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Sean Gared S.



Alkali Metals

Cesium/Discoverer:Gustav Kurchhoff and Robert Bunsen

Some uses include:
Sodium/Discoverer: Humphry Davy

Sodium vapor is used in streetlights and produces a brilliant
yellow light. Sodium also forms many useful compounds.
Some of the most common are: table salt.

used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of a few

organic compounds.

the metal can be used in ion propulsion

systems. ...

used in atomic clocks.

because of its high oxygen affinity, the metal is
used as a "getter" in electron tubes.

used in photoelectric cells and vacuum tubes.

IR lamps.

Hydrogen/Discovere;Henry Cavendish

It is also used as a radioactive agent in making
luminous paints and as a tracer isotope.

Lithium/Discoverer:Johan August Arfwedson

Lithium affects the flow of sodium through nerve and muscle
cells in the body. Sodium affects excitation or mania. Lithium
is used to treat the manic episodes ofbipolar disorder.
Symptoms include hyperactivity, rushed speech, poor
judgment, reduced need for sleep, aggression, and anger.

Potassium/Discoverer:Humphry Davy

Potassium forms many important compounds. Potassium
chloride (KCl) is the most common potassium compound. It
is used in fertilizers, as a salt substitute and to produce other

Alkaline Earth Metals

Strontium/Discoverer:Adair Crawford
Magnesium/Discoverer:Joseph Black

Duralumin and magnalium are alloys of magnesium.
The metal is also used in pyrotechnics, especially in
incendiary bombs, signals, and flares, and as a fuse
for thermite. It is used in photographic flashbulbs and
is added to some rocket and missile fuels. It
is used in the preparation of malleable cast iron.

It alludes to the presence of strontium in nuclear
fallout. A soft, silvery metal that burns in air and reacts
with water. Strontium is best known for the brilliant
reds its salts give to fireworks and flares. It is also
used in producing ferrite magnets and refining zinc.

Radium/Discoverers: Marie Sklodowska-Curie and

her husband Pierre Curie

Calcium/Discoverer:Humphry Davy

Calcium metal is used as a reducing agent in
preparing other metals such as thorium and uranium.
It is also used as an alloying agent for aluminium,
beryllium, copper, lead and magnesium
alloys. Calcium compounds are widely used.

Radium had been used to make self-luminous paints

for watches, aircraft instrument dials and other
instrumentation, but has largely been replaced by
cobalt-60, a less dangerous radioactive source. A
mixture of radium and beryllium will emit neutrons and
is used as a neutron source.

Beryllium/Discoverer:Louis Nicolas Vauquelin

Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Humphry Davy

Barium is used in fireworks to give a green
colouration. Barium is used as a getter in the
electronics industry, to remove the last traces of
gases in vacuum tubes. Barium is used in medicine
in the form of a Barium Meal (i.e. Barium Sulphate,
BaSO4), is used as an X-Ray contrast medium.

Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in

producing beryllium copper, which is
extensively used for springs, electrical contacts, spotwelding electrodes, and non-sparking tools. It is
applied as a structural material for high-speed aircraft,
missiles, spacecraft, and communication satellites.

Aluminum Group or Boron Family

Boron/Discoverers: Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and

Louis-Jaques Thnard

Amorphous boron is used as a rocket fuel igniter and
in pyrotechnic flares. It gives the flares a distinctive
green colour. The most important compounds of
boron are boric (or boracic) acid, borax (sodium
borate) and boric oxide.

Aluminium/Discoverer:Hans Christian rsted

Aluminium is a silvery-white, lightweight metal. It is
soft and malleable. Aluminium is used in a huge
variety of products including cans, foils, kitchen
utensils, window frames, beer kegs and aeroplane
parts. This is because of its particular properties.

Gallium/Discoverers: Dmitri Mendeleev and Lecoq de


Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical
thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.
Gallium arsenide is used in semiconductor
production mainly for laser diodes, light-emitting
diodes and solar panels. It is also used to create
brilliant mirrors.

Indium/Discoverers: Ferdinand
Reich and Hieronymus Theodor Richter

Indium is used to dope germanium to make
transistors. It is also used to make other electrical
components such as rectifiers, thermistors and
photoconductors.Indium can be used to make
mirrors that are as reflective as silver mirrors but do
not tarnish as quickly. Indium is also used to make
low melting alloys.

The Carbon Family


Carbon compounds are important in many facets of
the petrotchemicals industry as the feedstock
iscarbon-based. Carbon is also the basis of fuels
such as coal and oil since both coal and oil are rich
incarbon. Carbon as graphite is a good
lubricant.Carbon is a key component of steel.

Germanium/Discoverers:Dmitri Mendeleev and

Dmitri Mendeleev

The element gives special properties to the glass.
Because germanium has traits that are similar to silicon and
tin, the semiconductor industry uses germanium on a
regular basis. It's not thatgermanium is some awesome
metal, it's just a good element to add to other metals.

Tin has been known since ancient times. We do not

know who discovered it.
Silicon/Discoverer:Jns Jacob Berzelius

The element silicon is used extensively as a
semiconductor in solid-state devices in the computer
and microelectronics industries. For this,
hyperpure silicon is needed. The siliconis selectively
doped with tiny amounts of boron, gallium,
phosphorus or arsenic to control its electrical

Tin has many uses. It takes a high polish and is used to
coat other metals to prevent corrosion, such as in tin cans,
which are made of tin-coated steel. Alloys of tin are
important, such as soft solder, pewter, bronze and phosphor
bronze. A niobium-tin alloy is used for superconducting

Lead has been known since ancient times. we do not know

who discovered it.

