will
not jump an air gap (as in a spark plug). We must therefore
establish an arc by first touching the end electrode onto
the work and then immediately, lengthen the distance
between end of the electrode and work allowing droplets
of metal and flux to cross the ARC GAP(3 mm approx.) to
form a molten pool.

47
Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

5. If you fail to do this, droplets will bridge the arc gap,


causing a short circuit and a freezing of the electrode end
onto the work.

6. If your action is incorrect and the electrode freezes onto


the work, that is becomes welded or stuck to it, a sharp
backward angling of the electrode should break it free.

7. Keep your head shield over your face, as an arc flash will
occur as the electrode breaks contact.

Laying down a weld bead


1. Once the arc has been established, reduce the arc length
to about 3 mm and note that molten metal is beginning
to mount up under the end of the electrode.

2. Start moving the tip of the rod slowly away to the right,
(if you are left- handed, to the left) endeavouring to
maintain a molten pool approximately 8mm wide behind
the arc.

3. You will have to feed in the electrode as it burns off,


maintaining a steady rate across the plate using the correct
arc length.

4. Continue to deposit a beadlbeads across the plate.

5. Remove the slag cover and wire brush and inspect your
weld.

6. A little more practice and some of these actions will begin


to happen automatically.

7. Remember, not all people are born natural welders.

8. Welding requires practice to gain the necessary skills to


lay down consistent welds. You only obtain these skills
by running lots of electrodes and concentrating on what
you are doing.

48
Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Mauual Metal Arc Welding

Weld cleaning
It is important that the finished weld is of an acceptable standard free of
slag and adhering spatter. The finished appearance may be given in job
specifications and may require additional work. This may need to be
ca.rried out before the final finish is added to the completed job/component.
Cleaning may just require you to use a chipping hammer and a wire brush.
It could also require you to use the following tools.

Angle grinder Grinding or sanding

Straight portable grinder Grinding or wire brushing

Die grinder

Belt sander

Chisel (hand, electric, air)

File

Peening gun (electric, air) used to remove slag.

By the removal of slag and spatter many welds on fabrication work are left
as cleaned. Additional treatment such as machining, sand blasting, grinding
and sanding are after treatments that may be carried out by other personnel
in the manufacturing process. The practical exercises in this module will
require you to use a chipping hammer, chisel and wire brush.

49
Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Practical exercise 1 - Beads on plate -


flat
Aim

To develop the skills to deposit uniform weld beads to the standards below.

Material

1 piece low carbon steel 75 x 10 x 225 mm

Consumables

Mild steel electrodes 4.0 mm E4112 or E4113 at approx. 165 amps.

Instructions

Check the following points:

Amperage setting and heat input, position of the plate on the


bench, correct method of arc striking, correct arc length, correct
welding speed arid travel, electrode angles. Your teacher will
demonstrate if required.

1. Obtain your MMA welding board, safety equipment (head


shield, gloves), material, and consumables (if necessary)
from the store.

2. Position the plate on the bench so that a right handed


operator would weld across the body from left to right
(left hand opposite direction).

3. Deposit a weld bead along the plate length, maintaining


the angles as shown, and an arc gap of approximately 2-3
mm.

4. Deposit additional runs parallel to the plate edge


approximately 10mm apart.

5. When the top surface of the plate has been covered, turn
the material over and repeat the exercise.
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

6. Evaluate the weld exercise and complete the procedure


sheet.

7. Submit your completed weld and procedure sheet for


assessment.

Economy

Materials and consumables are expensive. Use electrodes to 50 mm


maximum stub length.

Standards

Your work should have:

• uniform beads with consistent, even restarts, free from slag


and spatter

+2
• bead height 3 -1 mm.

53
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Procedure sheet 1 - Beads on plate - flat

Electrode

View A
~
B

A~
11- Start
,.

VlewB

Weld current data Electrode data


Run 1 Size
2 Type Rutile
3 Brand Name
Electrode Angles
Lead Lateral
60°' 80° 90°

Material data
Type Low carbon steel
Thickness 10mm

Assessment Complies

Workshop safety

54
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Practical exercise 2 - Pad welds - flat


Aim

To deposit a pad weld on low carbon steel plate in the flat position.