The single most important commercial use of lead is
in the manufacture oflead-acid storage batteries (see
battery, electric). It is also used in alloys such as
fusible metals, antifriction metals, solder, and type
metal. Shot lead is an alloy oflead, antimony, and

The Oxygen Family

The Nitrogen Family

OxygenDiscoverers:Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Joseph

Nitrogen/Discoverer:Daniel Rutherford
Nitrogen is important to the chemical industry. It is used to
make fertilisers, nitric acid, nylon, dyes and explosives. To
make these products, nitrogen must first be reacted with
hydrogen to produce ammonia. This is done by the Haber

Its major use is in steel production, for example in the

Bessemer process. The oxyacetylene torch is another
important industrial application. Oxygen is utilized in
medicine in the treatment of respiratory diseases and is
mixed with other gases forrespiration in submarines, highflying aircraft, and spacecraft.

Sulfur/Discoverers: Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier and

Phosphorus/Discoverer:Hennig Brand
Phosphorus is a vital plant nutrient and its main use
via phosphate compounds is in the production of
fertilizers. Just as there are biological carbon and nitrogen
cycles, there is also a phosphorus cycle. Phosphorus is used
in the manufacture of safety matches (red phosphorus),
pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Arsenic/Discoverer:Albertus Magnus
Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the
gray form is important to industry. ... Arsenic is a common ntype dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the
optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second
most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon.

Eilhard Mitscherlich
Elemental sulfur is used in black gunpowder, matches, and
fireworks; in thevulcanization of rubber; as a fungicide,
insecticide, and fumigant; in themanufacture of phosphate
fertilizers; and in the treatment of certain skin diseases. The
principal use of sulfur, however, is in the preparation of its

Selenium/Discoverers:Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Jons Jacob

Selenium is mineral that is found in soil and occurs
naturally in certain foods (such as whole grains, Brazil
nuts, sunflower seeds, and seafood). Selenium is not
produced in the body, but it is needed for proper
thyroid and immune system function. Selenium is
used to treat or prevent selenium deficiency.


Fluorine/Discoverer:Henri Moissan
Compounds of fluorine, including sodium fluoride,
areused in toothpaste and in drinking water to
prevent dental cavities. Hydrofluoric acid can dissolve
glass and is used to etch the glass in light bulbs and
in other products.

Chlorine/Discoverer:Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Chlorine is commonly used as an antiseptic and is
used to make drinking water safe and to treat
swimming pools. Large amounts of chlorine are used
in many industrial processes, such as in
the production of paper products, plastics, dyes,
textiles, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, solvents
and paints.

Iodine/Discoverer:Bernard Courtois
A solution containing potassium iodide (KI) and
iodine in alcohol is used to disinfect external wounds.
Elemental iodine is also used as a disinfectant. Iodine
is sometimes added to table salt to prevent thyroid
disease. Iodine's other uses include catalysts, animal
feeds and printing inks and dyes.

BromineDiscoverers:Antoine Jrme Balard and Carl

Jacob Lowig
Flame-retardant plastics often
contain bromine.Brominated flame retardants
are used in televisions, computers, domestic
appliances, mobile phones, furniture, upholstery and
mattresses. Bromine is alsoused to purify water, as
the agent acts as a disinfectant. Bromine is
often used to treat swimming pools and hot tubs.

Noble Gases

HeliumDiscoverers:Pierre Janssen and Norman

Helium is used as a cooling medium for the Large
Hadron Collider (LHC), and the superconducting
magnets in MRI scanners and NMR spectrometers. It
is also used to keep satellite instruments cool and
was used to cool the liquid oxygen and hydrogen that
powered the Apollo space vehicles.


ArgonDiscoverers:William Ransay and John William

Argon is used in some types of arc welding such as
gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding,
as well as in the processing of titanium and other
reactive elements. An argon atmosphere is
also used for growing crystals of silicon and

Xenon/Discoverers:William Ramsay
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and
atomic number 54. It is a colorless, dense, odorless
noble gas found in the Earth's atmosphere in trace


NeonDiscoverers:Morris Travers and William Ramsay

Neon is also used to make high-voltage indicators
and switching gear, lightning arresters, diving
equipment and lasers. Liquid neon is an
important cryogenic refrigerant. It has over 40 times
more refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid
helium, and more than 3 times that of liquid hydrogen.
Transition Metals

Copper has been known since ancient times,we do

not know who Discovered It
it is the most common of the three and therefore the
least valued. All US coins are now copper alloys, and
gun metals also contain copper. Most copper is used
in electrical equipment such as wiring and motors.
This is because it conducts both heat and electricity
very well, and can be drawn into wires.

Gold/Discoverers:James W. Marshall
Gold alloys are used for fillings, crowns, bridges, and
orthodontic appliances. Gold is used in dentistry
because it is chemically inert, nonallergenic, and easy
for the dentist to work.

Silver has been known since ancient times,we do not

know who Discovered It
It is used for jewellery and silver tableware, where
appearance is important. Silver is used to make
mirrors, as it is the best reflector of visible
light known, although it does tarnish with time. It is
also used in dental alloys, solder andbrazing
alloys, electrical contacts and batteries.

Cobalt/Discoverer:Georg Brandt
Cobalt is used in alloys for aircraft engine parts and
in alloys with corrosion/wear resistant uses. Cobalt is
widely used in batteries and in
electroplating. Cobalt salts are used to impart blue
and green colors in glass and ceramics.
Radioactive 60Co isused in the treatment of cancer.

Iron has been known since ancient time,we do not

know who Discovered It
Most of it is used to make steel an alloy of iron and
carbon which is in turn used in manufacturing and
civil engineering, for instance, to make reinforced
concrete. Stainless steel, which contains at least 10.5
percent chromium, is highly resistant to corrosion.