Safety

• Follow OHS workshop procedures.

• Use an approved shade 10 welding glass filter.

• Wear suitable protective clothing to stop ray burn.

• Always wear your safety glasses when removing slag.

Material

1 piece low carbon steel 75 x 10 x 225 mm

Consumables

Mild steel electrodes 4.0 mm E4112 or E4113 at approx. 165 amps

Instructions

Check the following points.

Setting of amperage and heat input, position of the plate on the


bench,' correct method of arc striking and arc length, correct
welding speed and travel, electrode angles. Your teacher will
demonstrate if necessary.

1. Obtain your MMAwelding board, safety equipment (head


shield, gloves), material, and consumables (if necessary)
from the store.

2. Outline, with chalk, a rectangular shape 40 x 200 mm.

3. Position the plate on the bench.

4. Deposit a weld bead along the plate length, maintaining


the angles shown.

55
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

5. Remove all slag from each individual weld bead before


depositing subsequent runs. Each run must have a
staggered stop and restart.

6. Build up the pad to the required dimensions and on


completion, evaluate your weld with the given standards.

7. Fill in all the relevant information on the procedure sheet.

8. If it meets the standard, submit your work for assessment.

Economy

Use electrodes down to a stub length of SOmm maximum.

Standards

Your work should have:

+2
• pad weld height 3 -1 rnm

• a maximum of four significant surface defects on a unit area


of 40 x 150 mm with the accumulative area not exceeding
the square of the plate thiclmess

• no adhering slag or spatter.

56
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Procedure sheet i-Pad weld - flat

First run Subsequent runs

View A

~B

View B

Weld current data Electrode data


Run 1 Size
2 Type
3 Brand Name
Electrode Angles
Lead Lateral.. .

Material data
Type Low carbon steel
Thickness 10mm

Assessment Complies

Workshop safety

57
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manua! Meta! Arc Welding

Section 4 - Fillet Weld Joint Terms and


Faults
Aim
To learn the basic terminology (technical language) used to describe weld
positions, areas and locations of a welded joint, and common defects and
their causes.

Activity
1. Read and study the resource material following.

2. Complete the review questions.

3. Ask for assistance if the information is not clear to you.

4. Complete the practical exercises at the end of the section.

5. Ask a teacher or your supervisor to check and sign your


Training Record.

6. On completion of this section you must attempt the test


on this topic and reach the required level of competence
before proceeding to the next section.

Safety

Wear the right clothing to protect you against rays and hot metal
spatter.

59
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Are Welding

Fillet weld joint terminology and faults


It is important for you to know the terms used to describe fillet weld
joints and fillet weld defects so that you are able to talk to other trades
persons, clients and inspection authorities in an informed way. An
understanding of the technical terminology will also assist you to get the
most out of your training.

Fillet weld terminology


Positions of welds
// Vertical

Horizontal

Single v
.,~ butt weld

Intermittent
fillet welds

Overhead / '....
- Plug weld

'-.--- Slot weld


Lap weld- ,/
-'--- Corner weld
Fillet weld

Weld names

[vertic.al

\I.•..
~-
·.]1~1
r "--... .•

60
Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Definition of a fillet weld

A fillet weld is a weld of approximately triangular cross-section which is


formed in the corner between surfaces of two components.

Parts of a fillet weld Fillet weld contours and

0--

Toe
Root
Heat
Penetration
Weld
Parent
Fusion
Nominal
Leg
Throat affected
face
metal
zone
throatzone
Reinforcement
metal
length
thickness thickness
(concave12.
(convex9.
11.
10.fillet)
7.
8. fillet) measurements
13.

Parts of a welded structure

/penetration/fUSion
. Weld face

Parent metal

Fillet weld

61
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Fillet weld dimensions

The size of a fillet weld is determined by the following dimensions. These


can easily be checked with a fillet gauge. Note that the strength of a welded
structure is determined by the type of metal, leg length and the effective
throat thickness.

Fillet weld dimensions.

Fillet weld profiles

Weld Defects
Weld defects are either external or internal.

External defects can be detected by visually inspecting the finished weld


for plate misalignment, incomplete penetration, weld craters, blowholes,
weld spatter and correct weld size.

Internal defects can only be detected by destructive or non destructive


testing, which may reveal slag inclusions, porosity, cracks and incomplete
fusion or incomplete penetration.

62
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Common weld defects

The most common weld defects are:

Undercut

A sharp groove at the toe of a ron between the weld and the parent metal
or in previously deposited weld metal, due to welding. It may be continuous
or intermittent.

This is caused by using the wrong electrode angle, excessive welding


current, incorrect operating technique or excessive arc length.

~Undercut
~

Over roll (overlap)

Weld metal at the toe of a weld which covers the parent metal surface but
is not fused to it. It is caused by overflowing molten weld metal on the
surface of unmelted parent metal which leaves an unwelded area. This is
caused by using too Iowa current or too slow welding speed, or by using
too large an e!ectrode.

63
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Misalignment

Misalignment is any variation from line or dimension of a welded joint. It


is caused by faulty setting up of job, distortion or lack of tack welds.

Misalignment

Incomplete penetration

Incomplete penetration may be classified as an internal or external weld


fault. Incomplete penetration is the failure of the weld metal to fill and
fuse the root of the joint. It is caused by faulty preparation of work, using
too Iowa welding current or poor operating technique.

Incomplete penetration
Slag inclusions

Slag inclusions are non-metallic particles trapped in the weld metal. They
may weaken the weld joint. Inclusions result from not removing slag from
previous runs, using too Iowa current or using too long an arc length.

Inclusions

64
Metals and EngIneering Industry'
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Porosity

Gaseous substances such as oxygen or nitrogen trapped in the weld metal


leave a cluster of small holes in the weld. It is caused using wet or damp
electrodes, welding over coated surfaces, over painted oily or greasy
surfaces or by using the wrong type of electrode.

Cracking

A variety of different types of cracks may occur in the welded area of


fabricated products. Identifying the type of crack helps to isolate the
possible causes. Causes are using wrong type of electrode, not applying
preheat to crack sensitive steel, using damp or wet electrodes or welding
over oil, grease or a plated metal surface .

/
..•...

I..

Lack of fusion

Incomplete fusion between weld metal and weld metal or weld metal and
parent metal is caused by not enough amperage, incorrect joint preparation
and incorrect welding technique.

Lack of fusion

65
Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Undersized and oversize welds

Welded joints are designed by structural engineers to carry loads safely.


The size and type of weld depends on its use. An undersized weld might
not be strong enough to carry the load it supports. A weld that is reinforced
(over welded) too much can make other sections of the work too rigid and
cause them to crack or break.

You will be asked to weld to the designer's specification. For example

• a 6 mm fillet weld requires a 6mm leg length and a 4.2 mm


throat thickness

• a butt weld requires an even or slightly curved surface.

You may not be given the weld size for all jobs. If no weld size is specified,
deposit the weld in proportion to the plate thickness. For example:

a 10 mm plate requires a 10 mm weld thiclmess.

Butt welds should always be built up to the thickness of the parent metal.

Oversize

Correct
size

"\
\ Undersize

Weld assembly (undersized welds)

66
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Workshop tests
These are only some of the tests which call be carried out to check the
weld quality.

Visual

Youcan do a visual check for external weld defects. Internal ones can't be
seen.

Fillet break

A fillet break shows satisfactory fusion, penetration, and inclusions or


porosity.

Summary of weld defects and how to fix them

When preparing the plate, check that you have:

• correct edge preparation

• clean/smooth surfaces

• correct plate alignment.

When welding, check that you have:

• correct electrode

• correct current (amperage)

• correct speed of travel

67
Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

• correct arc length

• correct operation (welder).

When checking the electrode for condition, check for damp or damaged
electrodes.

When inter-run cleaning remove all slag, rust, undercut, and excess weld
spatter before depositing the next pass.

68
Metals and Engineering Industry
5. 12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Practical exercise 3 - Fillet weld, single


run - horizontal
Aim

To deposit 6 mm fillet weld in the horizontal position on 10 mm low


carbon steel plate.

Note

This is a skill practice exercise which is assessed. You must


reach the required standards to enable progression to the next
section.

Safety

• Youmust wear eye protection .

• Make sure that the centre of the press ram and the highest
point of the exercise are in line when breaking welds.

Material

2 pieces low carbon steel 75 x 10 x 225.

Consumables

4 mm 4112 or 4113 electrodes at 160 to17S amps approximately.

Instructions

Your teacher will demonstrate.

1. Wire brush the material to remove surface rust and loose


scale.

2. Tack both ends of the plate to ensure metal to metal


contact.

3. Complete approximately half the weld, stop, remove slag,


restart and finish the weld.

4. Remove all slag and spatter and submit the exercise for
visual inspection.

78
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

5. Break the weld and resubmit the exercise for internal


inspection.

6. Relocate the plates for further practice using all edges as


shown.

7. Evaluate the weld exercise and complete the procedure


sheet.

8. Submit your work for assessment.

Economy

Consumables and materials are expensive. Relocate plates for maximum


use. See chart (on earlier page) for suggested plate positioning sequence
to obtain four or more fillet welds from one material unit. Use all electrodes
down to a maximum stub length of 50 mm and return unused material to
the store.

Standards

Your work should have:

• correct alignment and assembly

• smooth regular weld contour

• angular distortion 0° to 5°

• a maximum of two significant weld defects per 250 mm of


weld length with an accumulative area of less than twice the
square of the plate thickness

• weld size 8 mm

• complete fusion for the length of the weld joint.

79
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Procedure sheet 3 - Fillet weld, single run -


horizontal

View A ViewB

Weld current data Electrode data


1 Size
2 Type
3 Brand Name
Electrode classification
Angles Lead Lateral

Material data
Type Low carbon steel No. of units completed to standard
Thickness 10 mm

Assessment Complies:
Alignment and assembly Complies:
Angular distortion Complies:
Surface finish Complies:
Weld size Complies:
Surface defects Complies:
Complete fusion Complies:
Workshop Safety Complies:

80
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Practical exercise 4 - Fillet weld, 3 run


2 layer - horizontal
Aim

To use the fillet welding technique necessary to deposit an 8 mm three


run, two layer fillet weld to the requirements below.

Material

2 pieces low carbon steel 75 x 10 x 225

Consumables

Mild steel electrodes F4112 or E4113 at 160 to 175 amps approx.

Instructions

Your teacher will demonstrate.

1. Wire brush or grind the weld fusion faces to remove the


rust and mill scale.

2. Tack both ends of the plate ensuring metal to metal


contact with no gap. Tack only on the ends or side to be
welded.

3. Complete approximately half the first run, stop, remove


slag, and examine the weld profile.

4. Finish the run and subsequent runs using the sequence


illustrated with at least one staggered stop and start per
run.

5. Submit the exercise for visual inspection then fracture


the weld and resubmit it for internal inspection.

6. Relocate the plates for further practice using all edges as


shown.

7. Evaluate the weld exercise and complete the procedure


sheet.

8. Submit your work for assessment.

81
Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Economy

Consumables and materials are expensive. Relocate plates for maximum


use. See chart (on earlier page) for suggested plate positioning sequence
to obtain four or more fillet welds from one material unit. Use all electrodes
down to a maximum stub length of 50 mm and return unused material to
the store.

Standards

Your work should have:

• correct alignment and assembly

• smooth regular weld contour

• angular distortion 0° to 5°

• a maximum of two significant weld defects per 250 mm of


weld length with an accumulative area of less than twice the
square of the plate thickness

• weld size 8 mm

• complete fusion for the length of the weld joint.

82
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Petform Routine Manual Metal Are Welding

Procedure sheet 4 - Fillet weld, 3 run 2 layer-


horizontal

Weld current data Electrode data


Size
Amperage used Type
Brand Name
Run 1 Electrode classification
2 Angles Lead Lateral
3

Material data
Type Low carbon steel
Thickness 10 cm

Assessment Complies

Workshop safety Complies

83
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Practical exercise 5 - Outside corner


fillet - horizontal
Aim

To deposit a multiple nm corner weld in the horizontal position using


fillet welding techniques to the requirements below.

Safety

Always wear safety glasses when chipping slag deposits away from the
weld.

Materials

Material from the single or 3 run fillet (crucifixes) exercises or 2 pieces 25


x lOx 225 111111 low carbon steel.

Consumables

Mild steel electrodes E4112 or E4113 , 3.25 m at approx 120-130 amps.

Mild steel electrodes E4112 or E4113 4.0 mm at approx 160-175 amps.

Instructions

Your teacher will demonstrate if required.

1. A-ssemble and tack plates using a suitable spacer to


maintain root gap.

2. Position the plates and deposit approximately 50 mm of


the root run.

3. Examine the bead shape and penetration before


continuing the weld.

4. Completely fill the remainder of the weld using 3.2


diameter electrodes and a logical weld sequence.

5. Seal the reverse side with a 6 mm horizontal vertical fillet


weld.

84
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

6. Add additional plates as required and repeat the exercise.

7. Evaluate the weld exercise and complete the procedure


sheet.

8. Submit your work for assessment.

Economy

Maximise the use of electrodes and return all unused material to the store.

Standards

Your work should have:

• correct alignment and assembly

• smooth regular weld contour

• angular distortion 00 to 5°

• a maximum of two significant weld defects per 250 mm of


weld length with an accumulative area of less than twice the
square of the plate thickness

• weld size 8 ~6mm

• complete fusion for the length of the weld joint

• full radius weld.

85
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Procedure sheet 5 - Outside corner fillet -


horizontal

Weld current data Electrode data


Size
Amperage used Type
Brand Name
Electrode classification
Angles Lead Lateral

Material data
Type
Thickness

Assessment Complies

Workshop safety

86
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Practical exercise 6 - Fillet weld -


horizontal
Aim

To fillet weld 3 mm low carbon steel sheet assembled in the horizontal


position to the requirements below.

Safety

• Always use tongs to position tacked and welded work.

• Never leave hot work unattended in the workshop.

Material

6 pieces low carbon steel 50 x 3 x 225 mm.

Consumables

Mild steel electrodes E4112 or E4113 2.5 mm at approx 85-95 amps.

Mild steel electrodes E4112 or E4113 3.25 mm at approx 110-115 amps.

Instructions

Your teacher will demonstrate. Students must attend this demonstration


before beginning the exercise.

1. Clean, assemble and tack weld at three locations for each


joint.

2. Use E4112 electrodes and stop each run at least once.

3. Weld both sides of the horizontal fillet.

4. Repeat the exercise with E4113 electrodes.

87
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Economy

Materials and consumables are expensive. use electrodes down to a


maximum total length of 50 mm.

Standards
Your weld should have:

• correct alignment and assembly

• smooth regular weld contour

• angular distortion 00 to 50

• a maximum of two significant weld defects per 250 mm of


weld length with an accumulative area of less than twice the
square of the sheet thickness.

• weld size equal to the sheet thickness ::.~mill

• complete fusion for the length of the weld joint.

note

Watch for these points.

Distortion tack at regular intervals, assembly and 'fit up' of


cornerjoint.

88
Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Procedure sheet 6 - Fillet weld - horizontal

Outside
corner
weld

Weld current data Electrode data


Size
Amperage used Type
Brand Name
Electrode classification
Angles Lead Lateral

Material data
Type
Thickness

Assessment Complies

Workshop safety

89
Metals and Engineering Indust/)·
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Section 5 - Butt Weld Terminology and


Faults
Aim
To learn the technical terms used for butt welds and to be able to identify
typical weld defects.

Activity
L Read and study the resource material following.

2. Complete the review questions.

3. Ask for assistance if the information is not clear to you.

4. Ask a teacher or your supervisor to check and sign your


Training Record.

5. On completion of this section you must attempt the test


on this topic and reach the required level of competence
before proceeding to the next section.

Safety

Wear the proper clothing to protect your skin and eyes.

Do not·try to take short cuts or risks

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Butt weld terminology and faults


In this section you will learn about the different types of butt welds and
how to identify some of the faults which can occur in butt welds.

Butt welds are used to join metal products such as sheet, plate, rolled and
pressed sections. This type of joint has the advantage of giving high strength
without changing the profile of the structure.

Industrial uses for butt welds include:

• boiler and pressure vessel construction

• ship building

• earth moving equipment

• aircraft and submarines.

Butt weld joints can be designed for full penetration welding to give
maximum strength or for partial penetration welding in places where the
strength of the joint is not so important.

Weld preparation
Reinforcement

Toe

Parent
Fusion metal
zone

Root penetration

Weld components

Joint edges have to be prepared before plates are welded together. Joint or
edge preparation is essential for complete fusion and penetration.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

\ ~ ; Root face: fa supporf fhe


~ _~_=========::~ fltst run of weld

-JL- Roof gap: to allow complefe


weld penetration

Weld preparations use


need
less
back double
gouge
usually Vand
to done
weld or than
balance
metal
by U preparations.
joint Vtocutting
deposit
flame minimise Less
preparations
a backing butweld
distortion.
run are =
for
or machining.
multi-run fillet welds less heat
maximum
more less distortion.
=strength.
difficult to prepare.
Double butt welds and
U preparations
V On thick plate
Single butt welds

{ 'j( )
.~ ~L

DCJ
Plate thickness
DCJ
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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Preparation types
There are several preparation types and details are given below.

Closed butt joint

This is used when the edges do not need preparing. They are placed
close together and single or double welded. The closed butt joint is
suitable for sheet up to 3 mm thick.

j~ -~-
Sr [ I~--~S
Open butt joint

This is used when the edges do not need preparing. They are separated
slightly to allow fusion of the full thickness of material. An open butt
joint is suitable for material up to 5 rom thick.

JI s
r-
~mm ~

-1L-'.S-2.S
Single V butt joint

This is commonly

1.5mmm~JL
o
used on material up to 12 rom thick.

?2\/,---
~?- 1.5 mm
~12m~
f

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Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AI3 Perform Routine Manual Metal Are Welding

Double V butt joint

This is used on plate 12 mm to 38 mm in thickness when both sides


are welded.

Single bevel butt joint

Used only when one member of the joint can be prepared as in the case of
a T joint.

~Minimum
~5°
",

15M~imu~JL
Single U butt joint

The single U butt is used as an alternative to single V butt joint.

r-\~inimum
1-'

\ \1I r
~ __ Radius5mm Minimum t

;'-1=V;r-
.
3 mm Maximum II 3 mm-~-UPto
--i+--
25mm
t
J

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Metals and Engineering Indnstry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Double U butt joint

This is used on material over 2S mm thick where welding can be


done from both sides.

iO~ Minimum

___
Ll====---"~
3 mm Maximum LL ;
"/_1_r -===RadiUS 5 mmMitm
3 mm
Up to 25mm
r

When you need to butt weld two sections of different thickness, you should
taper the thicker one to match the other. The length of the tapered section
should be at least three times the difference in the thickness between the
plates. This type of butt weld is used to join dished ends to pressure vessels.

Uneven section" butt joint

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Periorm Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Weld defects
Common weld defects are detailed below.

Excesspenetration

Definition Too much weld metal extending through the root of the weld .

•••••• --- u u'-etration

Causes are:

• incorrect preparation

• amperage too high

• incorrect welding technique.

Incomplete penetration

Definition Failure of the weld metal to extend into the root of a joint.

."
;:",:.,
.. :'-':.~
::-
"
"
.
7 ..•- .

~.....:-.. ;:, S' ~.,


•••••• M'.
'1·••·-'··-
.
--------- // .• "_;1

Incomplete penetration

Causes are:

• incorrect preparation

• amperage too low

• arc length too long.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Lack of fusion

Definition Incomplete fusion between weld metal and weld metal or weld
metal and parent metaL

Lack of fusion

Causes are:

• not enough amperage

• incorrect joint preparation

• incorrect welding technique.

Inclusions

Definition Slag or other foreign matter trapped during welding.

Causes are:

• faulty joint preparation

• not enough amperage

• poor cleaning of prior runs.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Porosity

Definition A group of gas holes in the weld metal.

" .. '~'...
,':.

Porosity ~.,
":.'? '.O';'~<
• ~~t'
..,

Causes are:

• damp or old electrodes

• composition of parent metal

• incorrect electrode type.

Cracking

Definition Discontinuity produced from tearing of the weld metal while


in a plastic condition when hot or a fracture when cold.

HAZ cracking

Causes are:

• insufficient weld deposit

• insufficient pre-heat

• incorrect electrode.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Undercut

Definition A groove or channel in the parent metal at the toe of the weld.

Undercut

Causes are:

• too much current

• welding too fast

• incorrect welding technique.

Overrall

Definition A section of unfused metal extending past the toe of the weld.

~verrOI1~w/ove~OIl

Causes are:

• electrode too large

• welding speed too slow

• incorrect electrode angle.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Misalignment

Definition Any variation from line or dimension of a welded joint.

Misalignment

Causes are:

• incorrect weld procedure

• careless preparation

• too few tack welds.

Incompletely filled joint

~ ~comPletelY filled joint

~.=-
~~----( -~
Causes are:

• not enough weld metal

• welding too fast

• too few beads.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
5.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

The principle of expansion and


contraction in a metal
Metals expand when heated and contract when cooled. For example, a
piece of low carbon steel, if not restrained in any way, will increase its
dimensions in all directions for every degree Celsius the temperature rises.
On cooling, the steel will return to its original size.

Angular distortion
There is distortion when unequal contractional forces cause angular change
in the parent metal position.

j~ Outward
caused bymovement
expansion

i
Inward movement
caused by contraction

Transverse distortion by butt weld

6 4 2 '3 5 7

Tack weld sequence

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Metals and Engineering lndustry
S.12AB Perfonn Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Practical exercise 7 - Butt weld, flat


sheet steel
Aim

To deposit single run butt welds in the flat position on 3.0 mm low carbon
sheet steel.

Materials

4 pieces 40 x 3.0 x 150 mm low carbon flat bar.

Consumables

Mild steel electrodes E4112 or E4113 2.5 mm at approx 85-95 amps.

Mild steel electrodes E4112 or E4113 3.25 mm at approx 110-115 amps.

Instructions

Your teacher will demonstrate.

1. Assemble and tack weld sheets using the sequence


illustrated.

2. Position the plates with a sligh t slope and weld


approximately 50 mm of the joint.

3. Examine weld profile and penetration before completing


the weld.

4. Complete the weld and submit for inspection.

5. Cut sheets and relocate for further practice as illustrated.

6. Evaluate the weld exercise and complete the procedure


sheet.

7. Submit your work for assessment.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perform Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Economy

Cut and relocate sheets for maximum use. Return all unused material to
the store.

Standards

Your work should have:

• correct alignment and assembly

• smooth regular weld contour

• weld penetration for a minimum of 20% of the weld length

• angular distortion 00 to 50

• a maximum of two significant weld defects per 250 mm of


weld length with an accumulative area of less than twice the
square of the plate thickness.

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Metals and Engineering Industry
S.12AB Perlorm Routine Manual Metal Arc Welding

Procedure sheet 7 - Butt weld, flat sheet steel

Weld current data Electrode data

Amperage used Size


Type
1.6mm 3.0mm Brand name
Electrode classification

Angles Lead Lateral

Material data

Type

Thickness

Assessment

Workshop safety

110